National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
A lever is a simple machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum. A lever is a rigid body capable of rotating on a point on itself. On the basis of the location of fulcrum and effort, the lever is divided into three types, it is one of the six simple machines identified by Renaissance scientists. A lever amplifies an input force to provide a greater output force, said to provide leverage; the ratio of the output force to the input force is the mechanical advantage of the lever. The word "lever" entered English about 1300 from Old French; this sprang from the stem of the verb lever, meaning "to raise". The verb, in turn, goes back to the Latin levare, itself from the adjective levis, meaning "light"; the word's primary origin is the Proto-Indo-European stem legwh-, meaning "light", "easy" or "nimble", among other things. The PIE stem gave rise to the English word "light"; the earliest remaining writings regarding levers date from the 3rd century BCE and were provided by Archimedes.'Give me a lever long enough and a fulcrum on which to place it, I shall move the world.'
It is assumed that in ancient Egypt, workmen used the lever to move and uplift obelisks weighing more than 100 tons. A lever is a beam connected to ground by a pivot, called a fulcrum; the ideal lever does not dissipate or store energy, which means there is no friction in the hinge or bending in the beam. In this case, the power into the lever equals the power out, the ratio of output to input force is given by the ratio of the distances from the fulcrum to the points of application of these forces; this is known as the law of the lever. The mechanical advantage of a lever can be determined by considering the balance of moments or torque, T, about the fulcrum. T 1 = F 1 a, T 2 = F 2 b where F1 is the input force to the lever and F2 is the output force; the distances a and b are the perpendicular distances between the fulcrum. Since the moments of torque must be balanced, T 1 = T 2. So, F 1 a = F 2 b; the mechanical advantage of the lever is the ratio of output force to input force, M A = F 2 F 1 = a b.
This relationship shows that the mechanical advantage can be computed from ratio of the distances from the fulcrum to where the input and output forces are applied to the lever, assuming no losses due to friction, flexibility or wear. This remains true though the horizontal distance of both a and b change as the lever changes to any position away from the horizontal. Levers are classified by the relative positions of the fulcrum and resistance, it is common to call the input force the output force the load or the resistance. This allows the identification of three classes of levers by the relative locations of the fulcrum, the resistance and the effort: Class 1: Fulcrum in the middle: the effort is applied on one side of the fulcrum and the resistance on the other side, for example, a seesaw, a crowbar or a pair of scissors. Mechanical advantage may be greater than, less than, or equal to 1. Class 2: Resistance in the middle: the effort is applied on one side of the resistance and the fulcrum is located on the other side, for example, a wheelbarrow, a nutcracker, a bottle opener or the brake pedal of a car.
Load arm is smaller than the effort arm. Mechanical advantage is always greater than 1, it is called force multiplier lever. Class 3: Effort in the middle: the resistance is on one side of the effort and the fulcrum is located on the other side, for example, a pair of tweezers, a hammer, or the jaw; the effort arm is smaller than the load arm. Mechanical advantage is always less than 1, it is called speed multiplier lever. These cases are described by the mnemonic fre 123 where the fulcrum is in the middle for the 1st class lever, the resistance is in the middle for the 2nd class lever, the effort is in the middle for the 3rd class lever; the lever is a movable bar. The lever operates by applying forces at different distances from a pivot. Assuming the lever does not dissipate or store energy, the power into the lever must equal the power out of the lever; as the lever rotates around the fulcrum, points farther from this pivot move faster than points closer to the pivot. Therefore, a force applied to a point farther from the pivot must be less than the force located at a point closer in, because power is the product of force and velocity.
