The dromedary called the Arabian camel, is a large, even-toed ungulate with one hump on its back. The dromedary is the tallest of the three species of camel. Males weigh between 400 and 600 kg, females weigh between 300 and 540 kg; the species' distinctive features include its long, curved neck, narrow chest, a single hump, long hairs on the throat and hump. The coat is a shade of brown; the hump, 20 cm tall or more, is made of fat bound together by fibrous tissue. Dromedaries are active during daylight hours, they form herds of about 20 individuals. This camel feeds on desert vegetation. Mating occurs annually and peaks in the rainy season; the dromedary has not occurred in the wild for nearly 2,000 years. It was first domesticated in Somalia or the Arabian Peninsula about 4,000 years ago. In the wild, the dromedary inhabited arid regions, including the Sahara Desert; the domesticated dromedary is found in the semi-arid to arid regions of the Old World in Africa, a significant feral population occurs in Australia.
Products of the dromedary, including its meat and milk, support several north Arabian tribes. The common name "dromedary" comes from the Late Latin dromedarius; these originated from the Greek word dromas, δρομάς, meaning "running" or "runner", used in Greek in the combination δρομάς κάμηλος "running camel", to refer to the dromedary. The first recorded use in English of the name "dromedary" occurred in the 14th century; the dromedary originated in Arabia or Somalia and is therefore sometimes referred to as the Arabian or East African camel. The word "camel" refers either to the dromedary or the congeneric Bactrian; the dromedary shares the genus Camelus with the wild Bactrian camel. The dromedary belongs to the family Camelidae; the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle was the first to describe the species of Camelus. He named two species in his History of Animals; the dromedary was given its current binomial name Camelus dromedarius by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 publication Systema Naturae.
In 1927, British veterinarian Arnold Leese classified dromedaries by their basic habitats. In 2007, Peng Cui of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and colleagues carried out a phylogenetic study of the evolutionary relationships between the two tribes of Camelidae; the study showed the two tribes had diverged 25 million years ago, earlier than estimated from North American fossils. The dromedary and the Bactrian camel interbreed to produce fertile offspring. Where the ranges of the species overlap, such as in northern Punjab and Afghanistan, the phenotypic differences between them tend to decrease as a result of extensive crossbreeding; the fertility of their hybrid has given rise to speculation that the dromedary and the Bactrian camel should be merged into a single species with two varieties. However, a 1994 analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene showed the species display 10.3% divergence in their sequences. The dromedary has the same as other camelids; the autosomes consist of five pairs of small to medium-sized submetacentrics.
The X chromosome is the largest in the submetacentric group. There are 31 pairs of acrocentrics; the dromedary's karyotype is similar to that of the Bactrian camel. Camel hybridisation began in the first millennium BC. For about a thousand years, Bactrian camels and dromedaries have been bred in regions where they are sympatric to form hybrids with either a long lopsided hump or two humps – one small and one large; these hybrids are larger and stronger than their parents – they can bear greater loads. A cross between a first generation female hybrid and a male Bactrian camel can produce a hybrid. Hybrids from other combinations tend to be runts; the extinct Protylopus, which occurred in North America during the upper Eocene, is the oldest and the smallest-known camel. During the transition from Pliocene to Pleistocene, several mammals faced extinction; this period marked the successful radiation of the Camelus species, which migrated over the Bering Strait and dispersed into Asia, eastern Europe and Africa.
By the Pleistocene, ancestors of the dromedary occurred in the Middle East and northern
Free Zone (region)
The Free Zone or Liberated Territories is a term used by the Polisario Front to describe the part of Western Sahara that lies to the east of the Moroccan Berm and west and north of the borders with Algeria and Mauritania, respectively. For Morocco, it is a buffer territory; the area is separated from the rest of the Western Sahara territory by "a 2,200 kilometer -long wall...flanked by one of the world's largest minefields." The border is referred to as the "Berm". The zone was established as a Polisario-held zone in a 1991 cease-fire between the Polisario Front and Morocco, agreed upon together as part of the Settlement Plan. Morocco controls the areas west including most of the territory's population; the cease-fire is overseen by the United Nations' MINURSO forces, charged with peacekeeping in the area and the organization of a referendum on independence. The status of Western Sahara is hotly disputed between Polisario and Morocco, this includes the names used to refer to areas under the control of the different sides.
