Puente La Reina – Gares
Puente La Reina is a town and municipality located in the autonomous community of Navarre, in northern Spain. Puente la Reina lies between Pamplona and Estella on the Way of St. James pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela, it is the first town after the junction of the French Way, the most popular route, Aragonese Way. Queen Muniadona, wife of King Sancho III was the queen who gave her name to the town and the bridge known as the Puente Románico, she built the six-arched Romanesque bridge over the Arga for the use of pilgrims on their way to Santiago de Compostela along the Camino de Santiago. Navarra.com/camino/puente.htm Puente La Reina / Gares in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa – Auñamendi Encyclopedia Walking the Camino de Santiago, A Guide The site has great photos of the bridge at six in the morning as the sun rises
Provence is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It corresponds with the modern administrative région of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, includes the départements of Var, Bouches-du-Rhône, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence and parts of Alpes-Maritimes and Vaucluse; the largest city of the region is Marseille. The Romans made the region the first Roman province beyond the Alps and called it Provincia Romana, which evolved into the present name; until 1481 it was ruled by the Counts of Provence from their capital in Aix-en-Provence became a province of the Kings of France. While it has been part of France for more than five hundred years, it still retains a distinct cultural and linguistic identity in the interior of the region; the coast of Provence has some of the earliest known sites of human habitation in Europe. Primitive stone tools dating back 1 to 1.05 million years BC have been found in the Grotte du Vallonnet near Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, between Monaco and Menton.
More sophisticated tools, worked on both sides of the stone and dating to 600,000 BC, were found in the Cave of Escale at Saint Estėve-Janson, tools from 400,000 BC and some of the first fireplaces in Europe were found at Terra Amata in Nice. Tools dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic were discovered in the Observatory Cave, in the Jardin Exotique of Monaco; the Paleolithic period in Provence saw great changes in the climate. Two ice ages came and went, the sea level changed dramatically. At the beginning of the Paleolithic, the sea level in western Provence was 150 meters higher than today. By the end of the Paleolithic, it had dropped to 100 to 150 metres below the sea level today; the cave dwellings of the early inhabitants of Provence were flooded by the rising sea or left far from the sea and swept away by erosion. The changes in the sea level led to one of the most remarkable discoveries of signs of early man in Provence. In 1985, a diver named Henri Cosquer discovered the mouth of a submarine cave 37 metres below the surface of the Calanque de Morgiou near Marseille.
The entrance led to a cave above sea level. Inside, the walls of the Cosquer Cave are decorated with drawings of bison, auks and outlines of human hands, dating to between 27,000 and 19,000 BC; the end of the Paleolithic and beginning of the Neolithic period saw the sea settle at its present level, a warming of the climate and the retreat of the forests. The disappearance of the forests and the deer and other hunted game meant that the inhabitants of Provence had to survive on rabbits and wild sheep. In about 6000 BC, the Castelnovian people, living around Châteauneuf-les-Martigues, were among the first people in Europe to domesticate wild sheep, to cease moving from place to place. Once they settled in one place they were able to develop new industries. Inspired by pottery from the eastern Mediterranean, in about 6000 BC they created the first pottery made in France. Around 6000 BC, a wave of new settlers from the east, the Chasséens, arrived in Provence, they were farmers and warriors, displaced the earlier pastoral people from their lands.
They were followed about 2500 BC by another wave of people farmers, known as the Courronniens, who arrived by sea and settled along the coast of what is now the Bouches-du-Rhône. Traces of these early civilisations can be found in many parts of Provence. A Neolithic site dating to about 6,000 BC was discovered in Marseille near the Saint-Charles railway station, and a dolmen from the Bronze Age can be found near Draguignan. Between the 10th and 4th century BC, the Ligures were found in Provence from Massilia as far as modern Liguria, they were of uncertain origin. Strabo distinctly states they were not of a different race from the Gauls, they did not have their own alphabet, but their language remains in place names in Provence ending in the suffixes -asc, -osc. -inc, -ates, -auni. The ancient geographer Posidonios wrote of them: "Their country is dry; the soil is so rocky. The men compensate for the lack of wheat by hunting... They climb the mountains like goats." They were warlike. Traces of the Ligures remain today in the dolmens and other megaliths found in eastern Provence, in the primitive stone shelters called'Bories' found in the Luberon and Comtat, in the rock carvings in the Valley of Marvels near Mont Bégo in the Alpes-Maritimes, at an altitude of 2,000 meters.
