Richard Sainct was a French rally raid motorcycle rider, best known for his three victories on The Paris-Dakar rally in 1999, 2000 and 2003. His other notable achievements include winning the Tunisia Rally twice in 1998 and 1999, he won the FIA Rally Raid World Cup in 2002. He was killed on 29 September 2004 on the fourth stage of the Pharaons Rally in Egypt, Sainct fell and was assisted by the Italian teammate Fabrizio Meoni, who helped him get up and be honest with his condition. To the Tuscan who helped him, Sainct insisted on wanting to leave, he resumed the race, with no apparent problems, stopped at the assistance expected after 211 km of the race. After 270 kilometers of stage Sainct was the victim of a second fall and was found on the ground and devoid of life; the heartbeat seemed absent. In the first fall, Sainct reported some internal injury; the KTM decided to withdraw all its bikes from the race, but the race director, the former Belgian driver Jacky Ickx, decided to continue the race.
Saints won 15 stages in his rally raid participations, the complete results are in the Dakar Historic Book. Biker profile at Parisdakar.it
A megalith is a large stone, used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. The word megalithic describes structures made of such large stones without the use of mortar or concrete, representing periods of prehistory characterised by such constructions. For periods, the word monolith, with an overlapping meaning, is more to be used; the word megalith comes from the Ancient Greek μέγας and λίθος. Megalith denotes one or more rocks hewn in definite shapes for special purposes, it has been used to describe buildings built by people from many parts of the world living in many different periods. The term was first used in reference to Stonehenge by Algernon Herbert in 1849. A variety of large stones are seen as megaliths, with the most known megaliths not being tombs; the construction of these structures took place in the Neolithic period and continued into the Chalcolithic period and the Bronze Age. At a number of sites in eastern Turkey, large ceremonial complexes from the 9th millennium BC have been discovered.
They belong to the incipient phases of animal husbandry. Large circular structures involving carved. Although these structures are the most ancient megalithic structures known so far, it is not clear that any of the European megalithic traditions are derived from them. At Göbekli Tepe, four stone circles have been excavated from an estimated 20; some measure up to 30 metres across. As well as human figures, the stones carry a variety of carved reliefs depicting boars, lions, birds and scorpions. Dolmens and standing stones have been found in large areas of the Middle East starting at the Turkish border in the north of Syria close to Aleppo, southwards down to Yemen, they can be encountered in Lebanon, Iran, Israel and Saudi Arabia. The largest concentration can be found in southern Syria and along the Jordan Rift Valley, however they are being threatened with destruction, they date from the late Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age. Megaliths have been found on Kharg Island and pirazmian in Iran, at Barda Balka in Iraq.
A semicircular arrangement of megaliths was found in Israel at Atlit Yam, a site, now under the sea. It is a early example, dating from the 7th millennium BC; the most concentrated occurrence of dolmens in particular is in a large area on both sides of the Jordan Rift Valley, with greater predominance on the eastern side. They occur first and foremost on the Golan Heights, the Hauran, in Jordan, which has the largest concentration of dolmen in the Middle East. In Saudi Arabia, only few dolmen have been identified so far in the Hejaz, they seem, however, to re-emerge in Yemen in small numbers, thus could indicate a continuous tradition related to those of Somalia and Ethiopia. The standing stone has a ancient tradition in the Middle East, dating back from Mesopotamian times. Although not always'megalithic' in the true sense, they occur throughout the Orient, can reach 5 metres or more in some cases; this phenomenon can be traced through many passages from the Old Testament, such as those related to Jacob, the grandson of Abraham, who poured oil over a stone that he erected after his famous dream in which angels climbed to heaven.
Jacob is described as putting up stones at other occasions, whereas Moses erected twelve pillars symbolizing the tribes of Israel. The tradition of venerating stones continued in Nabatean times and is reflected in, e.g. the Islamic rituals surrounding the Kaaba and nearby pillars. Related phenomena, such as cupholes, rock-cut tombs and circles occur in the Middle East; the most common type of megalithic construction in Europe is the portal tomb – a chamber consisting of upright stones with one or more large flat capstones forming a roof. Many of these, though by no means all, contain human remains, but it is debatable whether use as burial sites was their primary function; the megalithic structures in the northwest of France are believed to be the oldest in Europe based on radiocarbon dating. Though known as dolmens, the term most accepted by archaeologists is portal tomb; however many local names exist, such as anta in Galicia and Portugal, stazzone in Sardinia, hunebed in the Netherlands, Hünengrab in Germany, dysse in Denmark, cromlech in Wales.
