The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere
Saint-Jean-Bonnefonds is a commune in the Loire department in central France. Communes of the Loire department INSEE commune file
Loire is a department in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes occupying the River Loire's upper reaches. Loire was created in 1793 when the Rhône-et-Loire department was split into two, about 3½ years after it was created; this was a response to counter-revolutionary activities in Lyon which, by population, was the country's second largest city. By splitting Rhône-et-Loire the government sought to protect the French Revolution from the potential power and influence of counter revolutionary activity in the Lyon region; the departmental capitals throughout its history are as follows: Feurs 1793–1795 Montbrison 1795–1855 Saint-Étienne since 1855 Loire is part of the current administrative region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and is surrounded by the departments of Rhône, Isère, Ardèche, Haute-Loire, Puy-de-Dôme, Saône-et-Loire. The River Loire traverses the department from south to north; the Loire department is split into three arrondissements: Arrondissement of Montbrison Arrondissement of Roanne Arrondissement of Saint-ÉtienneParts of the department belong to Parc naturel régional Livradois-Forez.
The inhabitants of the department are called Ligériens. The industrial city of Saint-Étienne with its suburbs contains some 290,000 of the area's 728,542 inhabitants. Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Cantons of the Loire department Communes of the Loire department Arrondissements of the Loire department Loire coal mining basin Loire General Council Prefecture website Loire General Council
Rive-de-Gier is a commune in the Loire department in central France. It was an important center of Loire coal mining basin, glass making and iron and steel manufacture in the 19th century. In the late 20th century the town lost most of its heavy industries. Rive de Gier 24 km northeast of Saint Etienne, 39 km southwest of Lyon and 11 km from the town of Saint Chamond. In the Celtic and Roman Gaul eras, the town lay on the boundary between the Segusiavi and the Allobroges; the name of Rive-de-Gier is used for the first time in the 11th century. Renaud de Forez surrounded the town by ditches during the reign of Philip II of France. A hospital is mentioned in 1447. At the end of the 16th century the population was estimated at between 1,700 souls. Between 1562 and 1864 there were clashes between Catholics. King Henry IV of France spent time at Rive-de-Gier. There was a castle and a Romanesque church. During the uprising in Lyon against the National Convention in 1793, thirteen armed people of Lyon were killed by the inhabitants of Rive-de-Gier when they returned through the town after being defeated at Saint-Étienne.
In 1831 a riot of gunsmiths in Saint-Étienne injured several and led to the arrest of 18 people, The same year the miners of Rive-de-Gier, the glass makers, went on strike. The miners went on strike again in 1840 and 1844. In 1848 Jean-Marie Sigward, a glass maker, acclaimed the Republic. Since the Gier is not navigable, a canal to Givors was opened in 1779 to transport coal; this canal, of which only a few remnants have survived, was replaced by the Saint-Étienne–Lyon railway, first passenger railway in France, built in 1828-33. Rive-de-Gier houses what was the first railway tunnel made in France. In 1837, different mining companies in Rive-de-Gier joined forces to create the Compagnie Générale des Mines de Rive-de-Gier to buy the pumps needed for drainage of the underground works; when this company saw its coal reserves were exhausted, it set up in Saint-Étienne in 1840. It was the Compagnie Générale des Mines de la Loire before being absorbed by the powerful Compagnie des Mines de la Loire.
For many years glass production was located near the forests that provided the charcoal needed for combustion. In the 18th century glass works were moved closer to coal mines. In 1749 the glass maker Robichon from Franche-Comté moved to Givors where it used sand from the Rhone as material and coal from Rive-de-Gier as fuel. In 1788 there were two glass factories in Rive-de-Gier making glasses. At the beginning of the 19th century the Robichon company moved to Rive-de-Gier by buying other glass works, introduced the production of flat glass. By 1830 the thirty glass works in the city employed about 1,200 people; the Richarme glass works founded in 1826 in the Egarande neighborhood specialized in the manufacture of bottles. In 1877 Petrus Richarme rebuilt the factory with an area of 7,500 square metres and introduced into France the gas and continuous melting furnaces of Siemens; the company operated until 1958 before being demolished. The last glass factory, located in the district of Couzon, ceased operations in 2006.
