East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh. Its land borders were with a coastline on the Bay of Bengal. East Pakistan was renamed from East Bengal by the One Unit scheme of Prime Minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra; the Constitution of Pakistan of 1956 replaced the British monarchy with an Islamic republic. Bengali politician H. S. Suhrawardy served as the Prime Minister of Pakistan between 1956 and 1957 and a Bengali bureaucrat Iskandar Mirza became the first President of Pakistan; the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état brought general Ayub Khan to power. Khan launched a crackdown against pro-democracy leaders. Khan enacted the Constitution of Pakistan of 1962. By 1966, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman emerged as the preeminent opposition leader in Pakistan and launched the six point movement for autonomy and democracy; the 1969 uprising in East Pakistan contributed to Ayub Khan's overthrow. Another general, Yahya Khan, enacted martial law.
In 1970, Yahya Khan organized Pakistan's first federal general election. The Awami League emerged as the single largest party, followed by the Pakistan Peoples Party; the military junta stalled in accepting the results, leading to civil disobedience, the Bangladesh Liberation War and the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. East Pakistan seceded with the help of India; the East Pakistan Provincial Assembly was the legislative body of the territory. Due to the strategic importance of East Pakistan, the Pakistani union was a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization; the economy of East Pakistan grew at an average of 2.6% between 1960 and 1965. The federal government invested more funds and foreign aid in West Pakistan though East Pakistan generated a major share of exports. However, President Ayub Khan did implement significant industrialization in East Pakistan; the Kaptai Dam was built in 1965. The Eastern Refinery was established in Chittagong. Dacca was declared as the second capital of Pakistan and planned as the home of the national parliament.
The government recruited American architect Louis Kahn to design the national assembly complex in Dacca. In 1955, Prime Minister Mohammad Ali Bogra implemented the One Unit scheme which merged the four western provinces into a single unit called West Pakistan while East Bengal was renamed as East Pakistan. Pakistan ended its dominion status and adopted a republican constitution in 1956, which proclaimed an Islamic republic; the populist leader H. S. Suhrawardy of East Pakistan was appointed prime minister of Pakistan; as soon as he became the prime minister, Suhrawardy initiated a legal work reviving the joint electorate system. There was a strong resentment to the joint electorate system in West Pakistan; the Muslim League had taken the cause to the public and began calling for implementation of separate electorate system. In contrast to West Pakistan, the joint electorate was popular in East Pakistan; the tug of war with the Muslim League to establish the appropriate electorate caused problems for his government.
The constitutionally obliged National Finance Commission Program was suspended by Prime Minister Suhrawardy despite the reserves of the four provinces of the West Pakistan in 1956. Suhrawardy advocated for the USSR-based Five-Year Plans to centralize the national economy. In this view, the East Pakistan's economy was centralized and all major economic planning shifted to West Pakistan. Efforts leading to centralizing the economy was met with great resistance in West Pakistan when the elite monopolist and the business community angrily refused to oblige to his policies; the business community in Karachi began its political struggle to undermine any attempts of financial distribution of the US$10 million ICA aid to the better part of the East Pakistan and to set up a consolidated national shipping corporation. In the financial cities of West Pakistan, such as Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar, there were series of major labour strikes against the economic policies of Suhrawardy supported by the elite business community and the private sector.
Furthermore, in order to divert attention from the controversial One Unit Program, Prime Minister Suhrawardy tried to end the crises by calling a small group of investors to set up small business in the country. Despite many initiatives and holding off the NFC Award Program, Suhrawardy's political position and image deteriorated in the four provinces in West Pakistan. Many nationalist leaders and activists of the Muslim League were dismayed with the suspension of the constitutionally obliged NFC Program, his critics and Muslim League leaders observed that with the suspension of NFC Award Program, Suhrawardy tried to give more financial allocations, aids and opportunity to East-Pakistan than West Pakistan, including West Pakistan's four provinces. During the last days of his Prime ministerial years, Suhrawardy tried to remove the economic disparity between the Eastern and Western wings of the country but to no avail, he tried unsuccessfully to alleviate the food shortage in the country. Suhrawardy strengthened relations with the United States by reinforcing Pakistani membership in the Central Treaty Organization and Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.
Suhrawardy promoted relations with the People’s Republic of China. His contribution in formulating the 1956 constitution of Pakistan was substantial as he played a vital role in incorporating provisions for civil liberties and universal adult franchise in line with his adherence to parliamentary form of liberal democracy. In 1958, President Iskandar Mirza enacted martial law as part of a military coup by the Pakistan Army's chief Ayub Khan. Af
Prabir Mitra is a Bangladeshi film actor. He won Bangladesh National Film Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in the film Boro Bhalo Lok Chhilo in 1982. Mitra grew up in Dhaka. Mitra started his acting career with the theatre group Lalkuthi. Mitra was married to Ajanta Mitra. Nekabborer Mohaproyan Shankhachil Prabir Mitra on IMDb
25th Bangladesh National Film Awards
The 25th Bangladesh National Film Awards, presented by Ministry of Information, Bangladesh to felicitate the best of Bangladeshi Cinema released in the year 2000. The National Film Awards are the only film awards given by the government itself; every year, a national panel appointed by the government selects the winning entry, the award ceremony is held in Dhaka. The ceremony took place at Osmany Memorial Hall and awards were distributed by former Prime Minister Khaleda Zia. Additionally, Information Minister Tariqul Islam attended the function as the special guest at that evening. A 12-member jury board headed by former secretary A H Mofazzal Karim recommended a total of 16 artists to be awarded for 2000. No awards were given in Best Music Director, Best Lyrics categories in 2000. Bachsas Awards Meril Prothom Alo Awards Ifad Film Club Award Babisas Award
Mukh O Mukhosh
Mukh O Mukhosh was the first Bengali language feature film to be made in East Pakistan. It was directed by Abdul Jabbar Khan; the movie was released in East Pakistan on 3 August 1956. It was released in Dhaka, Chittagong and Khulna; the movie was a great success as viewers thronged to watch the first movie to be made in the region. It earned a total of Rs. 48,000 during its initial run. The story of the movie was based on Dakaat. Khan started working on the movie in 1953. At that time, the film industry in erstwhile East Pakistan was non-existent, local film theatres screened movies from Kolkata, or Lahore. Jabbar Khan was incensed by the remarks of a Calcutta movie producer, F. Dossani, who claimed the local climate was not suitable for movie production. Khan worked on the movie for two years. Local actors, who had no prior experience of acting in films, performed in the movie for free. In the absence of any local film production studios, the negatives of the film had to be taken to Lahore for development.