It is assumed that most portal tombs were covered by earthen mounds. The second-most-common tomb type is the passage grave, it consists of a square, circular, or cruciform chamber with a slabbed or corbelled roof, accessed by a long, straight passageway, with the whole structure covered by a circular mound of earth. Sometimes it is surrounded by an external stone kerb. Prominent examples include the sites of Brú na Bóinne and Carrowmore in Ireland, Maes Howe in Orkney, Gavrinis in France; the third tomb type is a diverse group known as gallery graves. These are axially arranged chambers placed under elongated mounds; the Irish court tombs, British long barrows, German Steinkisten belong to this group. Another type of megalithic monument, the single standing stone, or menhir as it is known in France, is common throughout Europe, where some 50,000 examples have been noted; some of these are thought to have an astronomical function as a foresight. In some areas and complex alignments of such stones exist, the largest known example being located at Carnac in Brittany, France.
In parts of Britain and Ireland a common type of megalithic construct
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Lucien Galtier was the first Roman Catholic priest who served in Minnesota. He was born in southern France in the town of department of Aveyron; the year of his birth is somewhat uncertain, some sources claiming 1811 but his tomb at Prairie du Chien, WI, bearing the date December 17, 1812. In the 1830s, people were settling across the Minnesota River from Fort Snelling in the area of Mendota, Minnesota. Mathias Loras, bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dubuque, Iowa learned of these settlers and journeyed up the Mississippi River to visit the settlers in the area, he wrote to his sister that "the Catholics of St. Peters amounted to one hundred and eighty five." The bishop saw a need to send a missionary to the area the next year. Galtier spoke little English when he arrived in 1840. Galtier learned that a number of settlers, who had left the Red River Colony, had settled on the east bank of the Mississippi River, he decided that the area with the settlers, in what is now downtown Saint Paul, was a better location for a church.
The location was near a steamboat landing, which had the potential for development. Two French settlers offered a location for a church, other settlers provided materials and labor to build a log chapel. Father Galtier wrote, "I had to this time fixed my residence at Saint Peter's and as the name of Paul is connected with that of Peter... I called it Saint Paul." The area had been known as Pig's Eye, in association with pioneer Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant. The name of "Pig's Eye" came about by accident when a customer at Parrant's tavern mailed a letter with the return address of "Pig's Eye". Since everyone in the area knew Parrant, the response to the letter was delivered to Parrant's establishment; the area became known as Saint Paul's Landing, a few years after a post office was established in 1846 became Saint Paul. Jean Baptiste Faribault gave Galtier a small log house in Mendota. Galtier used the rest of it as a chapel. In 1842, following the collapse of the house, the settlers at Mendota built a more permanent chapel.
The church, now known as Saint Peter's Church, is the oldest Catholic church in Minnesota. Much of the material were donated by Catholic men that Galtier had visited in logging camps on the Chippewa River. Galtier discovered that many of the Indians in the area were good singers, so he taught them to sing several songs, translated into the Sioux language. Galtier conducted missionary trips to Chippewa Falls, Hudson, Wisconsin, St. Croix Falls, the new church in St. Paul, traveled as far south as Lake Pepin. In 1840, Galtier became ill as a result of "bilious fever" and the hard work necessary to minister in a frontier area, he was treated in the military hospital at Fort Snelling. In May 1844, Bishop Loras transferred him to Keokuk, where he remained only for a few months, long enough to build the first Catholic church in that location. Galtier returned to Dubuque and subsequently traveled back to France without his bishop's permission, intending to quit the Dubuque Diocese for good due to his disagreements with Mathias Loras.
