Roland Garros Airport
Roland Garros Airport known as Gillot Airport, is located in Sainte-Marie on Réunion, France. The airport is 7 kilometres east of Saint-Denis. Roland Garros Airport is the hub of Air Austral and served 2,293,042 passengers in 2017. Air Austral has its head office on the airport property; when Air Bourbon existed until 2004, its head office was on the airport property. The airport is at an elevation of 20 m above mean sea level, it has two asphalt paved runways: 12/30 measuring 3,200 by 45 metres and 14/32 measuring 2,670 by 45 metres. See source Wikidata query, it was once planned to construct a Réunion Tram Train to link the airport to the capital Saint-Denis and Saint-Paul, but plans for the construction were abandoned in 2013. Pierrefonds Airport Media related to Roland Garros Airport at Wikimedia Commons Reunion Island Airport Roland Garros Reunion Island Airport Roland Garros Aéroport de La Réunion Roland Garros Accident history for RUN at Aviation Safety Network
Réunion is an overseas department and region of France and an island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and 175 km southwest of Mauritius. As of January 2019, it had a population of 866,506; the island has been inhabited since the 16th century, when people from France and Madagascar settled there. Slavery was abolished on 20 December 1848, when the French Second Republic abolished slavery in the French colonies; however on indentured workers were brought to Réunion from South India, among other places. The island became an overseas department of France in 1946; as in France, the official language is French. In addition, the majority of the region's population speaks Réunion Creole. Administratively, Réunion is one of the overseas departments of France. Like the other four overseas departments, it is one of the 18 regions of France, with the modified status of overseas region, an integral part of the republic with the same status as Metropolitan France. Réunion is an outermost region of the European Union and, as an overseas department of France, part of the Eurozone.
Not much is known of Réunion's history prior to the arrival of the Portuguese in the early 16th century. Arab traders were familiar with it by the name Dina Morgabin; the island is featured on a map from 1153 AD by Al Sharif el-Edrisi. The island might have been visited by Swahili or Austronesian sailors on their journey to the west from the Malay Archipelago to Madagascar; the first European discovery of the area was made around 1507 by Portuguese explorer Diogo Fernandes Pereira, but the specifics are unclear. The uninhabited island might have been first sighted by the expedition led by Dom Pedro Mascarenhas, who gave his name to the island group around Réunion, the Mascarenes. Réunion itself was dubbed Santa Apolónia after a favourite saint, which suggests that the date of the Portuguese discovery could have been 9 February, her saint day. Diogo Lopes de Sequeira is said to have landed on the islands of Réunion and Rodrigues in 1509. By the early 1600s, nominal Portuguese rule had left Santa Apolónia untouched.
The island was occupied by France and administered from Port Louis, Mauritius. Although the first French claims date from 1638, when François Cauche and Salomon Goubert visited in June 1638, the island was claimed by Jacques Pronis of France in 1642, when he deported a dozen French mutineers to the island from Madagascar; the convicts were returned to France several years and in 1649, the island was named Île Bourbon after the French royal House of Bourbon. Colonisation started in 1665. "Île de la Réunion" was the name given to the island in 1793 by a decree of the Convention Nationale with the fall of the House of Bourbon in France, the name commemorates the union of revolutionaries from Marseille with the National Guard in Paris, which took place on 10 August 1792. In 1801, the island was renamed "Île Bonaparte", after First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte. During the Napoleonic Wars, the island was invaded by a Royal Navy squadron led by Commodore Josias Rowley in 1810, who used the old name of "Bourbon".
When it was restored to France by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the island retained the name of "Bourbon" until the fall of the restored Bourbons during the French Revolution of 1848, when the island was once again given the name "Île de la Réunion". From the 17th to 19th centuries, French colonisation, supplemented by importing Africans and Indians as workers, contributed to ethnic diversity in the population. From 1690, most of the non-Europeans were enslaved; the colony abolished slavery on 20 December 1848. Afterwards, many of the foreign workers came as indentured workers; the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 reduced the importance of the island as a stopover on the East Indies trade route. During the Second World War, Réunion was under the authority of the Vichy regime until 30 November 1942, when Free French forces took over the island with the destroyer Léopard. Réunion became a département d'outre-mer of France on 19 March 1946. INSEE assigned to Réunion the department code 974, the region code 04 when regional councils were created in 1982 in France, including in existing overseas departments which became overseas regions.
