Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Angela Gwen Stanford is an American professional golfer who competes on the LPGA Tour. Born and raised in Fort Worth, Stanford won the Fort Worth Girls Championship four times, the 1996 Texas State 4A High School Championship and the 1996 PING Texas State Junior Championship. Following graduation from Boswell High School in 1996, she enrolled at Texas Christian University in Fort Worth. Stanford won nine collegiate tournaments for the Horned Frogs, was a four-time All-American and a four-time All-Western Athletic Conference selection, she was named WAC Freshman of the Year in 1997 and WAC Player of the Year in 1999 and won the 2000 WAC Championship. She earned a bachelor's degree in speech communication from TCU in 2000. Stanford was a member of the 2000 U. S. Curtis Cup team and a semifinalist at the 2000 British Ladies Amateur. Stanford turned professional following the 2000 U. S. Women's Amateur in August and played on the Futures Tour, where she earned a victory at the season-ending event in early October.
She finished fourth in the LPGA Final Qualifying Tournament that year to earn exempt status on the LPGA Tour for 2001. Her first victory on the LPGA Tour came at the 2003 ShopRite LPGA Classic. A week Stanford was in a three player 18-hole playoff for the U. S. Women's Open, her best finish on the LPGA money was at ninth place with over $1.1 million. Stanford has been a member of six U. S. Solheim Cup teams: in 2003, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015, where in the penultimate match, she defeated Suzann Pettersen which cleared the way for Paula Creamer to score the winning point, gave the U. S, its first Solheim Cup win since 2009. On September 16, 2018, Stanford won her first major title at the Evian Championship. LPGA Tour playoff record 2000 Summit Consulting SBC FUTURES Tour Championship Results not in chronological order before 2019. ^ The Women's British Open replaced the du Maurier Classic as an LPGA major in 2001 ^^ The Evian Championship was added as a major in 2013 CUT = missed the half-way cut.
T = tied Green background for wins. Yellow background for top-10. Most consecutive cuts made – 12 Longest streak of top-10s – 2 official through 2018 season*Includes matchplay and other tournaments with no cut Position in Women's World Golf Rankings at the end of each calendar year. Amateur Curtis Cup: 2000 Professional Solheim Cup: 2003, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015 Lexus Cup: 2006, 2008 Angela Stanford at the LPGA Tour official site Angela Stanford at the Futures Tour official site Angela Stanford at the Women's World Golf Rankings official site Angela Stanford on Twitter
Pontiac is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan, located in Metro Detroit. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 59,515, it is the county seat of Oakland County and about 12 miles north and west of the Detroit city limits. Founded in 1818, Pontiac is notably the second European-American organized settlement in Michigan within close proximity to Detroit, second only to Dearborn, it was named after Pontiac, a war chief of the Ottawa people who had occupied the area before the European settlers. The city achieved its widest reputation for its General Motors automobile manufacturing plants of the 20th century, which were the basis of its economy and contributed to the wealth of the region; these included Fisher Body, Pontiac East Assembly, which manufactured GMC products, the Pontiac Motor Division. In the city's heyday, this was the primary automobile assembly plant where the famed Pontiac cars were produced, a brand, named after the city; the City of Pontiac was home to Oakland Motor Car Company, acquired by General Motors in 1909.
In 1975, the city built the Pontiac Silverdome, the stadium that hosted the Detroit Lions of the National Football League from 1975 to 2001, when the team returned to Downtown Detroit at Ford Field. Super Bowl XVI was played at the Silverdome in 1982. After 2001, the stadium continued to be used for concerts and other events until it was demolished in 2017. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.28 square miles, of which 19.97 square miles is land and 0.31 square miles is water. Pontiac is bounded by the city of Auburn Hills to the east and north, the city of Lake Angelus to the north, Waterford Township to the west, Bloomfield Township to the south; the former Pontiac Township included what are now the cities of Pontiac, Lake Angelus, Auburn Hills. The township incorporated as the city of Auburn Hills in 1983. Although the township no longer exists as a civil entity, it is still used as a survey township for land use purposes; as of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $31,207, the median income for a family was $36,391.
Males had a median income of $31,961 versus $24,765 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,842. About 18.0% of families and 22.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.3% of those under age 18 and 15.7% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 59,515 people, 22,220 households, 13,365 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,980.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 27,084 housing units at an average density of 1,356.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 34.4% White, 52.1% African American, 0.6% Native American, 2.3% Asian, 6.2% from other races, 4.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.5% of the population. There were 22,220 households of which 35.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.4% were married couples living together, 27.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 39.9% were non-families.