Following an absence of two years from America, Galtier joined the Diocese of Milwaukee in 1847 and served at St. Gabriel's Parish in Prairie du Chien, where he remained until his death in 1866; the white marble tomb of the priest can be seen in front of St. Gabriel's Church. Cray Plaza in downtown Saint Paul was named after him, as is the Galtier Society, a faith formation and service organization within the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis. Luban, Lucien Galtier-Pioneer Priest, Second Edition, Pacific Moon Publications, 2011. Lucien Galtier at Find a Grave
Maurice Boitel was a French painter. Boitel belonged to the art movement called "La Jeune Peinture" of the School of Paris, with painters like Bernard Buffet, Yves Brayer, Jean Carzou, Louis Vuillermoz, Pierre-Henry, Daniel du Janerand, Gaston Sébire, Paul Collomb, Jean Monneret, Jean Joyet and Gaëtan de Rosnay, he was born in Tillières-sur-Avre, Eure département, in Normandy, from a Picard lawyer father, a member of the Saint Francis third order, from a Parisian mother, of Burgundian ancestry. Until the age of twelve Maurice Boitel lived in Burgundy at Gevrey-Chambertin. In this beautiful province his art reflected his major love of nature, the feeling of joie de vivre expressed in his works, he began drawing at the age of five. Boitel studied at the Fine Arts schools of Boulogne-sur-Mer and of Amiens, cities where his parents lived for a few years, his family came back to Burgundy, to Nuits-Saint-Georges. He studied at the Fine Arts Academy of Dijon before fighting in a mountain light infantry platoon at the beginning of World War II.
He sat the competitive examination to enter the National Academy of Fine Arts École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts. In 1942 and 1943, during the most difficult period of the German occupation, in his studio located in the center of Paris he hid Jewish refugees, among them the journalist Henry Jelinek. A great number of his paintings from between 1942 and 1946 were bought by a British collector and are still in London. In 1946, he received the Abd-el-Tif prize which enabled him to remain for two years in Algiers with Marie-Lucie, his wife, his son. On his return from Algeria he exhibited in Paris in the exhibitions of the Young Painters, Jeune Peinture, Independent Artists, Société des Artistes Indépendants, the Salon d'Automne, after, in the Salon du dessin et de la peinture à l'eau, the Société des Artistes Français, Terre Latine, the Salon of the National Society of Fine Arts, Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, with Comparisons, Salon "Comparaisons". In 1949 he presented an individual exhibition of his paintings of Algeria in the Gallery of the Elysée, rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, at that time the center of the European art trade.
In 1951, new individual exhibition in this same gallery. In 1958, he received the Robert Louis Antral award from the Town of Paris, he had an individual exhibition in the Modern Art Museum of the Town of Paris and in the Gallery Rene Drouet, rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, where he presented biennial individual exhibitions during twenty years. In 1959, he won the Newton award. In 1963, the Puvis de Chavannes award, decreed by the National Society of Fine Arts, enabled him to exhibit all of his works at the Museum of Modern art of Paris. In 1966, he received the Francis Smith award. In 1968, he received the French Artists Gold Medal and the Academy of Fine Arts decrees the Bastien Lepage Prize to him. In 1980, the Institute of France gave him the Dumas-Milliers award. Different other awards come to crown his career of painter, among which the Grand-Prix of the General Council of Seine-et-Marne, the Prize Roger Deverin watercolour decided by the Taylor Foundation. Individual exhibitions, in the museums of the following towns: Boulogne-sur-Mer in 1976, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés in 1977, Montbard in 1982, Montreuil-sur-Mer in 1993, enabled him to present in several rooms, of the retrospectives with large tables where appear of the compositions as well as landscapes of France, Spain, the Netherlands, etc.
In 1990, the Salon d'Automne of Paris voted him a homage in three halls of the Grand Palais of Paris. In 1999, President Jean Monneret and the Committee of the Salon des Indépendants of Paris invited him to present a retrospective of his works. In 2003, the members of the National Society of Fine Arts voted the Gold Medal to him. In 2007, the committee of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts created the title of Member of Honour, given to Maurice Boitel, as one of the most famous painters of the Salon, still alive. In 2009, Boitel's paintings were shown in à "Art en capital" in the Grand Palais de Paris: two of Maurice Boitel' works: a watercolor in the Salon du dessin et de la peinture à l'eau, & an oil on canvas representing a factory in Crossas in the hall dedicated to the members of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. In 2010, 26 paintings of Maurice Boitel were shown in the king-count hall of the castle-museum of Boulogne-sur-Mer with six paintings of his friends among whom Bernard Buffet in May.