Over about two decades in the late 20th century, 1,630 children from Réunion were relocated to rural areas of metropolitan France to Creuse, ostensibly for education and work opportunities. That program was led by influential Gaullist politician Michel Debré, an MP for Réunion at the time. Many of these children were disadvantaged by the families with whom they were placed. Known as the Children of Creuse and their fate came to light in 2002 when one of them, Jean-Jacques Martial, filed suit against the French state for kidnapping and deportation of a minor. Other similar lawsuits were filed over the following years, but all were dismissed by French courts and by the European Court of Human Rights in 2011. In 2005 and 2006, Réunion was hit by a crippling epidemic of chikungunya, a disease spread by mosquitoes. According to the BBC News, 255,000 people on Réunion had contracted the disease as of 26 April 2006; the neighbouring islands of Mauritius and Madagascar suffered epidemics of this disease during the same year.
A few cases appeared in mainland France, carried by people travelling by airline. The French government of Dominique de Villepin sent an emergency aid package worth €36 million and deployed about 500 troops in an effort to eradicate mo
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Best Western International, Inc. operator of the Best Western Hotels & Resorts brand, operates over 4,100 hotels and motels worldwide. The chain, with its corporate headquarters in Phoenix, operates more than 2,000 hotels in North America; the brand was founded by M. K. Guertin in 1946. David Kong is the president and CEO of Best Western and Dorothy Dowling is the chief marketing officer. In 1964, Canadian hotel owners joined the system. Best Western expanded to Mexico and New Zealand in 1976. In 2002, Best Western International launched Best Western Premier in Asia. In 2011, the chain's branding system-wide changed to a three-tiered system: Best Western, Best Western Plus, Best Western Premier. Best Western began in the years following World War II. At the time, most hotels were either smaller family owned roadside hotels. In California, a network of independent hotel operators began making referrals of each other to travelers; this "referral system" consisted of phone calls between another. This small and informal network grew into the modern Best Western hotel chain founded by M.
K. Guertin in 1946; the name "Best Western" was a result of most of their properties being in the United States west of the Mississippi River. By 1962, Best Western had the only hospitality reservations service covering the entire United States, in 1963, was the largest motel chain in the industry with 699 member properties and 35,201 rooms. From 1946 to 1964, Best Western had a marketing partnership with Quality Courts, the forerunner of the chain known today as Quality Inns, whose properties were located east of the Mississippi River, not in direct competition with Best Western; this partnership made sense geographically, but was not successful in the long run, was abandoned. In 1964, Best Western launched an expansion effort of its own operations east of the Mississippi using the moniker "Best Eastern" for those properties with the same typestyle and Gold Crown logo as "Best Western." By 1967, the "Best Eastern" name was dropped and all motels from coast-to-coast got the "Best Western" name and Gold Crown, a move that would further enhance an successful marketing brand into the "World's Largest Hotel Chain" by the 1970s.
Best Western's "Gold Crown" logo was introduced in 1964 and would continue with a few minor revisions over the next 32 years until it was replaced by a blue and yellow logo in 1996. In 2015, Best Western introduced a new family of logos, replacing the core logo and adding signage for Best Western Plus and Best Western Premier. Best Western purchased WorldHotels in February 2019 adding a further 300 hotels to it's portfolio. Best Western used to call itself a cooperative membership association, as such could be seen as a co-op. Around 1985, it abandoned the "cooperative" terminology after courts insisted on calling it a franchisor despite its nonprofit status; the most dramatic example of this was Quist v. Best Western Int'l, Inc. 354 N. W.2d 656, in which the North Dakota Supreme Court decided that Best Western was a franchisor and had to comply with the appropriate laws and regulations. Best Western GB began in 1978 when Interchange Hotels of the United Kingdom consisting of independent hoteliers from key locations in the UK elected to trade under the brand name Best Western United Kingdom an affiliate of Best Western International in the US.
