Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products. Because of those factors, heavy industry involves higher capital intensity than light industry does, it is often more cyclical in investment and employment. Transportation and construction along with their upstream manufacturing supply businesses have been the bulk of heavy industry throughout the industrial age, along with some capital-intensive manufacturing. Traditional examples from the mid-19th century through the early 20th included steelmaking, artillery production, locomotive erection, machine tool building, the heavier types of mining. From the late 19th century through the mid-20th, as the chemical industry and electrical industry developed, they involved components of both heavy industry and light industry, soon true for the automotive industry and the aircraft industry. Modern shipbuilding is considered heavy industry. Large systems are characteristic of heavy industry such as the construction of skyscrapers and large dams during the post–World War II era, the manufacture/deployment of large rockets and giant wind turbines through the 21st century.
Many East Asian countries rely on heavy industry as key parts of their overall economies. This reliance on heavy industry is a matter of government economic policy. Among Japanese and Korean firms with "heavy industry" in their names, many are manufacturers of aerospace products and defense contractors to their respective countries' governments such as Japan's Fuji Heavy Industries and Korea's Hyundai Rotem, a joint project of Hyundai Heavy Industries and Daewoo Heavy Industries. In 20th-century communist states, the planning of the economy focused on heavy industry as an area for large investments to the extent of painful opportunity costs on the production–possibility frontier; this was motivated by fears of failing to maintain military parity with foreign capitalist powers. For example, the Soviet Union's manic industrialization in the 1930s, with heavy industry as the favored emphasis, sought to bring its ability to produce trucks, artillery and warships up to a level that would make the country a great power.
China under Mao Zedong pursued a similar strategy culminating in the Great Leap Forward of 1958–1960, an attempt to industrialize and collectivize. This industrialization attempt failed to create industrialization and instead caused the Great Chinese Famine, in which 25-30 million people died prematurely. Heavy industry is sometimes a special designation in local zoning laws; this allows industries with heavy impacts to be sited with forethought. For example, the zoning restrictions for landfills take into account the heavy truck traffic that will exert expensive wear on the roads leading to the landfill. Definition of'Heavy Industry' according to Investopedia.com
The New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula. It makes up 86.2% of Hong Kong's territory, contains around half of the population of Hong Kong. It is the region described in the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory. According to that treaty, the territories comprise the mainland area north of the Boundary Street of Kowloon Peninsula and south of the Sham Chun River, as well as over 200 outlying islands, including Lantau Island, Lamma Island, Cheung Chau, Peng Chau in the territory of Hong Kong. After New Kowloon was defined from the area between the Boundary Street and the Kowloon Ranges spanned from Lai Chi Kok to Lei Yue Mun, the extension of the urban areas of Kowloon, New Kowloon was urbanised and absorbed into Kowloon; the New Territories now comprises only the mainland north of the Kowloon Ranges and south of the Sham Chun River, as well as the Outlying Islands. It comprises an area of 952 km2. New Kowloon has remained statutorily part of the New Territories instead of Kowloon.
The New Territories were leased from Qing China to the United Kingdom in 1898 for 99 years in the Second Convention of Peking. Upon the expiry of the lease, sovereignty was transferred to the People's Republic of China in 1997, together with the Qing-ceded territories of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula. In 2011, the population of the New Territories was recorded at 3,691,093. With a population density of 3,801 per square kilometer. Hong Kong Island was ceded to Britain in 1842 and Kowloon south of Boundary Street and Stonecutters Island in 1860; the colony of Hong Kong attracted a large number of Chinese and Westerners to seek their fortune in the city. Its population increased and the city became overcrowded; the outbreak of bubonic plague in 1894 became a concern to the Hong Kong Government. There was a need to expand the colony to accommodate its growing population; the Qing Dynasty's defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War had shown that it was incapable of defending itself. Victoria City and Victoria Harbour were vulnerable to any hostile forces launching attacks from the hills of Kowloon.
Alarmed by the encroachment of other European powers in China, Britain feared for the security of Hong Kong. Using the most favoured nation clause that it had negotiated with Peking, the United Kingdom demanded the extension of Kowloon to counter the influence of France in southern China in June 1898. In July, it secured Weihaiwei in Shandong in the north as a base for operations against the Germans in Qingdao and the Russians in Port Arthur. Chinese officials stayed in the walled cities of Kowloon Weihaiwei; the extension of Kowloon was called the New Territories. The additional land was estimated to be 365 square miles or 12 times the size of the existing Colonial Hong Kong at the time. Although the Convention was signed on the 9 June 1898 and became effective on 1 July, the British did not take over the New Territories immediately. During this period, there was no Hong Kong Wilsone Black acted as administrator. James Stewart Lockhart, the Colonial Secretary of Hong Kong, was sent back from England to make a survey of New Territories before formal transfer.