In 2011, he exhibited in the museum of Nuits-Saint-Georges. He was the guest of honor in several exhibitions of painting like: Rosny-sous-Bois, Wimereux, Villeneuve-le-Roi, Alfortville, Saumur, Limoges, Tours. Amo
A dolmen or cromlech is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table". Most date from the early Neolithic and were sometimes covered with earth or smaller stones to form a tumulus. Small pad-stones may be wedged between supporting stones to achieve a level appearance. In many instances, the covering has weathered away, leaving only the stone "skeleton" of the mound intact, it remains unclear. The oldest known are found in Western Europe. Archaeologists still do not know who erected these dolmens, which makes it difficult to know why they did it, they are all regarded as tombs or burial chambers, despite the absence of clear evidence for this. Human remains, sometimes accompanied by artefacts, have been found in or close to the dolmens which could be scientifically dated using radiocarbon dating. However, it has been impossible to prove that these remains date from the time when the stones were set in place.
The word dolmen has an unclear history. The word entered archaeology when Théophile Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne used it to describe megalithic tombs in his Origines gauloises using the spelling dolmin; the Oxford English Dictionary does not mention "dolmin" in English and gives its first citation for "dolmen" from a book on Brittany in 1859, describing the word as "The French term, used by some English authors, for a cromlech...". The name was derived from a Breton language term meaning "stone table" but doubt has been cast on this, the OED describes its origin as "Modern French". A book on Cornish antiquities from 1754 said that the current term in the Cornish language for a cromlech was tolmen and the OED says that "There is reason to think that this was the term inexactly reproduced by Latour d'Auvergne as dolmen, misapplied by him and succeeding French archaeologists to the cromlech". Nonetheless it has now replaced cromlech as the usual English term in archaeology, when the more technical and descriptive alternatives are not used.
Dolmens are known by a variety of names in other languages, including Irish: dolmain and Portuguese: anta, Bulgarian: Долмени Dolmeni, German: Hünengrab/Hünenbett and Dutch: hunebed, Basque: trikuharri, Abkhazian: Adamra, Adyghe Ispun, dysse, dös, Korean: 고인돌 goindol, "dol", "dolmaengi", Hebrew: גַלעֵד. Granja is used in Portugal and Spain; the rarer forms anta and ganda appear. In the Basque Country, they are attributed to a race of giants; the etymology of the German: Hünenbett, Hünengrab and Dutch: hunebed - with Hüne/hune meaning "giant" - all evoke the image of giants buried there. Of other Celtic languages, Welsh: cromlech was borrowed into English and quoit is used in English in Cornwall. Great dolmen Passage grave Polygonal dolmen Rectangular, enlarged or extended dolmen Simple dolmen Holcombe, Charles. A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51595-5. Piccolo, Salvatore. Ancient Stones: The Prehistoric Dolmens of Sicily.
Thornham/Norfolk: Brazen Head Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9565106-2-4. Murphy, Cornelius; the Prehistoric Archaeology of the Beara Peninsula, Co. Cork. Department of Archaeology, University College Cork, 1997 Trifonov, V. 2006. Russia's megaliths: unearthing the lost prehistoric tombs of Caucasian warlords in the Zhane valley. St. Petersburg: The Institute for Study of Material Culture History, Russian Academy of Sciences. Available from Kudin, M. 2001. Dolmeni i ritual. Dolmen Path – Russian Megaliths. Available from Knight, Peter. Ancient Stones of Dorset, 1996. World heritage site of dolmen in Korea Piccolo, Salvatore. "Dolmen." Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map Dolmen Museum in Italian and English Goindol: Dolmen of Korea Research Centre of Dolmens in Northeast Asia Poulnabrone Dolmen in the Burren, County Clare, Ireland "Dolmen sites in Korea". on UNESCO's World Heritage List. Jersey Heritage Trust Dolmen Pictures by Robert Triest
The Sorgues is a 46.4 km long river in the Aveyron département, southern France. Its source is a karstic spring at Cornus, on the causse du Larzac, it flows west-northwest. It is a right tributary of the Dourdou de Camarès; this list is ordered from source to mouth: Cornus, Marnhagues-et-Latour, Saint-Félix-de-Sorgues, Versols-et-Lapeyre, Saint-Affrique, Vabres-l'Abbaye This article is based on the equivalent article from the French Wikipedia, consulted on 14 April 2009. Http://www.geoportail.fr The Sorgues at the Sandre database