Between the 8th and 5th centuries BC, tribes of Celtic peoples coming from Central Europe began moving into Provence. They had weapons made of iron, which allowed them to defeat the local tribes, who were still armed with bronze weapons. One tribe, called the Segobriga, settled near modern-day Marseille; the Caturiges and Cavares settled to the west of the Durance river. Celts and Ligurians spread throughout the area and the Celto-Ligures shared the territory of Provence, each tribe in its own alpine valley or settlement along a river, each with its own king and dynasty, they built hilltop forts and settlements given the Latin name oppida. Today the traces 165 oppida are found in the Var, as many as 285 in the Alp
Costières de Nîmes AOC
Costières de Nîmes is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for wines that are produced in an area between the ancient city of Nîmes and the western Rhône delta, in the French department of the Gard. Part of the Languedoc region of France, as the wines more resemble those of the Rhône valley in character than of the Languedoc, it is now part of the Rhone wine area and administered by the Rhône Wine committee which has its headquarters in Avignon. Wines from the region have been produced for over two millennia and were consumed by the Greeks in pre-Roman times, making it one of the oldest vineyards in Europe; the area was settled by veterans of Julius Caesar's campaigns in Egypt, bottles of Costières de Nîmes bear the symbol of the Roman settlement at Nîmes, a crocodile chained to a palm tree. According to a chart in the kitchen of the Palais des Papes in Avignon, many of the towns in what is now the Costieres de Nîmes region were the main suppliers of wine to the Popes of that era. Known as Costières du Gard, a VDQS, the wine achieved AOC status in 1986 and was renamed Costières de Nîmes 1989.
In 1998 the growers' organization requested that the appellation should be attached to the Rhône wine region as their wines are more reflective of the typical characteristics of Rhône wines than of the Languedoc region to which the area geographically belongs. INAO, the French authority which regulates the country's appellations, assigns each appellation to a regional committee, in charge of approving wines from that appellation; this list is a legal text published by the French ministry of agriculture. The move of Costières de Nîmes to the regional committee of the Rhône valley was effected in the 19 July 2004 version of this list. Up until the version of 8 July 1998, which the 2004 version superseded, Costières de Nîmes was assigned to the regional committee of Languedoc-Roussillon; the adjacent AOC of Clairette de Bellegarde remains listed as a Languedoc AOC. Between the low rocky hills and garrigue that mark the border of the Languedoc with the Provence, the low sandy plain of the Camargue the Rhône delta, the soil is a mixture of round pebbles similar to Châteauneuf-du-Pape, sandy alluvial deposit and red shale.
The soil depth from 3 to 15 metres is responsible for the variations of style within this AOC. The climate is Mediterranean, similar to that of the Rhône valley, but is characterised by its proximity to the coast and the sea breezes; the wines are produced in selected parcels of the following 24 communes: Aubord, Beauvoisin, Bernis, Bouillargues, Le Cailar, Garons, Générac, Jonquières-Saint-Vincent, Lédenon, Meynes, Gard, Nîmes, Rodilhan, Saint-Gilles, Uchaud and Vestric-et-Candiac. The Costières de Nîmes produce red wines, from Syrah and Mourvèdre together 20%, Grenache minimum of 25%, Carignan maximum 40%, maximum 40%, they are closer in style to Rhône wine than Languedoc wine and they are elegant, well balanced structured, with aromas of red fruit, blackberry and black cherry. Some of the wines are rounder, more generous, with a higher level of tannins; the reds account for 59% of the total production. White wines account for about 4% of the AOC production. A small amount 5% of the total, of white wine is made from the Bourboulenc, Clairette blanc, Grenache blanc, Maccabéo, Rolle and Ugni blanc, maximum 30% varieties.
The whites must be blended from a minimum of two varieties. Ugni blanc will be discontinued from the AOC with effect from and including the harvest of 2010; the whites are well balanced with aromas of flower and fruit and apple and pear. They can be consumed as an accompaniment to seafood and grilled fish; some rosé is made as a by-product from the production of red wines, with the same permitted percentages of grape varieties, with a possible maximum of 10% of white grapes from the allowed varieties for the white wines. These are traditionally well balanced and delicate. A wine for leisure as well as for the strict of meals of white meats and poultry, they are drunk chilled, are refreshing, can be consumed at any time of the day. Locally, it is taken with light meals of salads and pizza. Rosé accounts for 37% of the total production; the minimum decreed alcohol content for red and rosé is 11%. The industry comprises 424 concerns which include 404 growers, 96 private wineries, 17 cooperative wineries, 3 merchant/producers.
