Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Aregno is a French commune in the Haute-Corse department on the island of Corsica. The village was the the piévanie of Aregnu in the former Genovese province of Balagna; the inhabitants of the commune are known as Aregnais or AregnaisesThe commune has been awarded three flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Aregno is located to the east of Algajola and extends from west to east between Algajola, Cateri, Sant'Antonino and Corbara, its highest point is 326 metres above sea level and it has a total area of some 930 hectares. Access to the commune is by National Route N197 from Algajola in the west and continuing to Corzo to the north-east. Access to the village is by road D551 which branches off the N197 and continues south through the commune by a circuitous route to the village. There is the D151 road from Pigna in the north-east, passing through the village and continuing south to join the D71 south-east of Cateri; the CFC railway from Algajola passes through the commune near the beach with the Aregno-beach station an important stop for the summer "beach tramway" along the coast and the beaches between Calvi and L'Ile-Rousse.
Between the sea and the village,the Aregno plain is crossed by the Teghiella stream, which joins the Pozzi stream, the Migliani stream on. It flows into the Mediterranean at the east end of Aregno beach, at the edge of the Calcinaiu Natural Site in Corbara. Aregno has a narrow sea front sandy beach, which extends between Corbara and Algajola; the commune includes the following inhabited areas: Aregno village and traditional, dominated by the Trinity Church located forty metres above it, an architectural jewel from the 11th century, located in the middle of the cemetery. Praoli hamlet located just north of the village with the small chapel of Saint-Michel Torre, north of the village, which has a chapel Aregno-beach between the seaside resort of Algajola and the industrial area of Corbara; the area has been developed for tourism with the construction of holiday homes and hotels. The chapel of the Annunziata is at Aregno-beach; the D551 road connecting to the village intersects the N197 at Aregno-beach.
Although it has a coastline, the commune has no marina. The nearest is the small fishing port of San Damiano in Algajola. There are 3 water treatment plants: in the hamlets of Praoli and Torre; the pumping station is located near the N197 at Aregno beach. The commune has no petrol station; the nearest is located at the edge of Corbara commune on the N197 at Aregno-beach. Evidence that Aregno was occupied in Roman times has been proven by discoveries of bronze plates from the armies of the emperor Vespasian have been found at the site of San Marcellu, it has been established that in the 9th century, during the reconquest from the saracens, Roman knights led by the Roman prince Guido Savelli chose successively the Moorish cities of Corbara Sant'Antonino for the capital of the County of Balagna, named after the coastal city which has disappeared. According to the work of Pierre Savelli de Guido, the site is that of the ancient city of Balanea founded by the Phoenicians and mentioned by Ptolemy and Pliny the Elder, abandoned due to insecurity.
Stones from ancient Roman shrines have been reused in some barns. In the 16th century, around 1520, Aregnu was the centre of a Pieve with about 500 inhabitants, it was part of the Balagna region which included at the time the pieves of Tuani, Santo Andrea and Olmia. The Pieve of Aregnu included the following inhabited places: l'Arpagiola, la Corbaia, lo Monticello, Santo Antonino, Santa Riparata, Pragola, le Torre, Regno, li Catari, lo Lavatogio, Spano and Aquapessa. In the 18th century, after the transfer of Corsica to France, Aregnu merged with the pieves of Santo Andrea and Tuani to form the Pieve of Regino; the Pieve of Regino became, with the Revolution in 1790, the Canton of Algajola. In 1954, together with the communes of Algajola, Cateri, Lavatoggio, Muro and Speloncato, Aregno became part of the Canton of Muro. In 1973 Aregno was integrated into the Canton of Belgodere, a canton created by the forced merger of the former cantons of Muro, Belgodère, Olmi-Cappella during the administrative division of new cantons between 1971 and 1973.
List of Successive Mayors In 2009 the commune had 602 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 At one time the Almond was cultivated - a tee suited to Corsica, a dry and sunny region. Olive trees are grown in elsewhere in Balagne as well as Citrus trees; the Orange: In the past the quality of oranges from Aregno was well known. It was in the 17th century. There is an orange variety called "Aregno Citrus sinensis Osbeck". Although today the culture of the Orange has collapsed, 17 January is the day the patronal festival is always held for the blessing of oranges followed by their distribution; the Almond: At the end of the 19th century almond cultur
Haute-Corse is a former department of France, consisting of the northern part of the island of Corsica. It and the other Corsican department, Corse-du-Sud, merged on 1 January 2018 with the single collectivity of Corsica, with territorial elections coinciding with the dissolution of the separate councils; the people living in the former department are called "Northerners". The department was formed on 15 September 1975, when the department of Corsica was divided into Upper Corsica and South Corsica; the department corresponds to the former department of Golo, which existed between 1793 and 1811. On 6 July 2003, a referendum on increased autonomy was voted down by a thin majority: 50.98 percent against to 49.02 percent for. This was a major setback for French Minister of the Interior Nicolas Sarkozy, who had hoped to use Corsica as the first step in his decentralization policies; the former department is surrounded on three sides by the Mediterranean Sea and on the south by the department of Corse-du-Sud.
