France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Aigues-Vives is a French commune in the Ariège department in the Occitanie region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aigues-Vivesiennes. Aigues-Vives is located both in the Pays d'Olmes and the Canton of Mirepoix on the D625 main road which runs from Saint-Quentin-la-Tour in the north through the heart of the commune and the town to Laroque-d'Olmes in the south, it is about 90 km in a direct line south by south west of Narbonne. Augues-Vives can be accessed from the east on Highway D28 from Leran. Apart from the Aigues-Vives town there is one other residential area to the north of the town called Le Kartare; the commune is forested to the east with the centre of the commune farmland. The Countirou stream, which has its source in the nearby village of Tabre, passes through the commune of Aigues-Vives, along the D625 road, comes to an end at Hers-Vif near Mirepoix. A number of streams traverse the commune and flow into Coutirou including the: Fontaine de Toustou, the Couxou, the Ribalerie, the Saint-Paul).
Lake Montbel is located three kilometres south-east of the commune and is visible from the hills above Aigues-Vives. The village is located in an area formed during the Tertiary period with a soil, a mix of conglomerate and sandstone, on strata called the "conglomerates of Palassou" located on the North Pyrenees faultline. Aigues-Vives is surrounded by several hills, the highest being 630m above sea level, on the western edge of the commune; the village itself is 420m high on average with the lowest point being 391m. According to decree No. 2010-1255 of 22 October 2010 on the delimitation of the seismicity of the French territory, Aigues-Vives is exposed to a risk level of 3. Other risks facing Aigues-Vives are forest fires, industrial hazards, risks due to transport of dangerous goods. Past disasters include the November 1982 storm and mudslides in January 1992 and mudslides in November–December 1996. Aigues-Vives or in Occitan Aigas Vivas meaning "whitewater" takes its name from springs in the surrounding hills.
There were these old forms: Aygas vivas Aquisvivis, Aiguesvives. The first written mention of Aigues-Vives dates to 1301; the village was under the control of Mirepoix, ten miles to the north, until 1329, when Gaston de Lévis-Léran appropriated the castle and the surrounding lands. The village remained in the possession of the Lévis-Léran family until the Revolution; the main industries in the 20th century were the making of "horn combs" and textiles, as is the case for much of the Pays d'Olmes. Based on the number of inhabitants, the town has a council of 11 members. List of mayors The population of the town is young; the rate of people above the age of 60 years is lower than the national rate and the departmental level. Unlike national and departmental allocations, the male population of the town is greater than the female population; the distribution of the population of the municipality by age groups is, in 2007, as follows: 52.2% of men. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Aigues-Vives and Ariege Department in 2007 Sources: Local INSEE 1968 INSEE Population Census of 2007 for Ariege Aigues-Vives has a kindergarten and primary school, with 68 students.
Several sports facilities exist in Aigues-Vives: a football club, a gymnasium, a Tai-chi group, a bicycle club, a leisure centre which has a go-karting track and a mini-golf area. There is no pharmacy or doctor in Aigues-Vives with the closest being at Laroque-d'Olmes about 3 kilometres away; the nearest hospital is in Lavelanet seven kilometres away. In 2008, the median household income tax was €17,598, placing Aigues-Vives in 14,462th place out of the 31,604 communes of more than 50 households in France; the rate of unemployment in 2007 was 13.6% and higher among women than men. There are several companies in the building trades masonry and housepainting in Aigues-Vives and there is a textile company and a website design business. There is an Asian caterer, a camping ground, a Karting Club. Agriculture and livestock is another sector of activity in Aigues-Vives: wheat, forage grass, vines are grown, while cattle and sheep are raised; the nearby forests are rich in mushrooms. A project to create a wind farm on the ridges of the Serre du Tut was launched and abandoned due to strong opposition from the Association for the Preservation and Tourism and the Sites in the Pyrénées Mountains.
A Romanesque Church dedicated to Saint Stephen with a bell tower. There is an old baptismal font with an octagonal limestone sandstone base, it is registered as an historical object. The War Memorial is in the church. Several'Wayside crosses scattered around the village were used as Oratories. Processions in honour of the Virgin Mary are organized there. A Column with a square pedestal, topped by a statue of the Virgin is located in the parking lot near the church, it is about four metres high. An Old Fountain with a hand pump, in no state to use. Dry stone huts in ruins used by farmers. Lake Montbel is 5 km southeast of the commune; the Ecomuseum of Camping in the Serre. Faust Nadal, a colonial physician. Born in Aigues-Vives Jean Pelissier, a historian, sociologi
Allières is a commune in the Ariège department in the Occitanie region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Alliérasois or Alliérasoises Allières is located in the Plantaurel mountains in the Natural Regional Park of Pyrénées ariégeoises some 22 km west by north-west of Foix and some 70 km south of Toulouse. Access to the commune is by the minor D49 road which runs north from the D117 road through the commune and the village and continuing north across the mountains to join the D119 near Maury. There is access by a minor road from the east. Apart from the village there is the hamlet of Escougnale; the commune is forested with a few farms. Numerous streams rise in the commune flowing north to the Ruisseau de Mourisse which forms the northern border of the commune and flows west to join the Arize river near Maury. There is the Ruisseau de Peydalières rising in the west of the commune which flows west to join the Arize. List of Successive Mayors The Parish Church of Saint Roche contains two items that are registered as historical objects: A Painting with frame: Presentation at the temple of the child Jesus with a saint bishop A Painting with frame: Virgin and child surrounded by Saint Julien and Saint Nicolas de Myre The Falentin Saintenac family has many dead in their chapel adjoining the church.
