Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
University of Petroleum and Energy Studies
The University of Petroleum & Energy Studies is an Indian university located in Dehradun, Uttarakhand specialising in fields of energy and power. Established in 2003, it has been expanding legal studies. UPES was established in 2003 by an act of the state of Uttarakhand and is India's first public-private university; the university is a non-profit entity managed by the Hydrocarbons Research Society. The campus is located in Dehradun, well connected and in proximity to popular Himalayan tourist destinations such as Mussoorie, Nainital and the Hindu holy cities of Haridwar and Rishikesh along with the Himalayan pilgrimage circuit of Char Dham; the university offers over 100 postgraduate programs. It is one of the first universities in India to provide undergraduate and postgraduate programs, including doctorates, in the core sectors of petroleum and energy. UPES has five centres for continuing education. SoE offers B. Tech. M. Tech. and Ph. D. programs across a wide spectrum of specialisation areas including Petroleum Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Petroleum Exploration, Energy Systems, Geoinformatics Engineering, Geo-Science Engineering, Automotive Design Engineering, Mining Engineering and Process Control, Aerospace Engineering, Disaster Management, Mechatronics Engineering, Nanotechnology, Fire Safety Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Industrial Engineering.
The SoE has the following departments: Department of Petroleum Engineering and Earth Sciences Department of Chemical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Aerospace Engineering Department of Nuclear Science Technology Department of Health and Environment Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering Department of Civil Engineering SoB is situated at Kandoli Campus of UPES and offers BBA, MBA & Ph. D. programs in domains including Oil and Gas, Energy Trading, Aviation, Infrastructure and Logistics, Finance, Human Resources, Business Analytics, International Business. SoB has the following departments: Department of Energy Management Department of Transportation Management Department of Economics & International Business Department of General Management SoL offers basic and specialised law courses in Corporate Law, Energy Specialization, Taxation Laws in addition to technical courses such as Intellectual Property Rights and Cyber Law and integrated and specialised programs which are the first of their kind in the South Asian region.
These include a BA LLB with specialisation in Energy Laws, a BBA LLB in Corporate Law, a B. Com + LLB with specialisation in Taxation Laws, a B. Tech Energy Technology + LLB with specialisation in Intellectual Property Rights, a B. Tech in Computer Science and Engineering with specialisation in Cyber Laws; the School of Design offers visual design courses covering aspects of transportation and product development. Undergraduate program B. Des. Postgraduate Program Transportation Design Industrial Design Product Design Interaction Design The School of Computer Science offers a B. Tech. in Computer Science and Engineering in association with IBM and XEBIA with specialisations in:ref>"IT Colleges: Information Technology School in India - UPES". Www.upes.ac.in.</ref> Cloud Computing and Virtualisation Technologies Cyber Security and Forensics Business Analytics and Optimization Open Source and Open Standards Mainframe Technology Oil and Gas Informatics Telecom Informatics E commerce and Automation IT Infrastructure Banking, Financial Services and Insurance IT Security and Cyber Forensics Graphics and Gaming Mobile Application Development Artificial Intelligence Internet of Things and Smart Cities Big Data DevOps Machine Learning The Centre for Continuing Education and Centre for Aviation Studies offer executive programs for professionals through distance learning.
Student activities have been divided into three broad categories, technical and sports. They include four annual festivals: Uurja, a two-day event held in October which includes competitions and concerts. Ignite, the first techno-legal-management festival in India Jigyasa, a festival of the oil and gas industry including student presentations and lectures by visiting professionals, it is organised by the UPES chapter of FIPI UPES SPE Fest, held in February since 2010, India's largest student-organised petroleum engineering fest under the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Other activities have included Gems Instrublitz, an instrumental competition organised by the UPES GEMS team, Kalakriti, a chart painting competition organised to spread awareness of Google and its products. GRIHA, four-star rating awarded to UPES campus by the President of India, Pranab Mukherjee.
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Free Zone (region)
The Free Zone or Liberated Territories is a term used by the Polisario Front to describe the part of Western Sahara that lies to the east of the Moroccan Berm and west and north of the borders with Algeria and Mauritania, respectively. For Morocco, it is a buffer territory; the area is separated from the rest of the Western Sahara territory by "a 2,200 kilometer -long wall...flanked by one of the world's largest minefields." The border is referred to as the "Berm". The zone was established as a Polisario-held zone in a 1991 cease-fire between the Polisario Front and Morocco, agreed upon together as part of the Settlement Plan. Morocco controls the areas west including most of the territory's population; the cease-fire is overseen by the United Nations' MINURSO forces, charged with peacekeeping in the area and the organization of a referendum on independence. The status of Western Sahara is hotly disputed between Polisario and Morocco, this includes the names used to refer to areas under the control of the different sides.
Morocco refers to the Polisario-held region as a "buffer zone", or "buffer strip", claims that Polisario forces are not allowed entry, that both military activities and civilian construction in this area constitute violations of their cease-fire agreement. The Polisario Front, on the other hand, claims this does not correspond to the provisions of the agreement regulating the territory's status, which Morocco signed in 1991, regards the "buffer strip" as only a slim portion of the entire territory; this zone serves as a division-of-forces no-man's land. Areas outside this zone are open to activity by the side that controls them, provided they adhere to some restrictions on military movements. Polisario call the areas a "liberated territory" or the "free zone", but this is not an official designation; the UN calls it "east of the Berm", refers to territories under Moroccan control as "west of the Berm", thus not giving sanction to the claims of either party. According to the Settlement Plan, the movement of Polisario fighters is restricted to how Moroccan forces face restrictions on their side of the Berm.