If a and b are distances from the fulcrum to points A and B and the force FA applied to A is the input and the force FB applied at B is the output, the ratio of the velocities of points A and B is given by a/b, so we have the ratio of the output force to the input force, or mechanical advantage, is given by M A = F B F A = a b. This is the law of the lever, proven by Archimedes using geometric reasoning, it shows that if the distance a from the fulcrum to w
The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull, with the thickness of the hull included. Draft determines the minimum depth of water a boat can safely navigate; the draft can be used to determine the weight of the cargo on board by calculating the total displacement of water and using Archimedes' principle. A table made by the shipyard shows the water displacement for each draft; the density of the water and the content of the ship's bunkers has to be taken into account. The related term "trim" is defined as the difference between the forward and aft drafts; the draft aft is measured in the perpendicular of the stern. The draft forward is measured in the perpendicular of the bow; the mean draft is obtained by calculating from the averaging of the stern and bow drafts, with correction for water level variation and value of the position of F with respect to the average perpendicular. The trim of a ship is the difference between the aft draft.
When the aft draft is greater the vessel is deemed to have a negative trim, it has a positive trim when the forward draft is the greater. In such a case it is referred to as being down-by-the-head. In commercial ship operations, the ship will quote the mean draft as the vessel's draft; however in navigational situations, the maximum draft the aft draft, will be known on the bridge and will be shared with the pilot. The draft of a ship can be affected by multiple factors, not considering the rise and fall of the ship by displacement: Variation by trim Variation by list Variation by water level change Allowance of fresh water draft variation by passage from fresh to sea water or vice versa Heat variation in navigating shallow waters Variation as a result of a ship moving in shallow waters, or squat The drafts are measured with a "banded" scale, from bow and to stern, for some ships, the average perpendicular measurement is used; the scale may use metric units. If the English system is used, the bottom of each marking is the draft in feet and markings are 6 inches high.
In metric marking schemes, the bottom of each draft mark is the draft in decimeters and each mark is one decimeter high. Larger ships try to maintain an average water draft when they are light, in order to make a better sea crossing and reduce the effects of the wind. In order to achieve this they use sailing ballasts to stabilize the ship, following the unloading of cargo; the water draft of a large ship has little direct link with its stability because stability depends on the respective positions of the metacenter of the hull and the center of gravity. It is true, that a "light" ship has quite high stability which can lead to implying too much rolling of the ship. A laden ship can have either a strong or weak stability, depending upon the manner by which the ship is loaded; the draft of ships can be increased when the ship is in motion in shallow water, a phenomenon known as squat. Draft is a significant factor limiting navigable waterways for large vessels; this includes many shallow coastal waters and reefs, but some major shipping lanes.
Panamax class ships—the largest ships able to transit the Panama Canal—do have a draft limit but are limited by beam, or sometimes length overall, for fitting into locks. However, ships can be longer and higher in the Suez Canal, the limiting factor for Suezmax ships is draft; some supertankers are able to transit the Suez Canal when unladen or laden, but not when laden. Canals are not the only draft-limited shipping lanes. A Malaccamax ship, is the deepest draft able to transit the busy but shallow Strait of Malacca; the Strait only allows ships to have.4 m more draft than the Suez Canal. Capesize, Ultra Large Crude Carriers and a few Chinamax carriers, are some of the ships that have too deep a draft when laden, for either the Strait of Malacca or the Suez Canal. A small draft allows pleasure boats to navigate through shallower water; this makes it possible for these boats to access smaller ports, to travel along rivers and to'beach' the boat. A large draft ensures a good level of stability in strong wind.
For example: Ballasts placed low in the keel of a boat such as a dragon boat with a draft of 1.20 m for a length of 8.90 m. A boat like a catamaran can mitigate the problem by retrieving good stability in a small draft, but the width of the boat increases. For submarines, which can submerge to different depths at sea, a term called keel depth is used, specifying the current distance from the water surface to the bottom of the submarine's keel, it is used in navigation to avoid underwater obstacles and hitting the ocean floor, as a standard point on the submarine for depth measurements. Submarines also have a specified draft used while operating on the surface, for navigating in harbors and at docks. Air draft Hull Naval architecture Waterline Hayler, William B.. American Merchant Seaman's Manual. Cornell Maritime Prress. ISBN 0-87033-549-9. Turpin, Edward A.. Merchant Marine Officers' Handbook. Centreville, MD: Cornell Maritime Press. ISBN 0-87033-056-X
A canting keel is a form of sailing ballast, suspended from a rigid canting strut beneath the boat, which can be swung to windward of a boat under sail, in order to counteract the heeling force of the sail. The canting keel must be able to starboard, depending on the current tack; the traditional yacht keel performs four functions: the development of lateral water force to resist lateral aerodynamic force from sails and superstructure, the physical housing of ballast load as low as possible, roll-damping to resist energy inputs from waves and disturbed water, a contribution to directional stability. The traditional fin keel, pointing straight down from the boat, provides no righting moment when the boat is level; the heeling force of the wind on the sails is therefore not counteracted until the boat has heeled over by a certain amount, moving the fixed keel to windward of the centerline. The purpose of the canting keel is to allow the boat to sail closer to level which generates maximum speed, by swinging the keel to windward and developing an adequate righting moment to keep the boat's angle of heel closer to level.