33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.28. The median age in the city was 33.4 years. 27.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.1% male and 50.9% female. Early European expeditions into the land north of Detroit described the area as having "extreme sterility and barrenness". Developments and exploration were soon to prove that report false; the first European-American settlers arrived in what is now the city of Pontiac in 1818. Two years the fledgling settlement was designated as the county seat for Oakland County; the Pontiac Company, consisting of 15 members and chaired by Solomon Sibley of Detroit, comprised the first landowners in Pontiac. Sibley, along with Stephen Mack and Shubael Conant, Pontiac Company members formed the partnership Mack, Conant & Sibley to develop a town. Solomon and his wife Sarah Sibley financed construction of the first buildings.
While Solomon was the first chair of the Pontiac Company, for two years Sarah Sibley was the most active as the go-between with settlers at Pontiac. Solomon Sibley was traveling as a Territorial Congressman and a Territorial Supreme Court judge. In the 1820s Elizabeth Denison, an unmarried, free black woman, worked for the Sibleys, they helped her buy land in Pontiac in 1825. Stephen Mack, agent for the Pontiac Company, signed the deed at the request of the Sibleys, conveying 48.5 acres to Elizabeth Denison. She is believed to be the first black woman to purchase land in the new territory of Michigan. In 1837 Pontiac became a village, the same year that Michigan gained statehood; the town had been named after the noted Ottawa Indian war chief who had his headquarters in the area decades before, during the resistance to European-American encroachment. Founded on the Clinton River, Pontiac was Michigan's first inland settlement. Rivers were critical to settlements as transportation ways, in addition to providing water and power.
The village was incorporated by the legislature as a city in 1861. From the beginning, Pontiac's central location served it well, it attracted professional people, including doctors and lawyers, soon became a center of industry. Woolen and grist mills made use of the Clinton River as a power source. Abundant natural re
United States Postal Service
The United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states. It is one of the few government agencies explicitly authorized by the United States Constitution; the U. S. Mail traces its roots to 1775 during the Second Continental Congress, when Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first postmaster general; the Post Office Department was created in 1792 from Franklin's operation. It was elevated to a cabinet-level department in 1872, was transformed by the Postal Reorganization Act in 1970 into the USPS as an independent agency; the USPS as of 2017 has 644,124 active employees and operated 211,264 vehicles in 2014. The USPS is the operator of the largest civilian vehicle fleet in the world; the USPS is obligated to serve all Americans, regardless of geography, at uniform price and quality. The USPS has exclusive access to letter boxes marked "U.
S. Mail" and personal letterboxes in the United States, but now has to compete against private package delivery services, such as United Parcel Service and FedEx. Since the early 1980s, many of the direct tax subsidies to the Post Office, with the exception of subsidies for costs associated with the disabled and overseas voters, have been reduced or eliminated in favor of indirect subsidies, in addition to the advantages associated with a government-enforced monopoly on the delivery of first-class mail. Since the 2006 all-time peak mail volume, after which Congress passed the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act which mandated that $5.5 billion per year be paid to prefund employee retirement health benefits, revenue dropped due to recession-influenced declining mail volume, prompting the postal service to look to other sources of revenue while cutting costs to reduce its budget deficit. In the early years of the North American colonies, many attempts were made to initiate a postal service.
These early attempts were of small scale and involved a colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony for example, setting up a location in Boston where one could post a letter back home to England. Other attempts focused on a dedicated postal service between two of the larger colonies, such as Massachusetts and Virginia, but the available services remained limited in scope and disjointed for many years. For example, informal independently-run postal routes operated in Boston as early as 1639, with a Boston to New York City service starting in 1672. A central postal organization came to the colonies in 1691, when Thomas Neale received a 21-year grant from the British Crown for a North American Postal Service. On February 17, 1691, a grant of letters patent from the joint sovereigns, William III and Mary II, empowered him: to erect and establish within the chief parts of their majesties' colonies and plantations in America, an office or offices for receiving and dispatching letters and pacquets, to receive and deliver the same under such rates and sums of money as the planters shall agree to give, to hold and enjoy the same for the term of twenty-one years.
The patent included the exclusive right to establish and collect a formal postal tax on official documents of all kinds. The tax was repealed a year later. Neale appointed Governor of New Jersey, as his deputy postmaster; the first postal service in America commenced in February 1692. Rates of postage were fixed and authorized, measures were taken to establish a post office in each town in Virginia. Massachusetts and the other colonies soon passed postal laws, a imperfect post office system was established. Neale's patent expired in 1710; the chief office was established in New York City, where letters were conveyed by regular packets across the Atlantic. Before the Revolution, there was only a trickle of business or governmental correspondence between the colonies. Most of the mail went forth to counting houses and government offices in London; the revolution made Philadelphia, the seat of the Continental Congress, the information hub of the new nation. News, new laws, political intelligence, military orders circulated with a new urgency, a postal system was necessary.
