Timeline of Niamey
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Niamey, Niger. 1902 Village designated seat of administrative cercle of Djerma. French school opens. 1922 - Administrative cercle of Niamey created. 1926 - Seat of French colonial Colonie du Niger relocated to Niamey from Zinder "in order to facilitate trade with other French colonies along the Niger River." 1931 - Jules Brevie Hospital established. 1932 - Catholic church built. 1937 - "Urban Development Plan" created. 1942 - Roman Catholic diocese of Niamey established. 1953 Le Niger newspaper begins publication. Archives Nationales du Niger headquartered in Niamey. 1956 - Djibo Bakary becomes mayor. 1958 - Radio Niger begins broadcasting. 1959 December: Musée National du Niger opens. 1960 - City becomes part of newly independent Republic of Niger. 1961 - Le Temps du Niger newspaper begins publication. 1962 Lycée La Fontaine established. Population: 40,000. 1964 - Télé Sahel begins broadcasting. 1965 13 April: President Diori attacked. Centre Culturel Franco-Nigérien inaugurated.
1967 - Office of Radio and Television of Niger headquartered in Niamey. 1968 - Société des Mines de l'Air headquartered in city. 1970s - Grand Mosque of Niamey built. 1970 Kennedy Bridge opens. Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique headquartered in city. 1971 - Centre d'Enseignement Superieur founded. 1972 - Airport opens. 1973 University of Niamey active. Tillabéri-Niamey road constructed. 1974 Le Sahel and Sahel Dimanche newspapers in publication. Olympic FC de Niamey formed. Telephone ministry headquarters built. 1977 - Population: 225,314. 1982 30 March: Central Market burns down. Niamey Literacy Center built. American International School of Niamey built. 1984 - Urban development plan created. 1985 - Court of Appeals building constructed. 1986 - Niamey Grand Market built. 1988 - Population: 397,437. 1989 City becomes the "Niamey Urban Community," containing administrative Commune I, Commune II, Commune III. Stade Général-Seyni-Kountché opens. 1990 - February: Student economic protest. 1991 - Le Républicain newspaper begins publication.
1996 27 January: 1996 Nigerien coup d'état occurs. Sociéte Nigerienne de Transports de Voyageurs headquartered in city. 1997 - United Nations Economic Commission for Africa Subregional Development Centre for West Africa headquartered in Niamey. 1998 - Nigerien hip hop musical style develops in Niamey. 1999 - 9 April: President Maïnassara assassinated. 2001 - Population: 707,951. 2002 August: Military mutiny. Administration of Niamey Urban Community reorganized into Commune I, Commune II, Commune III, Commune IV, Commune V. 2005 - 2005 Jeux de la Francophonie sport/cultural event held in Niamey. 2006 June: 2006 Abdou Moumouni University protests. Areva NC Niger headquartered in city. 2007 - Dounia TV begins broadcasting. 2009 - Population: 943,055. 2010 18 February: 2010 Nigerien coup d'état occurs. August: 2010 West African floods. 2011 Oumarou Dogari Moumouni becomes mayor of the Niamey Urban Community. Kandadji Dam construction begins 180 km from Niamey. 2012 August: Flood. Population: 1,026,848. 2013 United States military drone base begins operating at airport.
December: Economic protest. Assane Seydou becomes mayor of the Niamey Urban Community. 2014 - Niamey railway station opens. 2015 - 17–18 January: Protest against Parisian satirical publication Charlie Hebdo issue No. 1178. 2017 - August: Flood. Niamey history Urbanization in Niger This article incorporates information from the French Wikipedia and German Wikipedia. "". Directory of Open Access Journals. UK. "" – via Europeana. "" – via Digital Public Library of America. "". Internet Library Sub-Saharan Africa. Germany: Frankfurt University Library. "". Connecting-Africa. Leiden, Netherlands: African Studies Centre. "". AfricaBib.org. Christian Zimmermann. "". Research Papers in Economics. St. Louis, US: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Index to scientific research related to Niamey, via Institut de recherche pour le développement of France, Centre de documentation de Niamey "Niamey, Niger". BlackPast.org. US
Musée National Boubou Hama
Musée National Boubou Hama is the national museum of Niger, located in Niamey. It was founded in 1959 as Musée National du Niger, its first conservator, Pablo Toucet, designed the concept of the museum, according to which it was part of the Culture Valley of Niamey, proposed by Boubou Hama. Adjacent to the museum part of the Valley, are the Franco-Nigerien Cultural Center and the Center of Linguistic and Historical Studies by Oral Tradition; the museum is located in a park, it consists of a scientific section and a zoo. The museum hosts temporary exhibitions. Most of the exhibits represent ethnological and cultural artifacts. In particular, the museum shows traditional dwellings of different Nigerien cultures; as of 2013, 170,000 visitors visited the museum annually. The directors of the museum were Pablo Toucet.