With the canting keel handling the ballast functions, lateral resistance and steering can be managed separately with a foil, such as daggerboards. This allows for much quicker maneuverability than traditional keelboats, with about half the weight required for ballast; the earliest version of canting keel was aboard the Jim Young designed Fiery Cross and was called a "pendulum keel" at the time. Fiery Cross was launched in 1959 predating other canting keel mechanisms by many decades. First patented 27-2-1981 by NSW business man Mr Arthur S Walker patent number 67911. A version of the technology was patented by CBTF Technology in the 1990s; the canting keel's first use was in an offshore race was the 1991 Mini Transat on number 29 Fouesnant la Foret and in the Vendee Globe of 1996-7 which Pete Goss completed in a 50 ft, Adrian Thompson-designed yacht named Aqua Quorum. Development of the yacht and the events of the Race are described in detail in Pete's subsequent book Close to the Wind. Subsequent use in major competition was in September 2004, when five boats using the canting keel in the Maxi Yacht Rolex Cup placed ahead of the unbeaten world champion Alfa Romeo.
Alfa Romeo II, designed by Reichel/Pugh features fore-and-aft twin foils. A variation of the canting keel is the 3d keel invented by François Lucas in 1998, which allows movement in three directions. Used in large maxi yachts such as the maxZ86, canting keels are now beginning to appear in smaller boats such as the Open 60, the VO70 and Volvo Ocean 65 ocean racing classes, the smaller Schock 40 and Classe Mini; the Schock 40 owned by Tom Schock famously lost its keel and capsized, illustrating the fundamental problem with complicated keel design: without a keel, most boats cannot float upright. The Volvo Open 70 class boats in the 2006 around-the-world Volvo Ocean Race are the most well known boats to use canting keels for ballast. While previous years' boats showed a few percent improvement in speed each race the VO70 class are showing a 30% improvement in speed; the 6.5 ton ballast bulb, hanging over 16 feet below the water and capable of canting up to 40 degrees, produces a tremendous amount of righting moment, allowing the boat to reach speeds of over 30 knots.
The current canting keel technology is far from perfect. At least three of the seven boats in the 2006 Volvo Ocean Race, one of the first major long term races allowing canting keels, had problems with the keels. One area in particular, the plates sealing the opening through which the keel passes, are prone to leaks. Unlike a centerboard or daggerboard trunk, the opening for a canting keel must allow significant lateral motion, which requires sliding seals; the boat movistar had problems on Leg 4 of the Volvo Ocean Race, 200 miles off Cape Horn, during the night on 2 March 2006. It sprung a significant leak when the sliding plates that covered the keel opening fell off in the middle of the night; this was a problem. Movistar's aft keel pivot began flooding the boat, they made repairs in Ushuaia on the Beagle Channel. On, in Leg 7 the same problem occurred in the north Atlantic; this time the decision was made to abandon ship, the crew transferred to ABN AMRO TWO. movistar continued to broadcast its position for several days, but an aerial search failed to find the vessel, it was lost.