Morocco refers to the Polisario-held region as a "buffer zone", or "buffer strip", claims that Polisario forces are not allowed entry, that both military activities and civilian construction in this area constitute violations of their cease-fire agreement. The Polisario Front, on the other hand, claims this does not correspond to the provisions of the agreement regulating the territory's status, which Morocco signed in 1991, regards the "buffer strip" as only a slim portion of the entire territory; this zone serves as a division-of-forces no-man's land. Areas outside this zone are open to activity by the side that controls them, provided they adhere to some restrictions on military movements. Polisario call the areas a "liberated territory" or the "free zone", but this is not an official designation; the UN calls it "east of the Berm", refers to territories under Moroccan control as "west of the Berm", thus not giving sanction to the claims of either party. According to the Settlement Plan, the movement of Polisario fighters is restricted to how Moroccan forces face restrictions on their side of the Berm.
The MINURSO details details the following restrictions for the different zones: One 5-kilometre-wide Buffer Strip to the south and east side of the Berm. The Buffer Strip is included in the Restricted Area on the POLISARIO side and the Berm is included in the Restricted Area on the Military of Morocco side; each of the five parts has specific restrictions as for the two parties' military activities:Buffer Strip: No entry of RMA and FPOL personnel and equipment, by ground or air. No firing of weapons in or over the area. Restricted Areas: No firing of weapons and/or military training exercises, with the exception of physical training activities of unarmed personnel. No tactical reinforcements, no redeployment or movement of troops, headquarters/units, equipment, weapons, no entry of military aircraft and no improvements of defence infrastructures; some exceptions apply and some activities are allowed after prior information to or approval by MINURSO. Areas with Limited Restrictions: All normal military activities can be carried out, except the reinforcement of existing minefields, the laying of mines, the concentration of forces, the construction of new headquarters and ammunition storage facilities.
MINURSO need to be informed if the parties intend to conduct military exercises, including the firing of weapons of a calibre above 9mm. The population of the territory east of the Wall is estimated to be between 30,000 -40,000 inhabitants. By comparison, it is estimated that 500,000 inhabitants live west of the Wall, of which Moroccan settlers make up at least two thirds. Following the 1975 Green March, the Moroccan state has sponsored settlement schemes enticing thousands of Moroccans to move into the Moroccan-occupied part; the major settlements on the zone are Tifariti, Bir Lehlou, Meharrize, Mijek and Zug. Access is difficult for Sahrawis due to the harsh climate of the Sahara, the military conflict and the abundance of land mines; the area is inhabited by Sahrawi nomads, that maintain the traditional camel herding of their ancestors, between the zone, northern Mauritania and the refugee camps. There is a small merchant population, who sell goods to travellers. Major Sahrawi political events, such as Polisario congresses and opening sessions of the Sahrawi National Council are held in the zone, since it is considered politically and symbolically important to conduct political affairs on Sahrawi land.
The Polisario troops (of the Sahrawi People's Liberation Army in the area are divided into seven "military regions", each controlled by a top commander reporting to the President of the Polisario proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. The total size of the Polisario's guerrilla army present in this area is unknown; some sources claim between 3,000–6,000 men, while others rise the number up to 12,000, with additional combatants stationed in Algeria, Mauritania or having been demobilized due to the cease-fire. These forces are dug into permanent positions, such as gun emplacements, defensive trenches and underground military bases, as well as conducting mobile patrols of the territory. A concen
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, reflectivity of any metal; the metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal, its purity is measured on a per-mille basis. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Other than in currency and as an investment medium, silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery.
Its compounds are used in X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings and other medical instruments. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold, its 47 electrons are arranged in the configuration 4d105s1 to copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with a single electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell, accounts for many of the singular properties of metallic silver. Silver is an soft and malleable transition metal, though it is less malleable than gold. Silver crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized to copper and gold. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are weak; this observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of silver.
Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high polish, and, so characteristic that the name of the metal itself has become a colour name. Unlike copper and gold, the energy required to excite an electron from the filled d band to the s-p conduction band in silver is large enough that it no longer corresponds to absorption in the visible region of the spectrum, but rather in the ultraviolet. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm. At wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silver's reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. High electrical and thermal conductivity is common to the elements in group 11, because their single s electron is free and does not interact with the filled d subshell, as such interactions lower electron mobility; the electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater than copper, but it is not used for this property because of the higher cost.
