Antezant-la-Chapelle is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The river Boutonne forms most of the commune's eastern border. Communes of the Charente-Maritime department INSEE
Aulnay referred to as Aulnay-de-Saintonge, is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aulnaysiennes. Aulnay is located on the Via Turonensis. One of the Ways of St. James some 45 km east by south-east of Surgères and 17 km north-east of Saint-Jean-d'Angély. Access to the commune is by the D950 from Les Églises-d'Argenteuil in the south-west which passes through the commune just west of the town and continues to La Villedieu in the north; the D121 comes from Saint-Georges-de-Longuepierre in the north-west passing through the town and continuing south to Cherbonnières. The D129 comes from Varaize in the south passing through the town and continuing north-east to Saint-Mandé-sur-Brédoire; the D133 goes from the town south-east to Néré. In the commune there is the village of La Cressoniere west of the town, Pinsenelle north-west of the town, Salles-lès-Aulnay east of the town. Apart from the urban area of the town the commune is farmland.
The Brédoire river flows through the commune and the town from east to west to join the Boutonne at Nuaillé-sur-Boutonne. Although a small river the Brédoire flooded the town in December 1982; the Palud flows through the north of the commune from the east to join the Brédoire at La Cressoniere. The Saudrenne flows from the east in the south of the commune forming part of the southern border before continuing to join the Boutonne at Saint-Pardoult. Called Aunedonnacum in the itinerary of Antoninus Pius and Auedonnaco in the Tabula Peutingeriana, Aulnay was a Gallo-Roman station on the important imperial Roman road between Saintes and Poitiers, between Saintes and Lyon before a more direct route, the Via Agrippa, was built. Aerial photographs taken by aerial archaeologist Jacques Dassié and archaeological excavations have revealed a remarkable Roman camp at a place called Rocherou; this castrum was created for strategic reasons around the year 21 AD and abandoned around the year 43 AD. Its construction was carried out modelled on Roman camps in the conquest of Germania under the Principate of Augustus and on camps on the Limes of the Rhine due to the attested presence of displaced legions from Germania.
Several Roman inscriptions have been found. Aerial photography has revealed the existence of a Fanum with a polygonal Cella and a Peribolos, proof of the existence of an important Gallo-Roman city; as the capital of a fiscal jurisdiction Aulnay was the seat of a lordship in 925, as evidenced by the donation made by Cadelon I to several abbeys. The Viscounts of Aulnay were descendants of other noble families in Poitou and Saintonge and lived in a castle, demolished in 1818 but whose tower still remains. A common name for Aulnay is Aulnay-de-Saintonge but under the Ancien Régime Aulnay did not belong to the province of Saintonge but to the Province of Poitou and the Diocese of Poitiers. By decree dated 12 December 1973 the commune of Salles-lès-Aulnay merged with the commune of Aulnay. Aulnay is the capital of the canton of Aulnay-de-Saintonge which has the largest extent in the department of Charente-Maritime. List of Successive Mayors; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793.
From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The population of the town is old; the ratio of persons above the age of 60 years is higher than the national average and the departmental average. As for national and departmental allocations, the male population of the town is less than the female population. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Aulnay and Charente-Maritime Department in 2010 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2010, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2010, INSEE. Old Railway serviceThe Compagnie de chemins de fer départementaux operated the Charentes and Deux-Sèvres railway network with a line crossing the commune; this was the Saint-Jean-d'Angély to Saint-Saviol line. The first locomotives used were built by Derosne-Cail.
The old station buildings were transferred to the Departmental Directorate of Public Works in 1954. The Goizin factory for agricultural PloughsThe Goizin factory was once the largest industrial employer in the commune. Robert Goizin first set up a maintenance workshop and sold spare parts for agricultural equipment with a shop to display them. During the 1950s he turned to the manufacture of ploughs; the evolution in the power of tractors lead to significant growth in the 1970s. The company employed up to 80 workers until the end of the 20th century. After some difficult years, since 2005 the company has belonged to the Eurotechnics Agri Groupe but it remains active in Aulnay; the commune has a number of buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments: The Minargent Distillery A Chateau A Dairy Factory Other sites of interest A large Dovecote with 2,000 pigeonholes, restored. The commune has several religious buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments: A Cemetery Cross The Church of Saint-Pierre d'A
Charente-Maritime is a department on the southwestern coast of France named after the Charente River. A part of Saintonge and Aunis, Charente-Inférieure was one of the 83 original departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. On 4 September 1941, it was renamed Charente-Maritime; when first created, the commune of Saintes was assigned as the prefecture of the department. This changed in 1810 when Napoleon passed an imperial decree which moved the prefecture to La Rochelle. During World War II, the department was invaded by the German army and became part of occupied France. To provide defence against a possible beach landing, the Organisation Todt constructed a number of sea defences in the area. Defences such as pillboxes are noticeable on the beaches of the presqu'île d'Arvert and the island of Oléron. At the end of the war there were only two pockets of German resistance: La Rochelle, in the north and Royan in the south. Despite being completely destroyed during an RAF bombing raid on 5 January 1945, the town of Royan wasn't liberated by the French resistance until April of the same year.