The survey found that the new frontier at Sham Chun River suggested by Wilsone Black was far from ideal. It excluded the town of Shenzhen, the boundary would divide the town. There was no mountain range as a natural border. Lockhard suggested moving the frontier to the line of hills north of Shenzhen; this suggestion was not received favourably and the Chinese official suggested the frontier be moved to the hill much further south of the Sham Chun River. It was settled in March 1899; the new Hong Kong Governor Henry Blake arrived in November 1898. The date for the takeover of the New Territories was fixed as 17 April 1899 and Tai Po was chosen as the administrative centre; however the transfer was not peaceful. Before the handover in early April, Captain Superintendent of Police, Francis Henry May and some policemen erected a flagstaff and temporary headquarters at Tai Po and posted the Governor's proclamation of the takeover date. Fearing for their traditional land rights, in the Six-Day War of 1899, a number of clans attempted to resist the British, mobilising clan militias, organised and armed to protect against longshore raids by pirates.
The militia men attempted a frontal attack against the temporary police station in Tai Po, the main British base but were beaten back by superior force of arms. An attempt by the clansmen at guerilla warfare was put down by the British near Lam Tsuen with over 500 Chinese men killed, collapsed when British artillery was brought to bear on the walled villages of the clansmen. Most prominent of the villages in the resistance Kat Hing Wai, of the Tang clan, was symbolically disarmed, by having its main gates dismounted and removed. However, in order to prevent future resistance the British made concessions to the indigenous inhabitants with regards to land use, land inheritance and marriage laws; some of the concessions with regard to land use and inheritance remain in place in Hong Kong to this day and is a source of friction between indigenous inhabitants and other Hong Kong residents. Lord Lugard was Governor from 1907 to 1912, he proposed the return of Weihaiwei to the Chinese government, in return for the ceding of the leased New
Tsing Yi, sometimes referred to as Tsing Yi Island, is an island in the urban area of Hong Kong, to the northwest of Hong Kong Island and south of Tsuen Wan. With an area of 10.69 km², the island has extended drastically by reclamation along all its natural shore and the annexation of Nga Ying Chau and Chau Tsai. Three major bays or harbours, Tsing Yi Lagoon, Mun Tsai Tong and Tsing Yi Bay in the northeast, have been reclaimed for new towns; the island is zoned into four quarters: the northeast quarter is a residential area, the southeast quarter is Tsing Yi Town, the southwest holds heavy industry, the northwest includes a recreation trail, a transportation interchange and some dockyards and ship building industry. The island is in the northwest of Victoria Harbour and part of its coastline is subject to the Protection of the Harbour Ordinance. Tsing Yi means "green/ blue/ black clothes", but is a kind of fish blackspot tuskfish, once abundant in nearby waters. People named the island after the fish.
Tsing Yi Tam or Tsing Yi Tam Shan appeared on some early Chinese maps. The island was known as Chun Fa Lok once upon a time, which means the fall of spring flowers, or Chun Fa Island, on some Western maps. Now, Chun Fa Lok is still a former village on the southeast corner of the island. A government document in the Ming Dynasty named the water near Chun Fa Lok, Chun Fa Yeung,which is the ocean of spring flowers; the Ming navy defeated once pirate fleets there. In some historical sources, Tsing-I Island is used instead of Tsing Yi Island, Chung-Hue Island instead of Chun Fa Island. Tsing Yi Town, together with Kwai Chung Town, is part of Tsuen Wan New Town in the Kwai Tsing District in the New Territories. Although Tsing Yi Island is a de facto outlying island, it is not accordingly included in the Islands District. Tsing Yi Island, with Kwai Chung, were in the same administration unit as Tsuen Wan because of their proximity and close-knit neighbourhood. Unlike Kwai Chung, whose villages are part of Tsuen Wan Rural Committee, Tsing Yi Island has its own, Tsing Yi Rural Committee.
The rural committee was politically significant until the establishment of a District Council and Regional Council, less significant since the urban population grew much larger than the rural population. There were about 4,000 people on the island when the British took the New Territories around 1898. In the following one hundred years, the population has grown to nearly 50 times this size. In an estimation in 2007, there are about 200,400 people, it is expected to grow to 203,300 in the near future. Most of the population live in Tsing Yi Town. Tsing Yi Island is a hilly island with Tsing Yi Peak in Liu To Shan in the north east. Small plain can be found surrounding the former Tsing Yi Lagoon in island northeast; the rocks on the island are granite and were exposed due to extensive housing and infrastructure construction. Although the island is not fallen in the administration of country park, most of the hilly area remains green; the Tsing Yi Peak is a barrier separating industrial west and residential east.