Journalists took the lead, securing post office legislation that allowed them to reach their subscribers at low cost, to exchange news from newspapers between the thirteen states. Overthrowing the London-oriented imperial postal service in 1774–1775, printers enlisted merchants and the new political leadership, created a new postal system; the United States Post Office was created on July 26, 1775, by decree of the Second Continental Congress. Benjamin Franklin headed it briefly. Before the Revolution, individuals like Benjamin Franklin and William Goddard were the colonial postmasters who managed the mails and were the general architects of a postal system that started out as an alternative to the Crown Post; the official post office was created in 1792 as the Post Office Department. It was based on the Constitutional authority empowering Congress "To establish post offices and post roads"; the 1792 law provided for a expanded postal network, served editors by charging newspapers an low rate.
The law guaranteed the sanctity of personal correspondence, provided the entire country with low-cost access to information on public affairs, while establishing a right to personal privacy. Rufus Easton was appointed by Thomas Jefferson first postmaster of St. Louis under the recommendation of Postmaster General Gideon Granger. Rufus Easton was the first postmaster and built the first post office west o
A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council–manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer or chief administrative officer in some municipalities. Dayton, Ohio suffered a great flood in 1913, responded with the innovation of a paid, non-political city manager, hired by the commissioners to run the bureaucracy. Other small or middle sized American cities in the West, adopted the idea. In Europe, smaller cities in the Netherlands were specially attracted by the plan. By 1940 there were small cities with city managers that grew enormously by the end of the century: Austin, Texas. In a technical sense, the term "city manager," as opposed to CAO, implies more discretion and independent authority, set forth in a charter or some other body of codified law, as opposed to duties being assigned on a varying basis by a single superior such as a mayor. Most sources trace the first city manager to Staunton, Virginia in 1908.
Some of the other cities that were among the first to employ a manager were Sumter, South Carolina and Dayton, Ohio. The first "City Manager's Association" meeting of eight city managers was in December 1914; the city manager, operating under the council-manager government form, was created in part to remove city government from the power of the political parties, place management of the city into the hands of an outside expert, a business manager or engineer, with the expectation that the city manager would remain neutral to city politics. By 1930 200 American cities used a city manager form of government; as the top appointed official in the city, the city manager is responsible for most if not all of the day-to-day administrative operations of the municipality, in addition to other expectations. Some of the basic roles and powers of a city manager include: Supervision of day-to-day operations of all city departments and staff through department heads. In addition, many states, such as the states of New Hampshire and Missouri, have codified in law the minimum functions a local "manager" must perform.
The City Manager position focuses on efficiency and providing a certain level of service for the lowest possible cost. The competence of a city manager can be assessed using composite indicators. Manager members of the ICMA are bound by a rather rigid and enforced code of ethics, established in 1924. Since that time the code had been up-dated/revised on seven occasions, the latest taking place in 1998; the updates have taken into account the evolving duties and expectations of the profession. In the early years of the profession, most managers came from the ranks of the engineering professions. Today the typical and preferred background and education for the beginning municipal manager is a master's degree in Public Administration and at least several years’ experience as a department head in local government or as an assistant city manager; as of 2005 more than 60% of those in the profession had a MPA, MBA, or other related higher-level degree. The average tenure of a manager is now 7–8 years and has risen over the years.
Tenures tend to be less in smaller communities and higher in larger ones, they tend to vary as well depending on the region of the country. Educational Level of Local Government Managers: Local government Local government in the United States council-manager government Clerk Kemp, Roger L. Managing America's Cities: A Handbook for Local Government Productivity, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK 1998. _______, Model Government Charters: A City, Regional and Federal Handbook, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK, 2003 _______, Forms of Local Government: A Handbook on City and Regional Options, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK, 2007. Stillman, Richard Joseph; the rise of the city manager: A public professional in local government. Weinste
Kirk Preston Watson is an American attorney and Democratic politician from the capital city of Austin, Texas. He served as Austin mayor from 1997 to 2001, he ran unsuccessfully for Texas Attorney General in the 2002 election, when he was defeated by the Republican Greg Abbott governor of Texas. In 2006, Watson was elected to the Texas State Senate from District 14. In 2011, Watson was chosen by his Democratic colleagues to chair the Senate Democratic Caucus and served until 2015. On the first day of the 86th Legislature, he was chosen by his colleagues—Democrats and Republicans—to serve as President Pro Tempore; the position goes to the most senior member, regardless of party, who has not yet served as President Pro Tem, is second in line of succession to the Governor. Watson was born in Oklahoma City and raised in Saginaw, Texas, a suburb of Fort Worth, where he attended Boswell High School, he received a bachelor's degree in political science in 1980 and a Juris Doctorate in 1981 from Baylor University in Waco, Texas.