An exception is in radio-frequency engineering at VHF and higher frequencies where silver plating improves electrical conductivity because those currents tend to flow on the surface of conductors rather than through the interior. During World War II in the US, 13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium because of the wartime shortage of copper. Pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity of any metal, although the conductivity of carbon and superfluid helium-4 are higher. Silver has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver forms alloys with copper and gold, as well as zinc. Zinc-silver alloys with low zinc concentration may be considered as face-centred cubic solid solutions of zinc in silver, as the structure of the silver is unchanged while the electron concentration rises as more zinc is added. Increasing the electron concentration further leads to body-centred cubic, complex cubic, hexagonal close-packed phases. Occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being more abundant.
This equal abundance is rare in the periodic table. The atomic weight is 107.8682 u. Both isotopes of silver are produced in stars via the s-process, as well as in supernovas via the r-process. Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. Silver has numerous nuclear isomers, the most stable being 108mAg, 110mAg and 106mAg. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes. Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u
The ouguiya spelled "ougiya", is the currency of Mauritania. Each ouguiya constitutes five khoums; as such it is one of two circulating currencies, along with the Malagasy ariary, whose division units are not based on a power of ten. The current ouguiya was introduced in 2018, replacing the old ouguiya at a rate of 1 new ouguiya = 10 old ouguiya, which in turn replaced the CFA franc at a rate of 1 old ouguiya = 5 francs; the name "Ouguiya" is the Hassaniya Arabic pronunciation of "Awqiyyah", meaning "ounce". In 1973, ⅕, 1, 5, 10 and 20 ouguiya coins were introduced into circulation; this was the only year that the khoums was minted, as the ouguiya was worth five CFA Francs a khoums was the equivalent of the franc. The most recent issues were in 2003 and 2004. Coins are minted at the Kremnica mint in Slovakia; the coinage changed in 2009, with a reduced 1 ouguiya in plated composition and a bi-metallic 20 ouguiya issued. A bi-metallic 50 ouguiya was issued December 2010. In 1973, notes were issued by the Central Bank of Mauritania in denominations of 100, 200 and 1,000 ouguiya.
In 1974, a second series of notes was issued in the same denominations, with 500 ouguiya notes added in 1979. Banknotes have been printed by Giesecke & Devrient starting with the second issue. New banknotes were introduced in 2004; these notes have new fronts and the vignettes on the backs have been redesigned to accommodate the reduction in size. The 2,000-ouguiya denomination is new. All but the 100- and 200-ouguiya notes have the denomination expressed in Arabic numerals in a holographic patch at right front; the serial numbers for all denominations now appear horizontally at upper left and lower center, vertically at far right, all formatted with a 2-character prefix, 7-digit serial number, 1-character suffix. An new 5,000-ouguiya denomination dated 28.11.2009 was introduced on 8 August 2010, followed by a redesigned 2,000-ouguiya note dated 28.11.2011 issued on 1 February 2012. Within Nouakchott, the nation's capital, most coins are in fine to fine condition; the Central Bank is unhelpful in providing new condition banknotes.
Some interest in setting up a numismatic program exists, however. On December 5, 2017, the Central Bank of Mauritania announced a redenomination of its currency at a rate of 1:10; as part of the redenomination, a new series of coins were issued in denominations of 1 khoums, 1, 5, 10 and 20 ouguiya, with the latter being struck as a tri-metallic coin and a new series of banknotes in denominations of 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1,000 ouguiya. The new ouguiya banknotes issued for the redenomination are printed in polymer; as a consequence of this change, the ISO Currency Codes for the ouguiya were amended to MRU / 929 and the existing codes of MRO / 478 were retired as per ISO 4217 Amendment Number 165 dated 14 Dec 2017. Economy of Mauritania banknotenews.com
The Green March was a strategic mass demonstration in November 1975, coordinated by the Moroccan government, to force Spain to hand over the disputed, autonomous semi-metropolitan province of Spanish Sahara to Morocco. The demonstration of some 350,000 Moroccans advanced several kilometres into the Western Sahara territory, escorted by nearly 20,000 Moroccan troops, meeting little response by the Sahrawi Polisario Front; the events escalated into a waged war between Morocco and the militias of the Polisario, the Western Sahara War, which would last for 16 years. Morocco gained control over most of the former Spanish Sahara, which it continues to hold. Morocco, to the north of the Spanish Sahara, had long claimed that the territory was an integral part of Morocco. Mauritania to the south argued that the territory was in fact Mauritanian. Since 1973, a Sahrawi guerrilla war led by the Polisario Front had challenged Spanish control, in October 1975 Spain had begun negotiations for a handover of power with leaders of the rebel movement, both in El Aaiún, with foreign minister Pedro Cortina y Mauri meeting El Ouali in Algiers.