The hilly area of the island remains intact and is designated as a green belt. In 1997 a once lost endemic plant, Hong Kong croton, was found in the woodland beneath the highest peak, Tsing Yi Peak, on the island. In the early days, the inhabitants on the island were farmers and fishermen; the major population concentrated in the northeast portion of the island. Farmers grew rice and pineapples, while fishermen lived in huts connected by plank walkways in the small harbour of Tsing Yi Tong which stretched far back into the island. Many fishermen lived on their junks and boats all the time, fishing in the nearby waters; as late as the 1970s, Tsing Yi Tong resembled Tai O with its characteristic stilt houses and water vehicles. Like many other fishing villages in Hong Kong, the Tsing Yi dwellers worshipped Tin Hau, the goddess of mercy and the sea. A Tin Hau Temple was built on the shore of Tsing Yi Tong. At the birthday of Tin Hau, fishermen of all nearby waters would come to the Temple for celebrations.
The temple was white in color and thus people call it Pak Miu. From the 1920s onwards, a Chinese company built lime factories on the present site of Greenfield Garden, it is the earliest known industry on the island. The lime industry continued to flourish during the 1950s, a tanning factory was founded at the same period. After World War II, other heavy industries moved in as well. In the 1960s, several oil companies moved their oil storage depots onto the island and a Green Island Cement cement plant. CLP commissioned its 1520MW oil-fired Tsing Yi Power Station in 1969 at Nam Wan due to its proximity to the oil tank farms. Meanwhile, some small shipbuilding companies opened on Tsing Yi, remain on the north side of the island. In the 1970s, six large-scale companies on the island collectively built the Tsing Yi Bridge to connect Tsing Yi Town and Kwai Chung Town over the Rambler Channel; the bridge was soon transferred to the Hong Kong Government, remaining the sole road connection to the island for more than ten years.
Several industrial buildings for light industries were constructed beside the bridge afterward. Several dockyards moved to the west shore of the island at the end of the 1970s. During the 1950s, Wok Tai Wan on Tsing Yi Island was a paradise for nudists, hence Tsing Yi was once synonymous with nudism
Kwun Tong District
Kwun Tong is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. It is located in Kowloon, it had a population of 648,541 in 2016. The district has the second highest population, it is the most densely populated district, with 55,000 per km², but it is one of the largest industrial areas in Hong Kong. Pollution and ageing population are the concerns. According to a statistical figures of 2001, the proportion of poor and elderly people in this district is 22.6% and 15.5% respectively. Besides, the number of poor people living in this district is 124,803, the highest in Hong Kong; the district consists of the following areas: Kwun Tong Ngau Tau Kok Kowloon Bay Sau Mau Ping Lam Tin Yau Tong and Lei Yue Mun Kwun Tong District is one of the industrial areas in Hong Kong. The factories had been built since the 1950s; these industrial areas are located in Kowloon Bay, Kwun Tong, Yau Tong. Since the importance of manufacturing in Hong Kong is fading out, many factories have been demolished and commercial buildings are being constructed to replace them.
Opened in Hong Kong in April 2005, APM Millennium City 5 is a commercial property developed by Sun Hung Kai Properties. Together with Millennium Cities 1, 2, 3, 6, they are commercial properties situated along Kwun Tong Road. Apm Millennium City 5 is next to the Kwun Tong MTR Station. There is a 7-storey shopping arcade with an array of restaurants, clothing stores, cosmetics shops, a cineplex, it contains a bus terminus and parking facilities. It is the largest mall in the district, caters for the habits of the community by having extended operating hours, its name'apm' implies that visitors are welcome during night. In fact, many shops inside the mall are open overnight; some retail shops close at 12 midnight, restaurants close at 2am. There are stores that operate 24 hours; the residential areas in Kwun Tong are located in Ngau Tau Kok, upper Kwun Tong Central, Sau Mau Ping and Lam Tin. Around 54% of the population of the Kwun Tong District live in public housing estates, 13% in the Home Ownership Scheme estates, 4% in the Private Sector Participation Scheme estates, the rest in private housing.
With the redevelopment schemes of housing estates being completed successively in recent years, many older estates have been replaced by new ones, this scenario gives a fresh look to the amenities of the District. The supply and demand of medical and health services in Kwun Tong are all stringent, the accident and emergency services are provided by the United Christian Hospital, the only hospital in the District equipped with casualty facilities. In the event of accidents and disasters, the injured have to be sent there for emergency medical treatment. In addition, various health services are provided by the Department of Health in the District, including an elderly health centre, a woman health centre, a chest clinic, a child assessment centre, a dermatological clinic, a dental out-patient clinic, a school dental clinic, a social hygiene clinic, two maternal and child health care centres, two methadone clinics and three student health service centres/special assessment centres. There are nine community centres under the District Office, they are distributed over the 8 sub-districts of the Kwun Tong District.