At Baylor Law School, Watson was editor-in-chief of the Baylor Law Review and graduated first in his class. He subsequently clerked for the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. Early in his legal career, Watson was elected president of the Texas Young Lawyers Association and served on the executive committee of the State Bar of Texas. In 1994, he was named the Outstanding Young Lawyer of Texas. In 1997, Watson co-founded the Austin law firm of Watson Bishop London & Galow, creating a broad law practice that represented families, small businesses, some of the state's major universities. Watson is married to Elizabeth Anne "Liz" McDaniel and the father of Preston McDaniel and Cooper Kyle Watson. In 1991, Watson was appointed by Governor Ann Richards to serve as chairman of the Texas Air Control Board, the state agency, charged with protecting air quality in Texas. During his tenure, he worked to merge the agency with the Texas Air Control Board and the Texas Water Commission to form the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission, oversaw implementation of the 1991 amendments to the federal Clean Air Act.
Watson was an active Democrat throughout the 1990s and served as the chairman of the Travis County Democratic Party. In 1997, Watson was elected mayor of a nonpartisan position, he ran on a pledge to build consensus in a city, dominated by political battles between environmentalists and developers. He campaigned to raise more than $78 million for land preservation and $300 million for transportation improvements, and he led efforts to revitalize downtown Austin, secure the city's long-term water supply, proactively improve air quality in Central Texas, build a bypass to Interstate 35 through Austin. In March 1999, he was named Best Mayor in Texas for Business by Texas Monthly Biz Magazine. Forbes and Fortune Magazine named Austin as the best city or place in the U. S. to do business during this period. And for his service, Watson received recognitions from the Greater Austin Chamber of Commerce, the Downtown Austin Alliance, the Texas Nature Conservancy, Austin Family magazine, the International Downtown Association, the Austin Chronicle.
As a result of his work as mayor, Watson became a recognized speaker on economic development. His work was referenced in the book The Rise of the Creative Class by Richard Florida. In 2000, Watson was reelected with 84% of the vote – the highest percentage a mayoral candidate has received in Austin. In November 2001, he stepped down to run unsuccessfully for Texas Attorney General. In 2005, he served as chairman of the Greater Austin Chamber of Commerce. Watson was elected to the Texas Senate in November 2006, he received more than 80 percent of the vote. Watson was unopposed in the March 2006 Democratic Primary, he serves as vice-chairman of the Senate Transportation and Homeland Security committee, as well as on the Senate Business and Commerce, Economic Development and Nominations committees. In 2008, he was appointed as one of two senators to the state Business Tax Advisory Committee. Watson has become a prominent voice on transportation, clean energy, higher education issues, he has campaigned to widen transparency in the state's finances and increase health coverage for Texans children.
In 2009, he led the fight against a budget rider that would have banned embryonic stem cell research at Texas universities. The rider was not adopted. Environment Texas’s Legislative Scorecard has given Watson a lifetime rating of 96% for his voting record concerning environmental legislation. In 2017, he voted in favor of the environment on issues such as green infrastructure, tire dumping, wind energy, bee protection, fracking enforcement, clean air, pollution lawsuits, electric cars. Watson has served on many committees including the Capital Area Metropolitan Planning Organization, of which he is the former Transportation Policy Board Chairman. CAMPO is federally designated as the primary transportation planning organization in Central Texas; the July 2007 Texas Monthly magazine recognized Watson as "Rookie of the Year" for the 2007 session of the Texas Legislature. In 2009, the magazine named him one of the state's 10 Best Legislators, he was given the Price Daniel Award for Distinguished Public Service by the Baylor Alumni Association, the Excellence in Leadership Award by Concordia University, Texas.
Watson considered running in the 2010 race for governor, but in August 2009 decided to instead seek re-election to the Texas Senate. In June 2013, Watson moved to overturn a ruling designed to end the filibuster of Senator Wendy Davis. Together, their efforts averted the passage of SB5, a bill that i