Niger or the Niger the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in West Africa named after the Niger River. Niger is bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria to the south, Benin to the southwest, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, Algeria to the northwest. Niger covers a land area of 1,270,000 km2, making it the largest country in West Africa. Over 80% of its land area lies in the Sahara Desert; the country's predominantly Islamic population of about 21 million live in clusters in the far south and west of the country. The capital city is Niamey, located in Niger's southwest corner. Niger is a developing country, which ranks near the bottom in the United Nations' Human Development Index. Much of the non-desert portions of the country are threatened by periodic drought and desertification; the economy is concentrated around subsistence, with some export agriculture in the more fertile south, export of raw materials uranium ore. Niger faces serious challenges to development due to its landlocked position, desert terrain, inefficient agriculture, high fertility rates without birth control, the resulting overpopulation, the poor educational level and poverty of its people, lack of infrastructure, poor healthcare, environmental degradation.
Nigerien society reflects a diversity drawn from the long independent histories of its several ethnic groups and regions and their short period living in a single state. What is now Niger has been on the fringes of several large states. Since independence, Nigeriens have lived under five constitutions and three periods of military rule. After the military coup in 2010, Niger became a multi-party state. A majority of the population lives in rural areas, have little access to advanced education. Early human settlement in Niger is evidenced by numerous archaeological remains. In prehistoric times, the climate of the Sahara was wet and provided favorable conditions for agriculture and livestock herding in a fertile grassland environment five thousand years ago. In 2005–06, a graveyard in the Ténéré desert was discovered by Paul Sereno, a paleontologist from the University of Chicago, his team discovered 5,000-year-old remains of two children in the Ténéré Desert. The evidence along with remains of animals that do not live in desert are among the strongest evidence of the'green' Sahara in Niger.
It is believed that progressive desertification around 5000 BC pushed sedentary populations to the south and south-east. By at least the 5th century BC, Niger had become an area of trans-Saharan trade, led by the Berber tribes from the north, who used camels as a well-adapted means of transportation through the desert; this trade made Agadez a pivotal place of the trans-Saharan trade. This mobility, which would continue in waves for several centuries, was accompanied with further migration to the south and interbreeding between southern black and northern white populations, it was aided by the introduction of Islam to the region at the end of the 7th century. Several empires and kingdoms flourished during this era, up to the beginning of colonization in Africa; the Songhai Empire was an empire bearing the name of its main ethnic group, the Songhai or Sonrai, located in western Africa on the bend of the Niger River in present-day Niger and Burkina Faso. In the 7th century, Songhai tribes settled down north of modern-day Niamey and founded the Songhai city-states of Koukia and Gao.
By the 11th century, Gao had become the capital of the Songhai Empire. From 1000 to 1325, The Songhai Empire prospered and managed to maintain peace with its neighboring empires including the Mali Empire. In 1325 the Songhai Empire was conquered by the Mali Empire but was freed in 1335 by prince Ali Kolen and his brother, Songhai princes held captive by Moussa Kankan, the ruler of the Mali Empire. From the mid-15th to the late 16th century, Songhai was one of the largest Islamic empires in history. Between the Niger River and Lake Chad lay Hausa kingdoms and fertile areas; these kingdoms flourished from the mid-14th century up until the early 19th century, when they were conquered by Usman dan Fodio, founder of the Sokoto Empire. The Hausa kingdoms were not a compact entity but several federations of kingdoms more or less independent of one other, their organization was somewhat democratic: the Hausa kings were elected by the notables of the country and could be removed by them. The Hausa Kingdoms began as seven states founded according to the Bayajidda legend by the six sons of Bawo.
Bawo was the only son of the Hausa queen Bayajidda or who came from Baghdad. The seven original Hausa states were: Daoura, Rano, Gobir and Biram; the Mali Empire was a Mandinka empire founded by Sundiata Keita circa 1230 that existed up to 1600. At its peak circa 1350, the empire extended as far west as Senegal and Guinee Conakry and as far east as western Niger; the Kanem-Bornu Empire was an empire that existed in modern-day Chad, Cameroon and Libya. The empire first existed and prospered as the Kanem Empire as early as the 9th century and as the Kingdom of Bornu until 1900. In the 19th century, contact with Europe began with the first European explorers—notably Monteil and Barth —to travel to Niger. Following the 1885 Berlin conference during which colonial powers outlined the division of Africa into colonial spheres, French military efforts to conquer existing African states were intensified in all French colo
Niamey is the capital and largest city of the West African country Niger. Niamey lies on the Niger River situated on the east bank, it is an administrative and economic centre. Niamey's population was counted as 978,029 as of the 2012 census; as of 2017, population projections show the capital district growing at a slower rate than the country as a whole, which has the world's highest fertility rate. The city is located in a pearl millet growing region, while manufacturing industries include bricks, ceramic goods and weaving. Niamey was founded in the eighteenth century, but was of little importance to most of the country until the French developed a colonial post in the 1890s; this grew into an important centre. In 1926 it became the capital of Niger, the population increased, from about 3,000 in 1930 to around 30,000 in 1960; the period from 1970 to 1988 was one in which the economy of Niger boomed, driven by revenue from the uranium mines at Arlit. In this period, the population of Niamey grew from 108,000 to 398,365 inhabitants.