The oldest one is the Kwun Tong Community Centre, 34 years old, while the newest one is the Sai Tso Wan Neighbourhood Community Centre. The construction of the Centre, completed in 1993, is the ancillary requirement that Laguna City developer has to fulfil for property development therein. Kwun Tong is served by the Tseung Kwan O Line of the MTR metro system. Major roads that serves the area include: Kwun Tong Road Kwun Tong Bypass Tseung Kwan O Tunnel Eastern Harbour Crossing MTR Kwun Tong Line: Yau Tong, Lam Tin, Kwun Tong, Ngau Tau Kok, Kowloon Bay, Choi Hung Tseung Kwan O Line: Yau Tong bus KMB: 1A, 2A, 3D, 6D, 9, 11B, 11C, 11D, 11X, 13D, 13M, 13X, 14, 14B, 14X, 15, 15A, 15X, 16, 16M, 17, 23, 23M, 24, 26, 26M, 27, 28, 29M, 38, 40, 42, 42C, 62X, 74A, 74X, 80, 80X, 83X, 89, 89B, 89C, 89D, 89X, 91, 91M, 92, 93A, 93K, 95, 95M, 98A, 98C, 98D, 215X, 216M, 219X, 224X, 258D, 259D, 268C, 269C, 277X, 296A, 296C, 296D, 297, N216 NWFB: 796S, 796X, N796 CityBus: A22, E22, E22A, N26, N29 Harbour-crossing routes: 101/R, 107, 111, 601/P, 603/S/P, 606/A/X, 619/P, 671, 690/P, 692P, 694, N619, N691 Minibus / Public Light Bus Green Minibus to-and-fro Kowloon: 16, 16A, 16B, 22M, 23, 23B, 23C, 23M, 24, 34M, 35, 36A, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51M, 54, 54S, 56, 59, 60, 63, 63M, 68, 69, 71A, 71B, 76A, 76B to-and-fro New Territories: 10M, 12, 13, 17, 18, 102, 102B, 103, 104, 106, 108M, 110, 111 Red Minibus There are about 28 routes, some travel throughout the district, while others goes to-and-fro Mong Kok, Castle Peak Road, Jordan Road, Hung Hom etc.
Ferry: Kwun Tong Pier Fortune Ferry operates a regular service between Kwun Tong and North Point. Coral Sea Ferry operates a regular service between Kwun Tong and Sai Wan Ho. only full-day operated routes are listed above. Mr Steve Tse, JP Mr. Chung-bun Chan, Bunny, GBS, JP In the same constituency with Wong Tai Sin District as "Kowloon East", effective from October 2004: Mr. Kam-lam Chan Mr. Kwok-kin Wong Mr. Alan Kah Kit Leong Mr. Fred Wah-Ming Li List of buildings and areas in Hong Kong Kwun Tong District Council List and map of electoral constituencies
Rubia cordifolia known as common madder or Indian madder, is a species of flowering plant in the coffee family, Rubiaceae. It has been cultivated for a red pigment derived from roots. Common names of this plant include manjistha in Sanskrit, Marathi and Bengali, majith in Hindi and Gujarati, བཙོད་ in Tibetan, tamaralli in Telugu, manditti in Tamil, it can grow to 1.5 m in height. The evergreen leaves are 5–10 cm long and 2–3 cm broad, produced in whorls of 4-7 starlike around the central stem, it stems. The flowers are small, with five pale yellow petals, in dense racemes, appear from June to August, followed by small red to black berries; the roots can be over 1 m up to 12 mm thick. It prefers loamy soils with a constant level of moisture. Madders are used as food plants for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Hummingbird hawk moth. Rubia cordifolia was an economically important source of a red pigment in many regions of Asia and Africa, it was extensively cultivated from antiquity until the mid nineteenth century.
The plant's roots contain an organic compound called Alizarin, that gives its red colour to a textile dye known as Rose madder. It was used as a colourant for paint, referred to as Madder lake; the substance was derived other species. The invention of a synthesized duplicate, an anthracene compound called alizarin reduced demand for the natural derivative; the roots of Rubia cordifolia are the source of a medicine used in Ayurveda. It is known as btsod in Traditional Tibetan Medicine. In Traditional Chinese Medicine it is known as qiàn cǎo gēn; the following properties were described in various cellular and animal models: anti-inflammatory urolithiasis immunomodulatory 7 Joharapurkar A. A. ZAMBAD, S. P. WANJARI, M. M. UMATHE, S. N. "IN VIVO EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF RUBIA CORDIFOLIA LINN. AND ITS INFLUENCE ON ETHANOL-INDUCED IMMUNOSUPPRESSION" "Indian Journal of Pharmacology" 2003. Ayurveda: The Divine Science of Life. Elsevier/Mosby. ISBN 0-7234-3410-7. Contains a detailed monograph on Rubia cordifolia as well as a discussion of health benefits and usage in clinical practice.
Available online at http://www.toddcaldecott.com/index.php/herbs/learning-herbs/306-manjishta