It had been founded in 1906 by Emile Hemain before merging with Souchon-Neuvesel in 1958 to join the Boussois-Souchon-Neuvesel group in 1966. In 1837 H. Pétin and J. M. Gaudet and forgers, set up shops at Saint-Chamond and Rive-de-Gier. On 14 November 1854 Pétin et Gaudet merged and combined with four other companies to create the Compagnie des Hauts-fourneaux, forges et aciéries de la Marine et des chemins de fer; the company, which engaged in extracting and selling iron and coal was based in Rive-de-Gier. On 9 November 1871 it became a limited company; the forges of Petin-Gaudet, Lucien Arbel and others were the real economic engines of the city. As a symbol of this time, the chimney of the old Marrel Forges on the site of Châteauneuf, built in 1866 and one of the highest in Europe at 108 metres, was classified a historical monument in 1992. Rive-de-Gier has suffered the brunt of the massive disindustralization of the 1980s and 1990s, with the massive loss of industrial jobs, the closure of the SSFR, the July 2008 closure of the last operating glassworks in the Gier valley.
In 2010, the municipality had 14,996 inhabitants. A significant number of inhabitants work in other communities such as Lyon; every Tuesday and Friday morning a large market is open in the main square, the Place de la Liberation. The market attracts nearly 200 merchants, making it second largest market in the Loire department, both in terms of diversity and quality, it is the largest market in the department to require that market traders remove all their waste at the end of each market Every Saturday morning a market of farmers and artisans takes place on the same site, in the Canal Street extension. Sports clubs are organized in associations; the BCR - Basket Club de Rive de Gier is a men's basketball team. The Gier Country Rugby Club has a men's and a women's rugby team that participates in the Federal Championship of Women's Rugby; the Athletic Club Rive de Gier is a football club. The Chaplin cinema in rue Jules Guesde has a room for art and holds monthly "thematic meetings", combining information and public debate.
The Mediatheque Louis Aragon, near the old canal basin, was destroyed during the flood of 2 November 2008. L'Imprimerie is a dinner theater in a former printing workshop; the Armand Lanoux and Henri Matisse social centres Theatre Couzon Theater Jean Dasté The Vincent d'Indy music school, classified a municipal conservatory, was created in 1969. The jazz festival "RHINO JAZZ" ran for 30 y
Aqueduct of the Gier
The Aqueduct of the Gier is an ancient Roman aqueduct constructed in the 1st century AD to provide water for Lugdunum, in what is now eastern France. It is the longest and best preserved of four Roman aqueducts that served the growing capital of the Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis, it drew its water from the source of the Gier, a small tributary of the Rhone, on the slopes of Mont Pilat, 42 km south-west of Lyon. Following a sinuous path, at 85 km the aqueduct of the Gier is the longest known of the Roman aqueducts, its route has been retraced following the numerous remains. Leaving the uplands of the massif du Pilat, department of the Loire, the aqueduct hugs the surface relief and crosses the department of the Rhone, passing through Mornant, Orliénas and Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon to terminate at Lyon. In its extent, it draws upon the whole repertory of Roman techniques of aqueduct building, taking a slope that averages 0.1%, or a meter every kilometer. There are 73 km of covered ditches laid with a concrete culvert 3 m high and 1.5 m wide, sunk as deep as 4 m beneath the land surface.
The aqueduct passes through 11 tunnels. Access for cleaning and repairs was through manholes at 77 m distances. There are some thirty stretches in the open air. There are ten stretches raised on walls and arches, which provide the most spectacular visible remains of the aqueduct. Four inverted siphon tunnels cross the deep and wide river valleys of the Durèze, the Garon, the Yzeron and the Trion on pipe bridges raised on high arches. In these, water filled a sunken tank tower on the brim of a slope; the tank effected a transition between a lead pipeline. From the castellum water was carried, now pressurized, in a set of airtight lead pipes laid side by side, with soldered joints, down the valley slope, across a bridge spanning the river—whose piers and arches are the most notable remains of the system—and up the facing slope, to a tank lower than the head tank, losing just a little hydraulic head in the process; the inverted siphons obviated the bridging of deep valleys with arcade upon arcade of arches, as at Pont du Gard, which marks the limit of such a system.