Cantons of the Haute-Corse department Communes of the Haute-Corse department Arrondissements of the Haute-Corse department General Council website Haute-Corse at Curlie University of Corsica website Corsica Isula
Alando is a commune in the Haute-Corse department of France on the island of Corsica. Communes of the Haute-Corse department INSEE
Corsica is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France. It is located southeast of the French mainland and west of the Italian Peninsula, with the nearest land mass being the Italian island of Sardinia to the immediate south. A single chain of mountains makes up two-thirds of the island. While being part of Metropolitan France, Corsica is designated as a territorial collectivity by law; as a territorial collectivity, Corsica enjoys a greater degree of autonomy than other French regions. The island formed a single department until it was split in 1975 into two historical departments: Haute-Corse and Corse-du-Sud, with its regional capital in Ajaccio, the prefecture city of Corse-du-Sud. Bastia, the prefecture city of Haute-Corse, is the second largest settlement in Corsica; the two departments, the region of Corsica, merged again into a single territorial collectivity in 2018. After being ruled by the Republic of Genoa since 1284, Corsica was an Italian-speaking independent republic from 1755, until it was ceded by the Republic of Genoa to Louis XV as part of a pledge for debts and conquered in 1769.
Napoleon Bonaparte was born the same year in Ajaccio, his ancestral home, Maison Bonaparte, is today a significant visitor attraction and museum. Due to Corsica's historical ties with the Italian peninsula, the island retains to this day many Italian cultural elements: the native tongue is recognized as a regional language by the French government; the origin of the name Corsica remains a mystery. To the Ancient Greeks it was known as Kalliste, Cyrnos, Cernealis, or Cirné. Of these Cyrnos, Cernealis, or Cirné derive from the most ancient Greek name of the island, "Σειρηνούσσαι", the same Sirens mentioned in Homer's Odyssey. Corsica has been occupied continuously since the Mesolithic era, it acquired an indigenous population, influential in the Mediterranean during its long prehistory. After a brief occupation by the Carthaginians, colonization by the ancient Greeks, an only longer occupation by the Etruscans, it was incorporated by the Roman Republic at the end of the First Punic War and, with Sardinia, in 238 BC became a province of the Roman Republic.
The Romans, who built a colony in Aléria, considered Corsica as one of the most backward regions of the Roman world. The island produced sheep, honey and wax, exported many slaves, not well considered because of their fierce and rebellious character. Moreover, it was known for its cheap wines, exported to Rome, was used as a place of relegation, one of the most famous exiles being the Roman philosopher Seneca. Administratively, the island was divided in pagi, which in the Middle Ages became the pievi, the basic administrative units of the island until 1768. During the diffusion of Christianity, which arrived quite early from Rome and the Tuscan harbors, Corsica was home to many martyrs and saints: among them, the most important are Saint Devota and Saint Julia, both patrons of the island. Corsica was integrated into Roman Italy by Emperor Diocletian. In the 5th century, the western half of the Roman Empire collapsed, the island was invaded by the Vandals and the Ostrogoths. Recovered by the Byzantines, it soon became part of the Kingdom of the Lombards.
This made it a dependency of the March of Tuscany. Pepin the Short, king of the Franks and Charlemagne's father, expelled the Lombards and nominally granted Corsica to Pope Stephen II. In the first quarter of the 11th century and Genoa together freed the island from the threat of Arab invasion. After that, the island came under the influence of the republic of Pisa. To this period belong the many polychrome churches which adorn the island, Corsica experienced a massive immigration from Tuscany, which gave to the island its present toponymy and rendered the language spoken in the northern two-thirds of the island close to the Tuscan dialect. Due to that began the traditional division of Corsica in two parts, along the main chain of mountains going from Calvi to Porto-Vecchio: the eastern Banda di dentro, or Cismonte, more populated and open to the commerce with Italy, the western Banda di fuori, or Pomonte deserted and remote; the crushing defeat experienced by Pisa in 1284 in the Battle of Meloria against Genoa had among its consequences the end of the Pisan rule and the beginning of the Genoese influence in Corsica: this was contested by the King of Aragon, who in 1296 had received from the Pope the investiture over Sardinia and Corsica.