La Rochelle was captured on 9 May 1945. Charente-Maritime is part of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine administrative region, it has a land area of 6864 km² and 628,733 inhabitants as of 2012. The important rivers are the Charente and its tributaries, the Boutonne and the Seugne, along with the Sèvre Niortaise, the Seudre, the Garonne, in its downstream part, the estuary of the Gironde; the department includes the islands of Île de Ré, Île d'Aix, Ile d'Oléron, Île Madame. The department forms the northern part of the Aquitaine Basin, it is separated from the Massif Armoricain by the Marais Poitevin to the north-west and from the Parisian basin by the Seuil du Poitou to the north-east. The highest point in the department is in the woods of Chantemerlière, near the commune of Contré in the north-east, rises to 173 m. Charente-Maritime is surrounded by the departments of Gironde, Deux-Sèvres and Vendée; the climate is mild and sunny, with less than 900 mm of precipitation per year and with insolation being remarkably high, in fact, the highest in Western France including southernmost sea resorts such as Biarritz.
Average extreme temperatures vary from 38 °C in summer to−5 °C in winter. The economy of Charente-Maritime is based on three major sectors: tourism, maritime industry, manufacturing. Cognac and pineau are two of the major agricultural products with maize and sunflowers being the others. During the summer months, families flock from all over Europe to bask in the sun and enjoy the local seafood. Royan, popular for its extensive beaches and attractions, is one of the most famous seaside resort of atlantic coast. Charente-Maritime is the headquarters of the major oyster producer Marennes-Oléron. Oysters cultivated here are shipped across Europe. Rochefort is a shipbuilding site and has been a major French naval base since 1665. La Rochelle is a seat of major French industry. Just outside the city is a factory for the French engineering giant Alstom, where the TGV, the cars for the Paris and other metros are manufactured, it is a popular venue for tourism, with its picturesque medieval city walls. The inhabitants of the department are called Charentais-Maritimes.
The President of the General Council is Dominique Bussereau of the Union for a Popular Movement. Popular destinations include, La Rochelle, Saintes, St Jean d'Angely, Rochefort, Île d'Aix, Île de Ré and Île d'Oléron; the department is served by the TGV at La Rochelle. It can be reached by motorway by the A10 and A837. Cantons of the Charente-Maritime department Communes of the Charente-Maritime department Arrondissements of the Charente-Maritime department Éclade des Moules "Charente-Inférieure". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. 1911. Charente Maritime website News Charente Maritime Official Tourism Guide of Charente-Maritime Official Tourism Guide of Charente-Maritime Charente Maritime News Zoo de la Palmyre Ile d'Oléron Ile de ré Tourisme Ile de re
Agudelle is a French commune in the Charente-Maritime department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. Agudelle is located some 7 km south by 10 km east of Mirambeau, it can be accessed by the D153 road from Nieul-le-Virouil in the west to the village continuing east to join the D19 road. There is the D154E1 from Salignac-de-Mirambeau in the south through the commune to the village. There is a network of country roads covering the whole commune; the commune is farmland with a large forest in the north and patches of forest in the south. Apart from the village there is the hamlet of Chez Nicoleau in the south of the commune; the altitude varies from 47 to 77 metres above sea level. The western border of the commune consists of a stream which flows into the Etang d'Allas just outside the north-western border of the commune; the eastern border of the commune is delineated by the Maine stream. In the 12th century Agudelle forest belonged to the Order of Fontevraud; the chapel was given to Lambert, the founder of the Abbey of Our Lady of the Crown in 1116 to establish a priory.
List of Successive Mayors of Agudelle Agudelle is part of the Canton of Jonzac together with 19 other communes. Agudelle part of the Community of communes of Haute-Saintonge; this group includes 123 communes in the south of Charente-Maritime and is the largest intercommunal structure in France. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Agudelle and Charente-Maririme Department in 2009 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2009, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2009, INSEE; the main product of the commune is grapes for Pineau des Charentes. The Church of Saint Eutropius has been listed as a historical monument since 31 December 1986; the church contains two items that are registered as historical objects: A Statue: Saint Eutropius in polychrome wood. A Bronze Bell The Tower House dates from the 19th century. Communes of the Charente-Maritime department Cantons of the Charente-Maritime department Arrondissements of the Charente-Maritime department Agudelle on Lion1906 Agudelle on Google Maps Agudelle on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Agudelle on the 1750 Cassini Map Agudelle on the INSEE website INSEE
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Allas-Champagne is a French commune in the Charente-Maritime department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Allasiens or Allasiennes Allas-Champagne is located in the south of the department of Charente-Maritime in the former province of Saintonge some 10 km north-east of Jonzac and 5 km south-east of Archiac, it can be accessed by road D250 which comes east from the D699 linking Jonzac and Archiac through the village and continuing east as the D250E1 to Brie-sous-Archiac. There is the D149 which comes from Archiac in the north passing thorough the heart of the commune and the village and continuing south to join the D2 road west of Meux. Apart from the village there are three hamlets in the commune: Godais, Chez Gondre, La Valade; the commune consists of farmland with the exception of a few small patches of forest in the south. The Trefle river flows west through the south of the commune forming part of the southern border before continuing westwards to join the Seugne near Saint-Grégoire-d'Ardennes.
A small unnamed stream rises in the north of the commune and flows west south to join the Trefle. List of Successive Mayors The population of the commune is old; the ratio of persons above the age of 60 years is higher than the national rate while being less than the departmental rate. Unlike national and departmental averages the male population of the town is greater than the female population. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Allas-Champagne and Charente-Maritime Department in 2009 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2009, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2009, INSEE. A public kindergarten is located in the centre of the village; the Church of Saint-Didier from the 12th century. Jonzac Fontaines-d'Ozillac Clion-sur-Seugne Pons Montendre Cognac Angoulême Aerodrome of Royan-Médis Communes of the Charente-Maritime department Allas-Champagne on the National Geographic Institute website Allas-Champagne on Lion1906 Allas-Champagne on Google Maps Allas-Champagne on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Allas-Champagne on the 1750 Cassini Map Allas-Champagne on the INSEE website INSEE