In the 2006/2007 VELUX 5 Oceans Race, the Open 60 yacht Hugo Boss, skippered by Alex Thomson, had to be abandoned in the Southern Ocean due to the snapping of the hydraulic rams that controlled the keel, which caused the catastrophic failure of the keel. When this failure caused the yacht to nearly capsize, the boat was abandoned. On 25 November 2006, the boat's Sat C transponder stopped transmitting; the abandoned hull was found washed up on the shores of Patagonia 9 years later. In December 2016, Wild Oats XI has retired from the 72nd Sydney to Hobart yacht race, citing a broken hydraulic ram. Race spokesman Bruce Montgomery said Wild Oats XI was unable to move its keel after a hydraulic ram broke. "It's the gear that operates its canting keel, the keel that swings under the boat," he said. There were rumors that the 2007 International America's Cup Class yacht Alinghi might have had a canting keel; this would have given Alinghi an advantage over its c
In sailing, the trapeze is a wire that comes from a point high on the mast where the shrouds are fixed, to a hook on the crew member's harness at waist level. The position when extended on the trapeze is outside the hull, braced against it with the soles of the feet, facing the masthead, clipped on by a hook on the trapeze harness; this gives the crew member more leverage to keep the boat flat by allowing the crew member's centre of gravity to balance the force of the wind in the sails. An additional benefit is the ability to "walk" along the gunwale to balance the boat's trim fore and aft; this is necessary to prevent racing catamarans such as the Tornado from digging the bow into the water called pitchpoling, causing a nosedive and a spectacular capsize. Boats may have only one trapeze, such as the 420. Boats, such as the 49er, may have trapeze wires for the crew. Trapeze has several colloquial names such as "the wire" or "the trap"; when a boat loses power in its sails, heels to the windward side, the crew on the trapeze may get dipped in the water if they do not react in time.
Some classes allow footloops on the gunwale to allow those on the trapeze to locate their feet with relative security. This helps to prevent the crew from swinging forward, sometimes round the forestay when the boat decelerates suddenly. Due to safety concerns, the International Sailing Federation changed the rules in 2004 concerning trapeze harnesses, effective January 1, 2009: "40.2 A trapeze or hiking harness shall have a device capable of releasing the competitor from the boat at all times while in use.” However, the ISAF 2009–2013 Racing Rules of Sailing which took effect January 1, 2009 does not include this provision, so this rule change is postponed. Quick release harnesses are widely in use, make it possible for sailors to unhook themselves from the wire from all angles while it is under tension, thus decreasing the chance of getting trapped underwater or in dangerous conditions; the adoption of quick release harnesses has not been universal due to the reduced reliability of the moving parts.
There are counterclaims for the origin of the device: The trapeze was developed at Upper Thames Sailing Club, at Bourne End on the River Thames in the United Kingdom on the Thames A Class Rater "Vagabond", owned by Beecher Moore. When deployed there for the first time it was called a "Bell Rope". In 1938 Austin Farrar started his association with the International 14 foot class and a lifelong friendship with Charles Currey. Together they worked on the development of the trapeze, now so common on racing dinghies, used so by Sir Peter Scott and John Kift Winter during the championships of that year. In 1938 a revolution in dinghy sailing took place in Falmouth. Sailors John Kift Winter and Sir Peter Scott had invented the first trapeze for use on their International 14, Thunder and Lightning; the duo used their new invention in the 1938 Prince of Wales Cup race in Falmouth and steamed over the finish line ahead of the rest of the fleet. The Royal Yachting Association Dinghy Committee banned the trapeze over concerns that it was unsporting.
It was reintroduced for the Flying Dutchman class 15 years but was not used again on an International 14 until 1970. Hiking
A trailer is an unpowered vehicle towed by a powered vehicle. It is used for the transport of goods and materials. Sometimes recreational vehicles, travel trailers, or mobile homes with limited living facilities where people can camp or stay have been referred to as trailers. In earlier days, many such vehicles were towable trailers. In the United States, the term is sometimes used interchangeably with travel trailer and mobile home, varieties of trailers and manufactured housing designed for human habitation, their origins lay in utility trailers built in a similar fashion to horse-drawn wagons. A trailer park is an area. In the United States trailers ranging in size from single-axle dollies to 6-axle, 13-foot-6-inch high, 53-foot long semi-trailers are commonplace; the latter, when towed as part of a tractor-trailer or "18-wheeler", carries a large percentage of the freight that travels over land in North America. Some trailers are made for personal use with any powered vehicle having an appropriate hitch, but some trailers are part of large trucks called semi-trailer trucks for transportation of cargo.