Sales of the wines are achieved through supermarkets, direct sales, bars and hotels, wine shops. List of Vins de Primeur Robinson, Jancis; the Oxford Companion to Wine, third edition. Oxford University Press. 978-0198609902
Nîmes Airport or Nîmes–Alès–Camargue–Cévennes Airport is an airport located 9 km south-southeast of the city of Nîmes, in the village of Saint-Gilles near Garons. It is known as Garons Airport or Nîmes Garons Airport; the airport serves the Provence region, including the communes of Nîmes and Alès in the Gard department, the Camargue area and the Cévennes. It has some commercial services, operated by Irish carrier Ryanair however it serves as a naval air base.* The Frence navy pulled out of here some years ago. Their former faiciities are now used by the Armee de Terre; the Securite Civile flying base at Marseille has now moved here. The airport is at an elevation of 309 feet above mean sea level, it has one paved runway designated 18/36. In April 2012, the European Commission announced that it had launched an in-depth investigation into the financial arrangements that Nîmes Airport had with public authorities and Ryanair; the investigation would determine if public subsidies given to the airport, as well as rebates and marketing agreements with Ryanair, breached EU rules on state aid.
The Commission announced that it would examine the following issues: whether public subsidies of over €2 million and cash advances totalling over €9 million received by the Chamber of Commerce between 2000 and 2006 and public subsidies received by Veolia Transport since 2007 covered their ordinary operating expenses as airport operators, thereby giving them an undue economic advantage over competitors. Whether agreements between the airport operators and Ryanair would have been contracted by a market economy investor and, if not, Ryanair would have been receiving an undue economic advantage that its competitors do not enjoy. Whether part of the aid received by the airport operators had been passed on to Ryanair. In response to the announcement, Ryanair maintained that its'arrangements with all EU airports comply with competition rules'. Media related to Nîmes - Garons Airport at Wikimedia Commons Nimes Airport Website Personal site on the naval base Current weather for LFTW – Nimes / Garons, France at NOAA/NWS Accident history for FNI / LFTW – Nîmes–Garons Airport at Aviation Safety Network
Arles is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence. A large part of the Camargue is located on the territory of the commune, making it the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory; the city has a long history, was of considerable importance in the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis. The Roman and Romanesque Monuments of Arles were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1981; the Dutch post-Impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh lived in Arles from 1888 to 1889 and produced over 300 paintings and drawings during his time there. An international photography festival has been held in the city since 1970; the river Rhône forks into two branches just upstream of Arles. Because the Camargue is for a large part administratively part of Arles, the commune as a whole is the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory, although its population is only more than 50,000.
Its area is 758.93 km2, more than seven times the area of Paris. The Ligurians were in this area from about 800 BC. Celtic influences have been discovered; the city became an important Phoenician trading port, before being taken by the Romans. The Romans took the town in 123 BC and expanded it into an important city, with a canal link to the Mediterranean Sea being constructed in 104 BC. However, it struggled to escape the shadow of Massalia further along the coast, its chance came. Massalia backed Pompey; the town was formally established as a colony for veterans of the Roman legion Legio VI Ferrata, which had its base there. Its full title as a colony was Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelatensium Sextanorum, "the ancestral Julian colony of Arles of the soldiers of the Sixth." Arelate was a city of considerable importance in the province of Gallia Narbonensis. It covered an area of some 40 hectares and possessed a number of monuments, including an amphitheatre, triumphal arch, Roman circus, a full circuit of walls.
Ancient Arles was closer to the sea than it served as a major port. It had the southernmost bridge on the Rhône. Unusually, the Roman bridge was not fixed but consisted of a pontoon-style bridge of boats, with towers and drawbridges at each end; the boats were secured in place by anchors and were tethered to twin towers built just upstream of the bridge. This unusual design was a way of coping with the river's frequent violent floods, which would have made short work of a conventional bridge. Nothing remains of the Roman bridge, replaced by a more modern bridge near the same spot; the city reached a peak of influence during the 4th and 5th centuries, when Roman Emperors used it as their headquarters during military campaigns. In 395, it became the seat of the Praetorian Prefecture of the Gauls, governing the western part of the Western Empire: Gaul proper plus Hispania and Armorica. At that time, the city was home to 75,000–100,000 people, it became a favorite city of Emperor Constantine I, who built baths there, substantial remains of which are still standing.