Morocco intended to vindicate its claims by demanding a verdict from the International Court of Justice, issued on 16 October 1975. The ICJ stated that there were historical legal ties of allegiance between "some, but only some" Sahrawi tribes and the Sultan of Morocco, as well as ties including some rights relating to the land between Mauritania and other Sahrawi tribes. However, the ICJ stated that there were no ties of territorial sovereignty between the territory and Morocco, or Mauritania, at the time of Spanish colonization. Instead, the court argued, the indigenous population were the owners of the land, thus possessed the right of self-determination; this meant that regardless of which political solution was found to the question of sovereignty, it had to be explicitly approved by the people of the territory. Complicating matters, a UN visiting mission had concluded on 15 October, the day before the ICJ verdict was released, that Sahrawi support for independence was "overwhelming". However, the reference to previous Moroccan-Sahrawi ties of allegiance was presented by Hassan II as a vindication of his position, with no public mention of the court's further ruling on self-determination..
Within hours of the ICJ verdict's release, he announced the organizing of a "green march" to Spanish Sahara, to "reunite it with the Motherland". In order to prepare the terrain and to riposte to any potential counter-invasion from Algeria or in order to invade militarily the land and kill or deport the Sahrawi population, the Moroccan Army entered the northeast of the region on October 31, where it met with hard resistance from the Polisario, by a two-year-old independence movement; the Green March was a well-publicized popular march of enormous proportions. On 6 November 1975 350,000 unarmed Moroccans converged on the city of Tarfaya in southern Morocco and waited for a signal from King Hassan II to cross into the region of Sakiya Lhmra, they brandished Qur ` an. As the marchers reached the border, the Spanish Armed Forces were ordered not to fire to avoid bloodshed; the Spanish troops cleared some mined zones. According to Morocco, the exercise of sovereignty by the Moroccan state was characterized by official pledges of allegiance to the sultan.
The Moroccan government was of the opinion that this allegiance existed during several centuries before the Spanish occupation and that it was a legal and political tie. The sultan Hassan I, for example, had carried out two expeditions in 1886 in order to put an end to foreign incursions in this territory and to invest several caids and cadis. In its presentation to the ICJ, the Moroccan side mentioned the levy of taxes as a further instance of the exercise of sovereignty; the exercise of this sovereignty had appeared, according to the Moroccan government, at other levels, such as the appointment of local officials, the definition of the missions which were assigned to them. The Moroccan government further pointed to several treaties between it and other states, such as with Spain in 1861, the United States of America in 1786, 1836 and with Great Britain in 1856 The court, found that "neither the internal nor the international acts relied upon by Morocco indicate the existence at the relevant period of either the existence or the international recognition of legal ties of territorial sovereignty between Western Sahara and the Moroccan State.
Taking account of the specific structure of that State, they do not show that Morocco displayed any effective and exclusive State activity in Western Sahara." The Green March caught Spain in a moment of political crisis. The caudillo General Franco, who had led the country for 36 years, was dying. Despite the overwhelming military and logistic superiority of the Spanish armed forces based in Western Sahara in relation to the Moroccan armed forces, the Spanish government feared that the conflict with Morocco could lead to an open colonial war in Africa, which c
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is the institution that manages the currency, money supply, interest rates of a state or formal monetary union, oversees their commercial banking system. In contrast to a commercial bank, a central bank possesses a monopoly on increasing the monetary base in the state, generally controls the printing/coining of the national currency, which serves as the state's legal tender. A central bank acts as a lender of last resort to the banking sector during times of financial crisis. Most central banks have supervisory and regulatory powers to ensure the solvency of member institutions, to prevent bank runs, to discourage reckless or fraudulent behavior by member banks. Central banks in most developed nations are institutionally independent from political interference. Still, limited control by the executive and legislative bodies exists. Functions of a central bank may include: implementing monetary policies. Setting the official interest rate – used to manage both inflation and the country's exchange rate – and ensuring that this rate takes effect via a variety of policy mechanisms controlling the nation's entire money supply the Government's banker and the bankers' bank managing the country's foreign exchange and gold reserves and the Government bonds regulating and supervising the banking industry Central banks implement a country's chosen monetary policy.
