John Fredrik Reinfeldt is a Swedish economist and former politician, Prime Minister of Sweden from 2006 to 2014 and chairman of the liberal conservative Moderate Party from 2003 to 2015. He was the last rotating President of the European Council in 2009. A native of Stockholm County, Reinfeldt joined the Moderate Youth League in 1983, by 1992 had risen to the rank of chairman, a position he held until 1995, he served as Member of Parliament from 1991 to 2014. Reinfeldt was elected party leader on 25 October 2003. Under his leadership, the Moderate Party has transformed its policies and oriented itself towards the centre, branding itself "the New Moderates". Following the 2006 general election, Reinfeldt was elected Prime Minister on October 6. Along with the three other political parties in the centre-right Alliance for Sweden, Reinfeldt presided over a coalition government with the support of a narrow majority in parliament. At the age of 41, he was the third-youngest person to become Prime Minister of Sweden.
Reinfeldt's first term in office was marked by recession. His popularity fell. Despite the Moderate Party getting its highest share of the vote since the introduction of universal suffrage in 1921, Reinfeldt's government was reduced to a minority government, owing to the rise of Sweden Democrats, his premiership was characterised by "Arbetslinjen", a focus on getting more people into the workforce, by management of the late-2000s financial crisis and recession which resulted in one of the world's strongest public finances and top rankings in climate and health care. He is the longest-serving non-Social Democratic Prime Minister since Erik Gustaf Boström's first spell in office between 1891 and 1900. After his defeat in the 2014 election Reinfeldt announced that he would step down from leading the party, which he did on 10 January 2015; the year following his resignation as party leader for the Moderate Party was characterised by the European migrant crisis. Reinfeldt personalised the Swedish "open-door" migration policy during his tenure as Prime Minister.
In 1965, Fredrik Reinfeldt was born in Allmänna BB hospital in Stockholm and was the oldest of three brothers to his parents Bruno and Birgitta Reinfeldt. At the time of his birth his parents lived in an apartment in Österhaninge, in the south of Stockholm County, but a short time afterwards the family moved to London, where his father worked as a consultant for Shell. Upon returning to Sweden, the family first lived in an apartment in Handen before moving to a terraced house in Bromsten in northwestern Stockholm; the Reinfeldt family was living in Bromsten when Fredrik's younger brothers and Henrik, were born in 1969 and 1973. In 1976 the family moved into a single-family home in Täby in northeastern Stockholm County, his mother Birgitta was a leadership and management consultant, some of her professional skills might have inspired and impressed the young Fredrik. At the age of 11 Reinfeldt became chairman of the student council in his school, became a fan of the football club Djurgårdens IF, a passion he maintains to this day.
He started playing basketball for the "Tensta Tigers" while living in Bromsten, continued to play for them after his family moved to Täby. At his secondary school, Åva gymnasium, he studied natural science for three years, he enjoyed setting up and performing revues and cabarets. After school, Reinfeldt completed his military service as a ranger at Lapland Ranger Regiment and finished first in his class as a cadet in Umeå, it was during this time that he became interested in politics, as a representative for his regiment in the congress of conscripts in the Swedish military. He graduated from Stockholm University School of Business with a degree in Business and Economics in 1990. Reinfeldt joined the Moderate Youth League—the youth wing of the Swedish Moderate Party—in 1983 at the age of 18; as a member of the Moderate Youth League in Täby, he challenged the leaders of the local league, who preferred to use the premises as a place to drink beer and wine rather than engage in discussions about politics.