His son, Constantine II, was born in Arles. Usurper Constantine III declared himself emperor in the West and made Arles his capital in 408. Arles became renowned as a religious centre during the late Roman Empire, it was the birthplace of the sceptical philosopher Favorinus. It was a key location for Roman Christianity and an important base for the Christianization of Gaul; the city's bishopric was held by a series of outstanding clerics, beginning with Saint Trophimus around 225 and continuing with Saint Honoratus Saint Hilarius in the first half of the 5th century. The political tension between the Catholic bishops of Arles and the Visigothic kings is epitomized in the career of the Frankish St. Caesarius, bishop of Arles 503–542, suspected by the Arian Visigoth Alaric II of conspiring with the Burgundians to turn over the Arelate to Burgundy, was exiled for a year to Bordeaux in Aquitaine. Political tensions were evident again in 512, when Arles held out against Theodoric the Great and Caesarius was imprisoned and sent to Ravenna to explain his actions before the Ostrogothic king.
The friction between the Arian Christianity of the Visigoths and the Catholicism of the bishops sent out from Rome established deep roots for religious heterodoxy heresy, in Occitan culture. At Treves in 385, Priscillian achieved the distinction of becoming the first Christian executed for heresy. Despite this tension and the city's decline in the face of barbarian invasions, Arles remained a great religious centre and host of church councils, the rival of Vienne, for hundreds of years; the Barbegal aqueduct and mill is a Roman watermill complex located on the territory of the commune of Fontvieille, a few kilometres from Arles. The complex has been referred to as "the greatest known concentration of mechanical power in the ancient world"; the remains of the mill streams and buildings which housed the overshot water wheels are still visible at the site, it is by far the best-preserved of ancient mills. There are two aqueducts which join just north of the mill complex, a sluice which enabled the operators to control the water supply to the complex.
The mill c
The Pyrenees is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France. Reaching a height of 3,404 metres altitude at the peak of Aneto, the range separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, extends for about 491 km from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea. For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between Spain and France, with the microstate of Andorra sandwiched in between; the Principality of Catalonia alongside with the Kingdom of Aragon in the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre have extended on both sides of the mountain range, with smaller northern portions now in France and larger southern parts now in Spain. In Greek mythology, Pyrene is a princess; the Greek historian Herodotus says. According to Silius Italicus, she was the virgin daughter of Bebryx, a king in Mediterranean Gaul by whom the hero Hercules was given hospitality during his quest to steal the cattle of Geryon during his famous Labours.
Hercules, characteristically drunk and lustful, violates the sacred code of hospitality and rapes his host's daughter. Pyrene runs away to the woods, afraid that her father will be angry. Alone, she pours out her story to the trees, attracting the attention of wild beasts who tear her to pieces. After his victory over Geryon, Hercules passes through the kingdom of Bebryx again, finding the girl's lacerated remains; as is the case in stories of this hero, the sober Hercules responds with heartbroken grief and remorse at the actions of his darker self, lays Pyrene to rest tenderly, demanding that the surrounding geography join in mourning and preserve her name: "struck by Herculean voice, the mountaintops shudder at the ridges. … The mountains hold on to the wept-over name through the ages." Pliny the Elder connects the story of Hercules and Pyrene to Lusitania, but rejects it as fabulosa fictional. Other classical sources derived the name from the Greek word for fire, Ancient Greek: πῦρ. According to Greek historian Diodorus Siculus "..in ancient times, we are told, certain herdsmen left a fire and the whole area of the mountains was consumed.