At the most basic level, monetary policy involves establishing what form of currency the country may have, whether a fiat currency, gold-backed currency, currency board or a currency union. When a country has its own national currency, this involves the issue of some form of standardized currency, a form of promissory note: a promise to exchange the note for "money" under certain circumstances; this was a promise to exchange the money for precious metals in some fixed amount. Now, when many currencies are fiat money, the "promise to pay" consists of the promise to accept that currency to pay for taxes. A central bank may use another country's currency either directly in a currency union, or indirectly on a currency board. In the latter case, exemplified by the Bulgarian National Bank, Hong Kong and Latvia, the local currency is backed at a fixed rate by the central bank's holdings of a foreign currency. Similar to commercial banks, central banks incur liabilities. Central banks create money by issuing interest-free currency notes and selling them to the public in exchange for interest-bearing assets such as government bonds.
When a central bank wishes to purchase more bonds than their respective national governments make available, they may purchase private bonds or assets denominated in foreign currencies. The European Central Bank remits its interest income to the central banks of the member countries of the European Union; the US Federal Reserve remits all its profits to the U. S. Treasury; this income, derived from the power to issue currency, is referred to as seigniorage, belongs to the national government. The state-sanctioned power to create currency is called the Right of Issuance. Throughout history there have been disagreements over this power, since whoever controls the creation of currency controls the seigniorage income; the expression "monetary policy" may refer more narrowly to the interest-rate targets and other active measures undertaken by the monetary authority. Frictional unemployment is the time period between jobs when a worker is searching for, or transitioning from one job to another. Unemployment beyond frictional unemployment is classified as unintended unemployment.
For example, structural unemployment is a form of unemployment resulting from a mismatch between demand in the labour market and the skills and locations of the workers seeking employment. Macroeconomic policy aims to reduce unintended unemployment. Keynes labeled any jobs that would be created by a rise in wage-goods as involuntary unemployment: Men are involuntarily unemployed if, in the event of a small rise in the price of wage-goods to the money-wage, both the aggregate supply of labour willing to work for the current money-wage and the aggregate demand for it at that wage would be greater than the existing volume of employment.—John Maynard Keynes, The General Theory of Employment and Money p11 Inflation is defined either as the devaluation of a currency or equivalently the rise of prices relative to a currency. Since inflation lowers real wages, Keynesians view inflation as the solution to involuntary unemployment. However, "unanticipated" inflation leads to lender losses as the real interest rate will be lower than expected.
Thus, Keynesian monetary policy aims for a steady rate of inflation. A publication from the Austrian School, The Case Against the Fed, argues that the efforts of the central banks to control inflation have been counterproductive. Economic growth can be enhanced by investment such as more or better machinery. A low interest rate implies that firms can borrow money to invest in their capital stock and pay less interest for it. Lowering the interest is therefore considered to encourage economic growth and is used to alleviate times of low economic growth. On the other hand, raising the interest rate is used in times of high economic growth as a contra-cyclical device to keep the economy from overheating and avoid market bubbles. Further goals of monetary policy are stability of interest rates, of the financial market, of the foreign exchange market. Goals cannot be separated fr
Spanish Sahara the Overseas Province of the Spanish Sahara, was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was occupied and ruled by Spain between 1884 and 1975. It had been one of the most recent acquisitions of the Spanish Empire as well as one of its last remaining holdings, which had once extended from the Americas to the Philippines and East Asia. Spain gave up its Saharan possession following Moroccan demands and international pressure from United Nations resolutions regarding decolonisation. There was internal pressure from the native Sahrawi population, through the Polisario Front, the claims of Morocco and Mauritania. After gaining independence in 1956, Morocco laid claim to the territory as part of its historic pre-colonial territory. Mauritania claimed the territory for a number of years based on its history, but dropped all claims in 1979. In 1975, Morocco occupied much of the territory, now known as Western Sahara, but the Polisario Front, promoting the sovereignty of an independent Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, fought a guerrilla war for 16 years against Morocco.