Reinfeldt, said to dislike hard liquor and to consume wine and beer in moderate amounts, started "Conservative Youth" and formed a bond with the mother party taking over the youth league in 1987. In 1988 he became a secretary in the Stockholm Municipality Council, he was active in student politics while studying at Stockholm University becoming chairman of the student party "Borgerliga Studenter – Opposition'68" between 1988 and 1989. He became chairman of the Moderate Youth League's Stockholm branch in 1990, the following year was elected a member of the Riksdag. In the Swedish general election of 1991 the Moderate Party and its allies had considerable success, leading to the formation of a centre-right coalition government under Moderate Party leader and Prime Minister Carl Bildt; the 1991 government was the first centre-right government in Sweden since 1982. From 1992 to 1995 Reinfeldt was the chairman of the Moderate Youth League, he ousted the former chairman Ulf Kristersson at the controver
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
2006 Swedish general election
General elections were held in Sweden on 17 September 2006, to elect members to the Riksdag, the Swedish national legislature. All 349 seats were up for election: 310 fixed seats in 29 constituencies and 39 adjustment seats, used to ensure that parties have representation in the Riksdag proportional to their share of the national vote; the electoral system used was semi-open list proportional representation using the Sainte-Laguë method of allocating seats. Elections for County and Municipal councils were held on the same day. Fredrik Reinfeldt from the Moderate Party was able to form a majority government together with the Centre Party, Liberal People's Party and the Christian Democrats following the election; the Social Democrats were ousted after twelve years in power. It was the country's first majority government since the second Fälldin cabinet fell in 1981; the minority government of Göran Persson's Social Democratic Party attempted, failed, to gain enough seats to form a majority government, to continue as a minority or to govern in a red-green coalition government.
His party had been in power since the 1994 election, Persson had been Prime Minister since 1996. The Social Democrats before the election had an agreement with the Left Party and the Green Party that gave them an influence on government policy in exchange for their support. However, both the Left Party and the Green Party insisted that any red-green government formed after the election would need to include them in a coalition; the four centre-right parties – The Moderate Party, The Liberal People's Party, The Christian Democrats, The Centre Party – united in Alliance for Sweden succeeded in gaining enough seats to form a coalition government. The four parties had presented a joint election manifesto, their candidate for Prime Minister was Fredrik Reinfeldt. The campaigning for the 2006 election began early, as the opposition decided to present itself as a viable alternative government by forming an alliance: Alliance for Sweden; this alliance was negotiated at a meeting held in the village of Högfors, home to the chairman of the Centre Party, Maud Olofsson.
The meeting ended on 31 August 2004 with the presentation of a joint declaration outlining the principles under which the four parties intended to run in the election. One year a similar meeting was held at Bankeryd, home of Göran Hägglund, leader of the Christian Democrats. See Alliance for Sweden for further information; the Alliance enjoyed a leading position for over a year over the red-green parties, according to most polls. However the gap between the two blocs began to close in January 2006, the red-green parties took the lead in May 2006. However, there was a late shift in opinion back to the Alliance during the summer: in mid-August all polls showed the Alliance leading the red-green parties comfortably; the regime shift that occurred in the 2006 election, can be traced to changes in popularity between the party - blocs prior to the campaign started and to the timing of two extreme natural disasters that combined had a dramatic impact on the Swedish political landscape. In a dissertation from the Department of Government at Uppsala University, entitled "Natural Disasters and National Election", PhD Lina M. Eriksson found in her research that the Indian Ocean’s 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami and 2005 Storm Gudrun, which struck only two weeks following the tsunami, impacted on the 2006 historic regime shift that occurred in the 2006 Swedish parliamentary election.
The results from this research show that the 2002-2006 incumbent Social Democratic Party's poor crisis response to Gudrun, the hitherto most costly natural disaster in Swedish history, alone has an estimated effect of a magnitude, crucial to the 2006 historic regime shift. In the abstract to the thesis one can read "The 2002-2006 incumbent Social Democratic Party received its lowest voter support since 1914 as 150,000, or 8%, of the 2002 S voters went to the main opposition, the conservative Moderate Party; this became the most decisive factor in ousting S from power after 12 years of rule. As a result, the M-led Alliance with the People's Party, the Center Party, the Christian Democrats won the election. Natural Disasters and National Election makes the novel contribution of proposing two natural disasters, the Indian Ocean’s 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami and 2005 Storm Gudrun, which struck only two weeks following the tsunami, as major events that impacted government popularity in the 2006 election and contributed to the redistribution of voter support and across party-blocs.