The city expanded from 1,367 hectares in 1970 to 4,400 hectares by 1977, in the process annexing peripheral villages such as Lazaret. By some estimates the population had reached 800,000 in 2000. In 2011, government press estimated the total urban population at over 1.5 million. A major cause of the increase has been in migration for work and during droughts, as well a high population growth; this last factor means. Covering an area of over 250 km2, the metropolitan area sits atop two plateaux reaching 218 m in altitude, bisected by the Niger River. At Niamey, the river, running straight SSE from Gao, makes a series of wide bends; the city was founded on the east of the river as it meanders from a west to east flow to run directly south. A series of marshy islands extend south in the river; the climate is hot semi-arid, with an expected rainfall of between 500 mm and 750 mm a year beginning with a few storms in May transitioning to a rainy season lasting from sometime in June to early September, when the rains taper off rather quickly.
Most of the rainfall is from late June to mid-August. There is no rain from mid-October to April. Niamey is remarkably hot throughout the year. In fact, it is one of the hottest major cities on the planet. Average monthly high temperatures reach 38 °C four months out of the year and in no month do average high temperatures fall below 32 °C. During the dry season from November through February, nights are cool. Average nighttime lows between November and February range from 14–18 °C. While Niamey's population has grown since independence, the droughts of the early 1970s and 1980s, along with the economic crisis of the early 1980s, have propelled an exodus of rural inhabitants to Niger's largest city. Under the military government of General Seyni Kountché, there were strict controls on residency and the government would round up and "deport" those without permits back to their villages; the growing freedoms of the late 1980s and 1990s, along with the Tuareg Rebellion of the 1990s and famine in the 2000s, have reinforced the process of immigration, with large informal settlements appearing on the outskirts of the cities.
Noticeable in the city's centre since the 1980s are young, or handicapped beggars. Within the richer or more trafficked neighbourhoods, these beggars have in fact formed a well-regulated hierarchical system in which beggars garner sadaka according to cultural and religious norms. Attractions in the city include the Niger National Museum, incorporating a zoo, a museum of vernacular architecture, a craft centre, exhibits including dinosaur skeletons and the Tree of Ténéré. There are American and Nigerien cultural centres, seven major market centres including the large Niamey Grand Market, a traditional wrestling arena and a horse track. In December 2005, it was the host of the Jeux de la Francophonie; the city has some buildings of architectural interest, such as the Congress Palace, the Niger National Museum and the old Presidential Palace. More than 90% of Niger population is Muslim. Niamey hosts the largest mosque in the Grand Mosque of Niamey; the city is the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Niamey.
There is a small Bahá'í community in Niamey. Niamey makes up a special capital district of Niger, surrounded by the department of Tillabéri; the city of Niamey itself is governed as an autonomous first-level administrative block, the Niamey Urban Community. It includes five Urban Communes, divided into 44 "Districts" and 99 "Quartiers", including independent towns, it is a co-equal first division subdivision with the seven Regions of Niger. The Niamey Urban Community includes an Governor appointed by national leaders. Like the rest of Niger, Niamey has seen a decentralisation of governance since 2000. Government Ordinance n°2010–56 and Presidential Decree n°2010-679 of September 2010 mandated an elected City Council for the city of Niamey, subsumed under the CUN; this excludes some outlying areas of the CUN. Forty-five councillors are popularly elected and in turn elect the Mayor of the City of Niamey. In July 2011 the first Mayor under the new system, Oumarou Dogari Moumouni, was installed by the Governor of the CUN Mrs. Aïchatou Boulama Kané and the City Council.
The City Council and Mayor have limited roles comp
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Niamey railway station
Niamey, colloquially known as Niamey Hippodrome, is the main railway station of the city of Niamey, the capital of Niger. Located near the Niamey Racecourse, in Niamey IV borough, is the first station opened in Niger and is part of AfricaRail project; the station was inaugurated on 7 April 2014, with a ceremony and the arrival of the first train. The ceremony was attended by the Nigerien president Mahamadou Issoufou, along with the presidents of Benin, Thomas Boni Yayi, Togo, Faure Gnassingbé; the group set up the structures for the reception of invited guests, a section of 500 m of track for the circulation of the inaugural train, consisting of a diesel locomotive and some passenger cars. In the same day, it was inaugurated, by the station, the "Bluezone Niamey". January 29, 2016 the train line Niamey-Dosso of 143 km was inaugurated, but no trains have used the track since. In 2015, there are no regular services but only tests on a track of 34 km, educational visits. Once ended the station expansion and the line construction, with the junction at the existing station of Parakou, in Benin, Niamey station will be the northern terminus of an international line to Cotonou, the largest Beninese city.
Another future project would provide the construction of a line from Ouagadougou, the Burkinabé capital, that will link Niamey to Abidjan, in Ivory Coast. Rail transport in Niger Railway stations in Niger Rail transport in Benin Railway stations in Benin Media related to Niamey train station at Wikimedia Commons