Now there are over 260 Best Western hotels within Great Britain. In 1981, Homestead Motor Inns of Australia affiliated with Best Western; this move put'International' after the Best Western name. The company has since been known as Best Western International. In early 2007, Best Western Australia took over the rights to operate Best Western properties in New Zealand from the previous company, the Motel Federation of New Zealand; this was a bold but beneficial move for the brand as it made way for better quality properties to be brought into the brand. Best Western Australia has 205 properties in the group; as of 21 May 2013, Best Western International has announced that it will take over management of the Green Hill Hotel in Yangon, Myanmar. The acquisition will give the hotel Best Western's brand name and place presence in Myanmar as Best Western's first hotel establishment in the country. List of hotels List of motels Official website
Mauritius the Republic of Mauritius, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean. The main Island of Mauritius is located about 2,000 kilometres off the southeast coast of the African continent; the Republic of Mauritius includes the islands of Rodrigues, Agalega and St. Brandon; the capital and largest city Port Louis is located on the main island of Mauritius. In 1598, the Dutch took possession of Mauritius, they abandoned Mauritius in 1710 and the French took control of the island in 1715, renaming it Isle de France. France ceded Mauritius including all its dependencies to the United Kingdom through the Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814 and in which Réunion was returned to France; the British colony of Mauritius consisted of the main island of Mauritius along with Rodrigues, Agalega, St Brandon and the Chagos Archipelago, while the Seychelles became a separate colony in 1906. The sovereignty of Tromelin is disputed between Mauritius and France as some of the islands such as St. Brandon, Chagos and Tromelin were not mentioned in the Treaty of Paris.
In 1965, three years prior to the independence of Mauritius, the UK split the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritian territory, the islands of Aldabra and Desroches from the Seychelles, to form the British Indian Ocean Territory. The UK forcibly expelled the archipelago's local population and leased its largest island, Diego Garcia, to the United States; the UK has restricted access to the Chagos Archipelago. The sovereignty of the Chagos is disputed between Mauritius and the UK. In February 2019, in an advisory opinion given by the International Court of Justice on this dispute, the ICJ ordered the UK to hand back the Chagos Islands to Mauritius as as possible; the people of Mauritius are multiethnic and multilingual. The island's government is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, Mauritius is ranked for democracy and for economic and political freedom; the Human Development Index of Mauritius is one of the highest in Africa. Mauritius is ranked as the most competitive and one of the most developed economies in the African region.
The main pillars of the Mauritian economy are manufacturing, financial services and information and communications technology. Mauritius is a welfare state. Along with the other Mascarene Islands, Mauritius is known for its varied flora and fauna, with many species endemic to the island; the island was the only known home of the dodo, along with several other avian species, was made extinct by human activities shortly after the island's settlement. The first historical evidence of the existence of an island now known as Mauritius is on a map produced by the Italian cartographer Alberto Cantino in 1502. From this, it appears that Mauritius was first named Dina Arobi around 975 by Arab sailors, the first people to visit the island. In 1507, Portuguese sailors visited the uninhabited island; the island appears with a Portuguese name Cirne on early Portuguese maps from the name of a ship in the 1507 expedition. Another Portuguese sailor, Dom Pedro Mascarenhas, gave the name Mascarenes to the Archipelago.
In 1598, a Dutch squadron under Admiral Wybrand van Warwyck landed at Grand Port and named the island Mauritius, in honour of Prince Maurice van Nassau, stadholder of the Dutch Republic. The island became a French colony and was renamed Isle de France. On 3 December 1810, the French surrendered the island to Great Britain during the Napoleonic Wars. Under British rule, the island's name reverted to Mauritius. Mauritius is commonly known as Maurice and Île Maurice in French, Moris in Mauritian Creole; the island of Mauritius was uninhabited before its first recorded visit during the Middle Ages by Arab sailors, who named it Dina Arobi. In 1507, Portuguese sailors came to the uninhabited island and established a visiting base. Diogo Fernandes Pereira, a Portuguese navigator, was the first European known to land in Mauritius, he named the island "Ilha do Cirne". The Portuguese did not stay. In 1598 a Dutch squadron under Admiral Wybrand van Warwyck landed at Grand Port and named the island "Mauritius" after Prince Maurice of Nassau of the Dutch Republic.