The core findings from this thesis show that the S government’s poor crisis response to Gudrun, the hitherto most costly natural disaster in Swedish history, alone has an estimated effect of a magnitude that contributed to the 2006 historic regime shift, while the tsunami seems to have mattered. The tsunami is interesting, as S’s poor international crisis response to the event constitutes the first natural disaster situation to knowingly have affected an election on the other side of the planet. Moreover, to some degree voters recognized the active opposition by C as effective representation and rewarded the party for its strong stance on the poor handling of both events by S. In fact, the active voice of C concerning these disasters helped move the party from the periphery of party politics to becoming the third-largest party in Swedish politics. In sum, this research investigates accountability and effective pa
Ministry for Foreign Affairs (Sweden)
The Ministry for Foreign Affairs is responsible for Swedish foreign policy. Current ministers: Margot Wallström Head of Office and Minister for Foreign Affairs. Isabella Lövin as Minister for International Development Cooperation Ann Linde as Minister of EU Affairs and Trade; the ministry for Foreign Affairs was created in 1791 when King Gustav III set up Konungens kabinett för den utrikes brevväxlingen. In 1840 the organisation formally changed its name to Utrikesdepartementet; the Ministry for Foreign Affairs are principal for the following government agencies: The Legations and Embassies in foreign countries, are under the direct authority and control of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Swedish National Export Credits Exportkreditnämnden. Folke Bernadotte Academy, or Folke Bernadotteakademin. Located on Sandö in Kramfors. Swedish National Inspectorate of Strategic Products, or Inspektionen för strategiska produkter. Swedish National Board of Trade, or Kommerskollegium. Nordic Africa Institute, or Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
Located in Uppsala. Swedac, formally Styrelsen för ackreditering och teknisk kontroll. Located in Borås. Sida, formally Styrelsen för internationellt utvecklingssamarbete. Swedish Institute, or Svenska institutet. Business Sweden, or Sveriges export- och investeringsråd. Swedish Trade Council, or Sveriges Exportråd. Located in Stockholm. Human rights, peace and democracy these values shape our Swedish foreign policy Europe must be a strong voice and a clear force for peace and reconciliation in our own region and the world Sweden's security is built in solidarity with others. Threats to peace and security are averted collectively and in cooperation Freedom on the Internet is the new front line in efforts for freedom in the world The Arctic region is growing in importance: better conditions for the peoples of the region, protect sensitive nature and environment We must increase pressure on the regime and support to those who are working for a peaceful transition to a democratic Syria The worlds economies are becoming interlinked.
Trade and investment generate growth and employment A clear emphasis on democracy and human rights and freedoms is central to modern development assistance Women are a driving force for increased democratic rights and freedoms, as we saw during the upheavals in the Arab world Ministry for Foreign Affairs - Official site
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Harpsund is a manor house located in Flen Municipality, Södermanland County, Sweden. Since 22 May 1953, Harpsund has been used as a country retreat for the Prime Minister of Sweden; the oldest parts of the mansion are from the 17th century, but the main building was built first in 1914. The Estate, with its farm and forestry, was donated to the State on December 27, 1952 in accordance to the will of industrialist Carl August Wicander, it was to be used as retreat and recreational estate for the Prime Minister. The donation was approved by the Riksdag on 22 May 1953; the estate consists of 4077 acres. Some adjustments were made in the conditions of the donation, which states that, with the exception of the main building, the estate could be made available to governmental conferences. Harpsund would soon be a venue for informal summits between the Government and labour organizations, it was called Harpsund Democracy. Through the years many foreign leaders have stayed there as guests. Noticed was the visit by Nikita Khrushchev, leader of the Soviet Union.
It is tradition that guests at the estate take a small trip, with the Prime Minister, in the rowing boat, a tradition introduced by Prime Minister Tage Erlander. Crown palaces in Sweden Stenhammar Palace Camp David, country residence of the President of the United States Chequers, country residence of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harrington Lake, country residence of the Prime Minister of Canada Kultaranta, summer residence of the President of Finland The Mansion, summer residence of the President of the Philippines Media related to Harpsund at Wikimedia Commons
Gustav Adolfs torg, Stockholm
Gustav Adolfs torg is a public square in central Stockholm, Sweden named after King Gustav II Adolf. The square is home to Arvfurstens palats and the Ministry of Defence. South of the square are the Royal Palace in Gamla stan. In the middle of the square there is a statue of Gustav II Adolf, erected in 1796 by the French sculptor Pierre l'Archevêque. Norrbro Lejonbacken