Enclosed toy trailers and motorcycle trailers can be towed by accessible pickup truck or van, which require no special permit beyond a regular driver's license. Specialized trailers like open-air motorcycle trailers, bicycle trailers are much smaller, accessible to small automobiles, as are some simple trailers, pulled by a drawbar and riding on a single set of axles. Other trailers, such as utility trailers and travel trailers or campers come in single and multiple axle varieties, to allow for varying sizes of tow vehicles. There exist specialized trailers, such as genset trailers, pusher trailers and their ilk that are used to power the towing vehicle. Others are custom-built to hold entire kitchens and other specialized equipment used by carnival vendors. There are trailers for hauling boats. Popular campers use lightweight trailers, aerodynamic trailers that can be towed by a small car, such as the BMW Air Camper, they are built to be lower than the tow vehicle. Others range from two-axle campers that can be pulled by most mid-sized pickups to trailers that are as long as the host country's law allows for drivers without special permits.
Larger campers tend to be integrated recreational vehicles, which are used to tow single-axle dolly trailers to allow the users to bring small cars on their travels. A semi-trailer is a trailer without a front axle. A large proportion of its weight is supported either by a road tractor or by a detachable front axle assembly known as a dolly. A semi-trailer is equipped with legs, called "landing gear", which can be lowered to support it when it is uncoupled. In the United States, a single trailer cannot exceed a length of 57 ft 0 in on interstate highways, although it is possible to link two smaller trailers together to a maximum length of 63 ft 0 in. Semi-trailers vary in design, ranging from open-topped grain haulers through Tautliners to normal-looking but refrigerated 13 ft 6 in x 53 ft 0 in enclosures. Many semi-trailers are part of semi-trailer trucks. Other types of semi-trailers include dry vans and chassis. Many commercial organizations choose to rent or lease semi-trailer equipment rather than own their own semi-trailers, to free up capital and to keep trailer debt from appearing on their balance sheet.
A full trailer is a term used in the United States for a freight trailer supported by front and rear axles and pulled by a drawbar. In Europe this is known as an A-frame drawbar trailer. A commercial friegt trailer is 102 in wide and 35 or 40 ft long; as per AIS 053, full trailer is a towed vehicle having at least two axles, equipped with a towing device which can move vertically in relation to the trailer and controls the direction of the front axle, but which transmits no significant static load to the towing vehicle. This style of trailer is popular for use with farm tractors. A close-coupled trailer is fitted with a rigid towbar which projects from its front and hooks onto a hook on the tractor, it does not pivot. A motorcycle trailer may be a trailer designed to haul motorcycles behind an truck; such trailers may be open or enclosed, ranging in size from trailers capable of carrying several motorcycles or only one. They may be designed to carry motorcycles, with ramps and tie-downs, or may be a utility trailer adapted permanently or to haul one or more motorcycles.
Another type of motorcycle trailer is a wheeled frame with a hitch system designed for transporting cargo by motorcycle. Motorcycle trailers are narrow and styled to match the appearance of the motorcycle they are intended to be towed behind. There are single-wheeled versions. Single-wheeled trailers, such as the Unigo or Pav 40/41, are designed to allow the bike to have all the normal flexibility of a motorcycle using a universal joint to enable the trailer to lean and turn with the motorcycle. No motorcycle manufacturer recommends that its motorcycles be used to tow a trailer because it creates additional safety hazards for motorcyclists. There is a number of different styles of trailers used to haul livestock such as horses; the most common is the stock trailer, a trailer, enclosed on the bottom, but has openings at the eye level of the animals to allow ventilation. The horse trailer is a more elaborate form of stock trailer; because horses are hauled for the purpose of competition or work, where
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+