The Dutch inhabited the island in 1638, from which they exploited ebony trees and introduced sugar cane, domestic animals and deer. It was from here; the first Dutch settlement lasted twenty years. Several attempts were subsequently made, but the settlements never developed enough to produce dividends, causing the Dutch to abandon Mauritius in 1710. France, which controlled neighbouring Île Bourbon, took control of Mauritius in 1715 and renamed it Isle de France. In 1723, the Code Noir was established to categorise one group of human beings as "goods", in order for the owner of these goods to be able to obtain insurance money and compensation in case of loss of his "goods"; the 1735 arrival of French governor Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais coincided with development of a prosperous economy based on sugar production. Mahé de La Bourdonnais established Port Louis as a shipbuilding centre. Under his governorship, numerous buildings were erected, a number of which are sti
Air Austral is a French airline with its headquarters and main base of operations at Roland Garros Airport in Sainte-Marie, Réunion, France. It operates scheduled services from Réunion to metropolitan France, South Africa, India and a number of destinations in the Indian Ocean; the company has 900 employees. Air Austral was created in December 1974 by local businessman Gérard Ethève, it was Réunion's first commercial airline, known as Réunion Air Services. By August 1977 RAS had started regional services from Sainte-Marie to Mayotte with a 32-seat Hawker Siddeley HS 748 turboprop. RAS became Air Réunion in December, 1986. In October 1990 Sematra, a company 46% owned by the local councils of Réunion with the remaining shares owned by banks and other private partners, purchased Air Réunion. A month Air Réunion became Air Austral. Two months Air Austral bought its first Boeing 737-500. Another 737-300 was acquired in 1994, in 1997 the airline purchased a 737-300QC, which enabled both passenger and cargo only traffic.
In 2000 the airline took delivery of a short-haul turboprop. By Air Austral operated from both Roland Garros Airport in Sainte-Marie and Pierrefonds Airport in Saint Pierre with scheduled services to Mayotte, South Africa, Mauritius, the Seychelles, three destinations in Madagascar. In 2003, Air Austral launched its first long-haul service between Réunion and Paris, with two Boeing 777-200ERs; the two Boeing 777s were joined by a third Boeing 777-200ER in 2005. A second long-haul route from Réunion to Marseille and Lyon was established. In 2007, a third long-haul service to Toulouse via Marseille started. In 2008, the airline introduced new uniforms for crew members, designed by Balenciaga; the second ATR 72-500 was added to the fleet, followed by a third a few months later. In April 2009, Air Austral started a new service to Sydney and New Caledonia, thus opening up a new route between Paris and Sydney via Réunion; the airline acquired two Boeing 777-300ERs. In November, it placed a firm order for two all-economy class 840-seat Airbus A380s, for delivery in 2014.
These are intended for Air Austral's Réunion-Paris flights. In June 2010, it was announced that Air Austral would start scheduled flights from Réunion to Bordeaux and Nantes from February 2011. In August 2011, Air Austral received its first Boeing 777-200LR. In April 2012, founder and chief executive Gérard Ethève was replaced by Marie-Joseph Malé following financial difficulties caused by risky business decisions made worse by high fuel prices. Non-profitable lines to Nouméa, Marseille, Nantes and Lyon were closed; the company has since returned to profit. In April 2012, Air Austral was unable to pay for a new 777-200LR awaiting delivery; the company is looking to sell on the plane instead of taking delivery. Following this development, Air Austral announced in May 2012 that it would defer or cancel its order for 2 Airbus A380s, with a decision to be made by the end of June 2012. In June 2013, Air Austral introduced direct flights to India with its new Boeing 737-800s. In February 2015, the company announced an order for two Boeing 787-8s, to be delivered in May and October 2016 respectively.