In 1991, the UN negotiated a ceasefire and has tried to arrange negotiations and a referendum to let the population vote on its future. Morocco controls the entire Atlantic coast and most of the landmass and natural resources of Western Sahara. At the Berlin Conference, the European powers were establishing the rules for setting up zones of influence or protection in Africa, Spain declared'a protectorate of the African coast' from Cape Blanc to Cape Bojador on 26 December 1884, it informed the other powers in writing on 14 January 1885. It began establishing a military presence. In July 1885, King Alfonso XII appointed Emilio Bonelli commissioner of the Río de Oro with civil and military authority. On 6 April 1887, the area was incorporated into the Captaincy General of the Canary Islands for military purposes. In the summer of 1886, under the sponsorship of the Spanish Society of Commercial Geography, Julio Cervera Baviera, Felipe Rizzo and Francisco Quiroga traversed the territory, called Río de Oro, made topographical and astronomical observations.
At the time, geographers had not mapped the territory and its features were not known. Their trek is considered the first scientific expedition in that part of the Sahara. On entering the territory in 1884, Spanish forces were challenged by stiff resistance from the indigenous Sahrawi tribes, Saharan Arabs who lived in many oases and coastal villages; the indigenous people worked in fishing and camel herding, speak the Hassaniya language, a Bedouin Arabic dialect. A rebellion in 1904 was led by the powerful Smara-based marabout, Shaykh Ma al-'Aynayn, was put down by France in 1910, which ruled neighbouring Algeria; this was followed by a wave of uprisings under Ma al-Aynayn's sons and other political leaders. There is some dispute and ambiguity about whether the territory was under Moroccan royal sovereignty at the time when the Spanish claimed it in 1884. In 1886, Spain signed the Treaty of Idjil, by which the Emirate of Adrar ceded the land of the colony to Spain; this treaty was of no legal value, since the Emir had no claim to the territory, but since Morocco had no claim either, the Spanish'invented' a claim which the Emir could, with no harm to himself cede.
The borders of the territory were not defined until treaties between Spain and France in the early 20th century. Spanish Sahara was created from the Spanish territories of Río de Oro and Saguia el-Hamra in 1924, it was not part of the areas was administered separately. Given such tribal uprisings, Spain found it difficult to control parts of the territory's large hinterland until 1934. After gaining independence in 1956, Morocco laid claim to Spanish Sahara as part of its historic pre-colonial territory. In 1957, the Moroccan Army of Liberation nearly occupied the small territory of Ifni, north of Spanish Sahara, during the Ifni War; the Spanish repelled the attacks. With the assistance of the French, Spain soon re-established control in the area through Operaciones Teide-Ecoubillon, it tried to suppress resistance politically. It forced some of the nomadic inhabitants of Spanish Sahara to settle in certain areas, the rate of urbanisation was increased. In 1958, Spain united the territories of Saguia el Hamra and Río de Oro to form the overseas province of Spanish Sahara, while ceding the province of the Cape Juby Strip in the same year to Morocco.
In the 1960s, Morocco continued to claim Spanish Sahara. It gained agreement by the United Nations to add the territory to the list of territories to be decolonised. In 1969, Spain continued to retain Spanish Sahara. In 1967, Spanish rule was challenged by the Harakat Tahrir, a protest movement secretly organised by the Royal Moroccan Government. Spain suppressed the 1970 Zemla Intifada. In 1973, the Polisario Front was formed in a revival of militant Sahrawi nationalism; the Front's guerrilla army grew and Spain lost effective control over most of the territory by early 1975. Its effort to found a political rival, the Partido de Unión Nacional Saharaui, met with little success. Spain proceeded to co-opt tribal leaders by setting up the Djema'a, a political institution loosely based on traditional Sahrawi tribal leaders; the Djema'a members were hand-picked by the authorities, but given privileges in