The Spanish Pyrenees are part of the following provinces, from east to west: Girona, Lleida, Huesca and Gipuzkoa. The French Pyrenees are part of the following départements, from east to west: Pyrénées-Orientales, Ariège, Haute-Garonne, Hautes-Pyrénées, Pyrénées-Atlantiques; the independent principality of Andorra is sandwiched in the eastern portion of the mountain range between the Spanish Pyrenees and French Pyrenees. Physiographically, the Pyrenees may be divided into three sections: the Atlantic, the Central, the Eastern Pyrenees. Together, they form a distinct physiographic province of the larger Alpine System division. In the Western Pyrenees, from the Basque mountains near the Bay of Biscay of the Atlantic Ocean, the average elevation increases from west to east; the Central Pyrenees extend eastward from the Somport pass to the Aran Valley, they include the highest summits of this range: Pico d'Aneto 3,404 metres in the Maladeta ridge, Pico Posets 3,375 metres, Monte Perdido 3,355 metres.
In the Eastern Pyrenees, with the exception of one break at the eastern extremity of the Pyrénées Ariègeoises in the Ariège area, the mean elevation is remarkably uniform until a sudden decline occurs in the easternmost portion of the chain known as the Albères. Most foothills of the Pyrenees are on the Spanish side, where there is a large and complex system of ranges stretching from Spanish Navarre, across northern Aragon and into Catalonia reaching the Mediterranean coast with summits reaching 2,600 m. At the eastern end on the southern side lies a distinct area known as the Sub-Pyrenees. On the French side the slopes of the main range descend abruptly and there are no foothills except in the Corbières Massif in the northeastern corner of the mountain system; the Pyrenees are older than the Alps: their sediments were first deposited in coastal basins during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras. Between 100 and 150 million years ago, during the Lower Cretaceous Period, the Bay of Biscay fanned out, pushing present-day Spain against France and applying intense compressional pressure to large layers of sedimentary rock.
The intense pressure and uplifting of the Earth's crust first affected the eastern part and moved progressively to the entire chain, culminating in the Eocene Epoch. The eastern part of the Pyrenees consists of granite and gneissose rocks, while in the western part the granite peaks are flanked by layers of limestone; the massive and unworn character of the chain comes from its abundance of granite, resistant to erosion, as well as weak glacial development. The upper parts of the Pyrenees contain low-relief surfaces forming a peneplain; this peneplain originated no earlier than in Late Miocene times. It formed at height as extensive sedimentation raised the local base
Gard is a department in Southern France, located in the Occitanie region. It had a population of 742,006 as of 2016; the department is named after the Gardon River. The Gard area was settled by the Romans in classical times, it was crossed by the Via Domitia, constructed in 118 BC. Gard is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was created from the ancient province of Languedoc. It was intended to include the canton of Ganges in the department which would have been geographically logical, but Ganges was transferred to the neighbouring department of Hérault at the outset. In return, Gard received from Hérault the fishing port of Aigues Mortes which gave the department its own outlet to the Gulf of Lion. During the middle of the nineteenth century the prefecture, traditionally a centre of commerce with a manufacturing sector focused on textiles, was an early beneficiary of railway development, becoming an important railway junction. Several luxurious hotels were built, the improved market access provided by the railways encouraged a rapid growth in wine growing: however, many of the department's viticulturalists were ruined by the arrival in 1872 of phylloxera.
Gard is part of the region of Occitanie and is surrounded by the departments of Hérault, Lozère, Bouches-du-Rhône, Vaucluse and Ardèche. The highest point in the department is the Mont Aigoual. Serious flooding has occurred in the department in recent years. In the contested first round of the 2012 presidential election, Gard was the only department to vote for the National Front candidate Marine Le Pen by a slim plurality, with 25.51% of the vote. The incumbent President Nicolas Sarkozy of the Union for a Popular Movement party received 24.86% of the vote, while Socialist candidate François Hollande received 24.11% of the vote share. The President of the Departmental Council has been Denis Bouad of the Socialist Party since 2015. In the 2017 legislative election, Gard elected the following representatives to the National Assembly: The inhabitants of Gard are called "Gardois". In 2012, the population of Gard was 694,323 with 8 towns having more than 10,000 inhabitants: Gard contains a part of the Cévennes National Park.
There are important Roman architectural remains in Nîmes, as well as the famous Roman aqueduct, the Pont du Gard. Gard is home to the source of Perrier, a carbonated mineral water sold both in France and internationally on a large scale; the spring and facility are located just south-east of the commune of Vergèze. Arrondissements of the Gard department Cantons of the Gard department Communes of the Gard department "Gard". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. 1911. Prefecture website General Council website Welcome to the Gard Welcome to the Gard The Regordane Way or St Gilles Trail Map of the department Guide Gard