The Gier aqueduct was built in a single great campaign, since no part of it could have served until it was completed. The aqueduct of Giers was dated by Germain de Montauzon to the reign of Hadrian in the early 2nd century AD, but, as James Stephen Bromwich points out, its reticulated stonework was characteristic of the 1st century BC and the first half of the 1st century AD, rather than of masonry. In addition he notes that a excavated public fountain on the hill of Fourvières, datable about 50 AD could not have been supplied with water until the Giers aqueduct was complete. In French: ARCHEOLYON: Les Aqueducs Romains de LYON | l' AQUEDUC ROMAIN du GIER - detailed information, including detailed topographic maps of the whole route. Lyon Historique: Tracé de l’aqueduc du Gier sur Google Earth - Google Earth trace of the whole route. French Wikipedia: Aqueduc du Gier Media related to Aqueduct of the Gier at Wikimedia Commons
Saint-Étienne is a city in eastern central France, in the Massif Central, 55 km southwest of Lyon in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, on the trunk road that connects Toulouse with Lyon. Saint-Étienne is the capital of the Loire department and has a population of 172,023 in the city itself and over 508,000 in the metropolitan area. In the last years Saint-Étienne made important transformations for transitioning from a 19th century industrial city to the 21st century "European capital of design"; this approach led to important urban renovations of the main districts of the city. Named after Saint Stephen, the city first appears in the historical record in the Middle Ages as Saint-Étienne de Furan. In the 13th century, it was a small borough around the church dedicated to Saint Etienne. On the upper reaches of the Furan, near the Way of St. James, the Abbey of Valbenoîte had been founded by the cistercians in 1222. In the late 15th century, it was a fortified village defended by walls built around the original nucleus.
From the 16th century, Saint-Étienne developed an arms manufacturing industry and became a market town. It was this which accounted for the town's importance, although it became a centre for the manufacture of ribbons and passementerie starting in the 17th century. During the French revolution, Saint-Étienne was renamed Armeville –'arms town' – because of this activity, it became a mining centre of the Loire coal mining basin, more has become known for its bicycle industry. In the first half of the 19th century, it was only a chief town of an arrondissement in the département of the Loire, with a population of 33,064 in 1832; the concentration of industry prompted these numbers to rise to 110,000 by about 1880. It was this growing importance of Saint-Étienne that led to its being made seat of the prefecture and the departmental administration on 25 July 1855, when it became the chief town in the département and seat of the prefect, replacing Montbrison, reduced to the status of chief town of an arrondissement.
Saint-Étienne absorbed the commune of Valbenoîte and several other neighbouring localities on 31 March 1855. Population of the city at the 1999 census was 180,210. Population of the whole metropolitan area at the 1999 census was 321,703. Inhabitants of Saint-Étienne are called Stéphanois in French, they are named. Saint-Étienne became a popular stop for automobile travelers in the early 20th century. In 1998, Saint-Étienne set up a design biennale – the largest of its kind in France, it lasts around two weeks. A landmark in the history of the importance ascribed to design in Saint-Étienne was the inauguration of La Cité du design on the site of the former arms factory in 2009; the city launched the Massenet Festivals, devoted to perform Massenet's operas. In 2000, the city was named one of the French Lands of Art and History. On 22 November 2010, it was nominated as "City of Design" as part of UNESCO’s Creative Cities Network. Saint-Étienne has four museums: the Musée d'Art Moderne has one of the largest collections of modern and contemporary art in France Musée de la Mine Musée de l'Art et de l'Industrie Musée du vieux Saint-Etienne Saint-Étienne has an anormal type of the oceanic climate, influenced by its relative distance to the sea.
Summer days are warm for a marine climate type, but fall into the range due to the cool nights that keep the mean average temperatures below the subtropical threshold of 22 °C. Winters are cool but very cold, although minor frosts are common. Precipitation levels are low for this type of climate regime during winter, although the wet and humid summers compensate; the city's football club AS Saint-Étienne has won the Ligue 1 title a record ten times, achieving most of their success in the 1970s. British indie-dance band Saint Etienne named themselves after the club. St. Étienne has many sports stadiums, the largest being Stade Geoffroy-Guichard used for football and Stade Henri-Lux for athletics. St. Étienne was the capital of the French bicycle industry. The bicycle wheel manufacturer Mavic is based in the city and frame manufacturers Motobécane and Vitus are based here; the city hosts a stage of the Tour de France. St. Étienne resident Thierry Gueorgiou is a world champion in orienteering. The local rugby union team is CA Saint-Étienne Loire Sud Rugby.
The nearest airport is Saint-Étienne - Bouthéon Airport, located in Andrézieux-Bouthéon, 12 km north-northwest of Saint-Étienne. The main railway station is Gare de Saint-Étienne-Châteaucreux, which offers high speed services to Paris and several regional lines. Saint-Étienne is notable for its tramway – which uniquely with Lille, it kept throughout the 20th century – and its trolleybus system –, one of only three such systems operating in France. Bus and tram transport is regulated and provided by the Société de Transports de l'Agglomération Stéphanoise, a public transport executive organisation; the bicycle sharing system Vélivert with 280 short term renting bicycles has been available since June 2010. Jean Monnet University École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne École nationale d'ingénieurs de Saint-Étienne Telecom Saint Etienne EMLYON Business School ENSASE Saint-Éti