Playback singers for the two songs in the film were Abdul Alim and Mahbuba Rahman, wife of Khan Ataur Rahman and Abul Khair. However, the song by Abdul Alim is lost, as the film of that part of the movie has deteriorated completely. Mahbuba sang the other song in the movie - Moner Boney Dola Laage Hashlo Dokhin Hawa. All song lyrics in this movie were written by M. A. Gafur and the music was composed by Samar Das. Inam Ahmed Ali Mansoor Zahrat Ara Abdul Jabbar Khan Kazi Khaliq Purnima Sengupta Saifuddin Ahmed Golam Mostafa Abul Khair Mukh O Mukhosh on IMDb
Bangladesh the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a sovereign country in South Asia. It shares land borders with Myanmar; the country's maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is equal to the size of its land area. Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous country as well as its most densely-populated, to the exclusion of small island nations and city-states. Dhaka is largest city, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port. Bangladesh forms the largest and easternmost part of the Bengal region. Bangladeshis include people from a range of ethnic religions. Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population; the politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's third largest Muslim-majority country. Islam is the official religion of Bangladesh. Most of Bangladesh is covered by the largest delta on Earth; the country has 8,046 km of inland waterways. Highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country.
Bangladesh has a coral reef. The longest unbroken natural sea beach of the world, Cox's Bazar Beach, is located in the southeast, it is home to the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including endangered Bengal tigers, the national animal; the Greeks and Romans identified the region as Gangaridai, a powerful kingdom of the historical Indian subcontinent, in the 3rd century BCE. Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which enjoyed international trade links for millennia; the Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Bengal transformed the region into a cosmopolitan Islamic imperial power between the 14th and 18th centuries. The region was home to many principalities; as the Mughal Empire's wealthiest province, Bangladesh as part of the Bengal Subah was worth 12% of the world's GDP, larger than the entirety of western Europe. It was a notable center of the global muslin and silk trade.
As part of British India, the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance and played an important role in anti-colonial movements. The Partition of British India made East Bengal a part of the Dominion of Pakistan; the region witnessed the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. After independence was achieved, a parliamentary republic was established. A presidential government was in place between 1975 and 1990, followed by a return to parliamentary democracy; the country continues to face challenges in the areas of poverty, education and corruption. Bangladesh is a developing nation. Listed as one of the Next Eleven, its economy ranks 43rd in terms of nominal gross domestic product and 29th in terms of purchasing power parity, it is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. Its major trading partners are the European Union, the United States, India, Japan and Singapore. With its strategically vital location between South and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is an important promoter of regional connectivity and cooperation.
It is a founding member of SAARC, BIMSTEC, the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation and the Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Initiative. It is a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Commonwealth of Nations, the Developing 8 Countries, the OIC, the Indian-Ocean Rim Association, the Non Aligned Movement, the Group of 77 and the World Trade Organization. Bangladesh is one of the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping forces; the etymology of Bangladesh can be traced to the early 20th century, when Bengali patriotic songs, such as Namo Namo Namo Bangladesh Momo by Kazi Nazrul Islam and Aaji Bangladesher Hridoy by Rabindranath Tagore, used the term. The term Bangladesh was written as two words, Bangla Desh, in the past. Starting in the 1950s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan; the term Bangla is a major name for both the Bengali language. The earliest known usage of the term is the Nesari plate in 805 AD; the term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records.
The term gained official status during the Sultanate of Bengal in the 14th century. Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as the first "Shah of Bangala" in 1342; the word Bangla became the most common name for the region during the Islamic period. The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the 16th century; the origins of the term Bangla are unclear, with theories pointing to a Bronze Age proto-Dravidian tribe, the Austric word "Bonga", the Iron Age Vanga Kingdom. The Indo-Aryan suffix Desh is derived from the Sanskrit word deśha, which means "land" or "country". Hence, the name Bangladesh means "Land of Bengal" or "Country of Bengal". Stone Age tools found in Bangladesh indicate human habitation for over 20,000 years, remnants of Copper Age settlements date back 4,000 years. Ancient Bengal was settled by Austroasiatics, Tibeto-Burmans and Indo-Aryans in consecutive waves of migration. Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region.
By the 11th century people lived in systemically-aligned housing, buried their dead, manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery. The Ganges and Meghna rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation, estuaries on the Bay of Bengal permit
Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal
Golam Mustafa was a Bangladeshi actor. Mustafa first acted in a play named Pallimangal in Barisal in 1945. Ekushey Padak. National Film Award Bangladesh Film Journalist Association Award Golam Mustafa on IMDb