The MINURSO details details the following restrictions for the different zones: One 5-kilometre-wide Buffer Strip to the south and east side of the Berm. The Buffer Strip is included in the Restricted Area on the POLISARIO side and the Berm is included in the Restricted Area on the Military of Morocco side; each of the five parts has specific restrictions as for the two parties' military activities:Buffer Strip: No entry of RMA and FPOL personnel and equipment, by ground or air. No firing of weapons in or over the area. Restricted Areas: No firing of weapons and/or military training exercises, with the exception of physical training activities of unarmed personnel. No tactical reinforcements, no redeployment or movement of troops, headquarters/units, equipment, weapons, no entry of military aircraft and no improvements of defence infrastructures; some exceptions apply and some activities are allowed after prior information to or approval by MINURSO. Areas with Limited Restrictions: All normal military activities can be carried out, except the reinforcement of existing minefields, the laying of mines, the concentration of forces, the construction of new headquarters and ammunition storage facilities.
MINURSO need to be informed if the parties intend to conduct military exercises, including the firing of weapons of a calibre above 9mm. The population of the territory east of the Wall is estimated to be between 30,000 -40,000 inhabitants. By comparison, it is estimated that 500,000 inhabitants live west of the Wall, of which Moroccan settlers make up at least two thirds. Following the 1975 Green March, the Moroccan state has sponsored settlement schemes enticing thousands of Moroccans to move into the Moroccan-occupied part; the major settlements on the zone are Tifariti, Bir Lehlou, Meharrize, Mijek and Zug. Access is difficult for Sahrawis due to the harsh climate of the Sahara, the military conflict and the abundance of land mines; the area is inhabited by Sahrawi nomads, that maintain the traditional camel herding of their ancestors, between the zone, northern Mauritania and the refugee camps. There is a small merchant population, who sell goods to travellers. Major Sahrawi political events, such as Polisario congresses and opening sessions of the Sahrawi National Council are held in the zone, since it is considered politically and symbolically important to conduct political affairs on Sahrawi land.
The Polisario troops (of the Sahrawi People's Liberation Army in the area are divided into seven "military regions", each controlled by a top commander reporting to the President of the Polisario proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. The total size of the Polisario's guerrilla army present in this area is unknown; some sources claim between 3,000–6,000 men, while others rise the number up to 12,000, with additional combatants stationed in Algeria, Mauritania or having been demobilized due to the cease-fire. These forces are dug into permanent positions, such as gun emplacements, defensive trenches and underground military bases, as well as conducting mobile patrols of the territory. A concen
President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
The President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is the head of state of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, a government in exile based in the Sahrawi refugee camps of Tindouf, Algeria. From the declaration of independence on February 27, 1976 to August 1982, the head of state of the SADR was known as the Chairman of the Revolutionary Council; the office of the President of the SADR was established in August 1982, after a change in the constitution made by the fifth general congress of the Polisario Front, where it was decided the post were to be held by the Secretary-General of the Polisario. The first President was Mohamed Abdelaziz from August 1982 until his death in 2016; the powers of the presidency are extensive, they have been subject to modification in various constitutional amendments, the last occurring in 1995. History of Western Sahara List of colonial governors of Spanish Sahara Prime Minister of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic President of the SADR photo gallery World Statesmen – Western Sahara
Tindouf is the main town, a commune in Tindouf Province, close to the Mauritanian, Western Saharan and Moroccan borders. The commune has population of around 160,000 but the census and population estimates do not count the Sahrawi refugees making the population as of the 2008 census 45,966, up from 25,266 in 1998, an annual population growth rate of 6.3%. The region is considered of strategic significance, it houses Algerian military bases and an airport with regular flights to Algiers as well as to other domestic destinations. The settlement of Garet Djebilet lies within the municipal territory of Tindouf near the border with Mauritania. Since 1975, it contains several Sahrawi refugee camps operated by the Polisario Front, a national liberation movement seeking the self-determination of Western Sahara; the town of Tindouf was built near an isolated Saharan oasis in 1852 by members of the Tajakant tribe, but sacked and destroyed by the Reguibat, another Sahrawi tribe in 1895, the Tajakant tribe were expelled from the region.
It remained deserted until French troops arrived in the area in 1934. Since Algerian independence in 1962, the town has been deliberately built up because of its importance as a last outpost before the Moroccan and Mauritanian borders. In 1963, the area was the scene of fighting between Algerian and Moroccan forces laying claim to western Algeria, in the Sand War; the region has since been militarized, increasing its relevance. Since the mid-70s, the Tindouf region served as base for the Polisario Front, a Sahrawi nationalist organization fighting for Western Sahara's independence; the Polisario Front is headquartered in self-administered refugee camps south of the city, which filled up as Moroccan and Mauritanian forces conquered Western Sahara in 1975. During the war years of 1975–1990, Polisario forces struck in Western Sahara and southern Morocco, using the Tindouf region as their rear base area, with Algerian protection and support. Since 1990 the area has been quiet, although the refugee community remains in Algeria, pending a UN-sponsored peace process and a referendum on independence.
Tindouf has a population of 47,965, though this figure is of questionable authenticity, given the fact that the exact number is a sensitive issue due to the Sahrawi refugees, who are excluded from the estimate. Tindouf has a hot desert climate, with hot summers and warm winters. There is little rain for most of the year concentrated in February and —associated with the West African Monsoon— by September–October; the region can be hit by rare events of heavy rain, such as in February 2006 or October 2015. Summer daytime temperatures approach 45 °C with blazing sunshine, while winter nighttime temperatures can sometimes drop to 5 °C or less. 6.1% of the population has a tertiary education, another 18.8% has completed secondary education. The overall literacy rate is 75.0%, is 79.7% among males and 70.1% among females. The commune is composed of five localities: Tindouf-ville Garet Djebilet Aouinet Bélagraa Chenachène Oum El Achar Tindouf travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Tindouf at Wikimedia Commons