A popular revolution against this and the feudal lords, led by Sambucuccio d'Alando, got the aid of Genoa. After that, the Cismonte was ruled after the Italian experience; the following 150 years were a period of conflict, when the Genoese rule was contested by Aragon, the local lords, the comuni and the Pope: in 1450 Genoa ceded the administration of the island to its main bank, the Bank of Saint George, which brought peace. In the 16th century, the island entered into the fight between Spain and France for the supremacy in Italy. In 1553, a Franco-Ottoman fleet occupied Corsica, but the reaction of Spain and Genoa, led by Andrea Doria, reestablished the Genoese supremacy on the island, confirmed by the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis; the unlucky protagonist of this episode was Sampiero di Bastelica, who would come to be considered a hero of t
Filippo Antonio Pasquale di Paoli was a Corsican patriot and military leader, at the forefront of resistance movements against the Genoese and French rule in the island. He became the president of the Executive Council of the General Diet of the People of Corsica, designed and wrote the Constitution of the state; the Corsican Republic was a representative democracy asserting that the elected Diet of Corsican representatives had no master. Paoli held his office by election and not by appointment, it made him commander-in-chief of the armed forces as well as chief magistrate. Paoli's government claimed the same jurisdiction as the Republic of Genoa. In terms of de facto exercise of power, the Genoese held the coastal cities, which they could defend from their citadels, but the Corsican republic controlled the rest of the island from Corte, its capital. Following the French conquest of Corsica in 1768, Paoli oversaw the Corsican resistance. Following the defeat of Corsican forces at the Battle of Ponte Novu he was forced into exile in Britain where he was a celebrated figure.
He returned after the French Revolution which he was supportive of. He broke with the revolutionaries and helped to create the Anglo-Corsican Kingdom which lasted between 1794 and 1796. After the island was re-occupied by France he again went into exile in Britain where he died in 1807. Paoli was born in the hamlet of Stretta, Morosaglia commune, part of the ancient parish of Rostino, Haute-Corse, Corsica, he was the second son of the physician and patriot Giacinto Paoli, to become one of three "Generals of the People" in the Corsican nationalist movement that rebelled against rule by the Republic of Genoa, which at that time they regarded as corrupt and tyrannical. Prior to that century Corsicans less accepted Genoan rule. By 1729, the year of first rebellion, the Genovese were regarded as failing in their task of government; the major problems were the high murder rate because of the custom of vendetta, the raiding of coastal villages by the Barbary pirates, oppressive taxes and economic depression.
In the rebellion of 1729 over a new tax, the Genovese withdrew into their citadels and sent for foreign interventions, first from Austria and from France. Defeated by professional troops the Corsicans kept their organisation. After surrendering to the French in 1739 Giacinto Paoli went into exile in Naples with his 14-year-old son, Pasquale. An older brother, remained at home as a liaison to the revolutionary diet, or assembly of the people. Corsica was subsequently distracted by the War of the Austrian Succession during which troops of a number of countries temporarily occupied the cities of Corsica. In Naples Giacinto perceiving that he had a talented son spared no effort or expense in his education, classical; the enlightenment of which Pasquale was to become a part was neo-classical in its art and sentiments. Paoli is said once to have heard an old man on the road reciting Vergil, walked up behind him, clapped him on the back, resumed reciting at the point where the other had left off. In 1741 Pasquale joined the Corsican regiment of the royal Neapolitan army and served in Calabria under his father.
Corsican exiles in Italy were seeking assistance including a skilled general. In 1736 the exiles of Genoa had discovered Theodor von Neuhoff, a soldier of fortune whom they were willing to make king, but he was unsuccessful and in 1754 languished in debtors' prison in London; the young Pasquale became of interest when in opposition to a plan to ask the Knights of Malta to assume command he devised a plan for a native Corsican government. In that year Giacinto decided that Pasquale was ready to supplant Theodore and wrote to Vincente recommending that a general election be held; the subsequent popular election called by Vincente at Caccia made Pasquale General-in-Chief of Corsica, commander of all resistance. Corsica at that time was still under the influence of feuding clans, as a result of which only the highland clans had voted in the election; the lowlanders now held an election of their own and elected Mario Matra as commander, who promptly attacked the supporters of Paoli. Moreover, Matra called on the Genovese for assistance.
Matra was killed shortly in battle and his support among the Corsicans collapsed. Paoli's next task was to confine the Genovese to their citadels, his second was to design a constitution which when ratified by the population in 1755 set up a new republic, a representative democracy. Its first election made Paoli president. In November 1755, the people of Corsica ratified a constitution that proclaimed Corsica a sovereign nation, independent from the Republic of Genoa; this was the first constitution written under Enlightenment principles. The new president and author of the constitution occupied himself with building a modern state. Seeing that they had in effect lost control of Corsica, Genoa responded by selling Corsica to the French by secret treaty in 1764 and allowing Genovese troops to be replaced by French ones; when all was ready in 1768 the French made a public announcement of the union of Corsica with France and proceeded to the reconquest. Paoli fought a guerilla war from the mountains but in 1769 he was defeated in the Battle of Ponte Novu by vastly superior forces and took refuge in England.
Corsica became a French province in 1770. In London, Paoli attracted the attention of the Johnsonian circle immediately for which his expansive personality made him a natural fit. By th
Torra di Fornali
The Torra di Fornali is a Genoese tower in Corsica, located in the commune of Saint-Florent. The tower was fought over during the Siege of Saint-Florent in 1794