In March 2015, it announced the lease of 2 more B777-300ER from Air Lease Corporation. These aircraft, delivered in late 2016, replaced the oldest two models of the same type operated by Air Austral. In October 2015, the company announced the sale of its single Boeing 777-200LR to Florida-based broker Atlas Aviation in November 2015. Air Austral announced the lease, from November 2015 to May 2016 of a Boeing 737-300QC from ASL Airlines France; the plane involved was F-ODZZ, a convertible version of the 737-300 that had already been in Air Austral service between 1997 and 2005. It was used until the first of the two Boeing 787-8s ordered by the company was delivered in May 2015; this is a list of destinations served by Air Austral as of May 2017: Air Madagascar Air India The Air Austral fleet consisted of the following aircraft: Former Air Austral liveries Media related to Air Austral at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Jardin de l'État
The Jardin de l'État known as the Jardin du Roy, is a historic botanical garden on the island of Réunion, found in the capital Saint-Denis. Planted with trees and spices taken from outside the island by Pierre Poivre, the garden is home to a natural history museum opened in August 1855; the garden was built from 1767 to 1773. The garden's golden era came at the beginning of the 19th century, when its plants were tended to by famous botanists such as Joseph Hubert, Nicolas Bréon and Jean-Michel-Claude Richard. At that time the garden housed 2000 species. 7000 of its plants were distributed to the islanders in 1825 as part of a scheme to improve the colonial agriculture. Today, the garden's main entrance faces the historic Rue de Paris. In the garden itself a bust of Pierre Poivre and a Wallace fountain; the Jardin de l'État was classified as a monument historique by the French Government on December 29, 1978. The garden is home to around fifty species of tree, including: Adansonia digitata - African baobab Adenanthera pavonina - Barbados pride Araucaria columnaris - Cook pine Artocarpus heterophyllus - Jackfruit Averrhoa carambola - Carambola Bambusa glaucescens - Golden goddess bamboo Barringtonia asiatica - Sea poison tree Caryota mitis - Fishtail palm Chrysophyllum cainito - Cainito Cocos nucifera - Coconut palm Cordia amplifolia Couroupita guianensis - Cannonball tree Crescentia cujete - Calabash tree Damara araucaria Dictyosperma album - Hurricane palm or Princess palm Elaeis guineensis - Oil palm or African oil palm Elaeodendron orientale - Olive wood Enterolobium cyclocarpum - Elephant ear tree Eucalyptus citriodora - Lemon-scented gum Ficus microcarpa - Chinese banyan Heritiera littoralis - Looking-glass mangrove Hymenaea courbaril - Jatobá Inga laurina Khaya senegalensis - Senegal mahogany Kigelia africana - Sausage tree Livistona chinensis - Chinese fan palm Majidea zanguebarica - Blackpearl Mangifera indica - Mango tree Melaleuca quinquenervia - Broad-leaved paperbark Mimusops coriacea Pandanus sanderi - Screw pine Pandanus utilis - Common screwpine Peltophorum pterocarpum - Yellow poinciana Pterocarpus indicus - Angsana Ravenala madagascariensis - Travellers palm Roystonea oleracea - Trinidad royal palm or Venezuela royal palm Samanea saman - Saman or rain tree, monkey pod, cenizaro or cow tamarind Senna siamea - Siamese cassia Sterculia foetida - Stinky sterculia or Sterculia nut or Java olive Syzygium cumini - Jambul or Jamun or Jamblang Tabebuia pallida - Cuban pink trumpet tree Tamarindus indica - Tamarind Terminalia arjuna Terminalia catappa - Indian almond, Bengal almond, Singapore almond, Malabar almond, Tropical almond, Sea almond, or Umbrella tree Vitex doniana - African black plum Yucca guatemalensis - Spineless yuccaAnd also: Carambole marron Coing de Chine Ficus banian Garcinéa Palmier bouteille Santal Zévis de l'Inde Guide du jardin de l'État de Saint-Denis, J. Dequaire, July 1984.
Conservatoire botanique national de Mascarin List of botanical gardens in France