Communes of the Ariège department Cantons of the Ariège department Arrondissements of the Ariège department Allières on the National Geographic Institutre website Allières on Lion1906 Allières on Google Maps Allières on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Ailleres on the 1750 Cassini Map Allières on the INSEE website INSEE
Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on the pressure of the system of interest; the same amount of water vapor results in higher relative humidity in cool air than warm air. A related parameter is that of dewpoint; the relative humidity of an air–water mixture is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over a flat surface of pure water at a given temperature: ϕ = p H 2 O p H 2 O ∗. Relative humidity is expressed as a percentage. At 100 % relative humidity, the air is at its dewpoint. Climate control refers to the control of temperature and relative humidity in buildings and other enclosed spaces for the purpose of providing for human comfort and safety, of meeting environmental requirements of machines, sensitive materials and technical processes. Along with air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air speed, metabolic rate, clothing level, relative humidity plays a role in human thermal comfort.
According to ASHRAE Standard 55-2017: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, indoor thermal comfort can be achieved through the PMV method with relative humidities ranging from 0% to 100%, depending on the levels of the other factors contributing to thermal comfort. However, the recommended range of indoor relative humidity in air conditioned buildings is 30-60%. In general, higher temperatures will require lower relative humidities to achieve thermal comfort compared to lower temperatures, with all other factors held constant. For example, with clothing level = 1, Metabolic rate = 1.1, air speed 0.1 m/s, a change in air temperature and mean radiant temperature from 20 degrees C to 24 degrees C would lower the maximum acceptable relative humidity from 100% to 65% to maintain thermal comfort conditions. The CBE Thermal Comfort Tool can be used to demonstrate the effect of relative humidity for specific thermal comfort conditions and it can be used to demonstrate compliance with ASHRAE Standard 55-2017.
When using the adaptive model to predict thermal comfort indoors, relative humidity is not taken into account. Although relative humidity is an important factor for thermal comfort, humans are more sensitive to variations in temperature than they are to changes in relative humidity. Relative humidity has a small effect on thermal comfort outdoors when air temperatures are low, a more pronounced effect at moderate air temperatures, a much stronger influence at higher air temperatures. In cold climates, the outdoor temperature causes lower capacity for water vapor to flow about, thus although it may be snowing and the relative humidity outdoors is high, once that air comes into a building and heats up, its new relative humidity is low, making the air dry, which can cause discomfort. Dry cracked. Low humidity causes tissue lining nasal passages to dry and become more susceptible to penetration of Rhinovirus cold viruses. Low humidity is a common cause of nosebleeds; the use of a humidifier in homes bedrooms, can help with these symptoms.
Indoor relative humidities should be kept above 30% to reduce the likelihood of the occupant's nasal passages drying out. Humans can be comfortable within a wide range of humidities depending on the temperature—from 30% to 70%—but ideally between 50% and 60%. Low humidity can create discomfort, respiratory problems, aggravate allergies in some individuals. In the winter, it is advisable to maintain relative humidity above. Low relative humidities may cause eye irritation. For climate control in buildings using HVAC systems, the key is to maintain the relative humidity at a comfortable range—low enough to be comfortable but high enough to avoid problems associated with dry air; when the temperature is high and the relative humidity is low, evaporation of water is rapid. Wooden furniture can shrink; when the temperature is low and the relative humidity is high, evaporation of water is slow. When relative humidity approaches 100 percent, condensation can occur on surfaces, leading to problems with mold, corrosion and other moisture-related deterioration.
Condensation can pose a safety risk as it can promote the growth of mold and wood rot as well as freezing emergency exits shut. Certain production and technical processes and treatments in factories, laboratories and other facilities require specific relative humidity levels to be maintained using humidifiers and associated control systems; the basic principles for buildings, above apply to vehicles. In addition, there may be safety considerations. For instance, high humidity inside a vehicle can lead to problems of condensation, such
2009 Tour de France
The 2009 Tour de France was the 96th edition of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tours. It started on 4 July in the principality of Monaco with a 15 kilometres individual time trial which included a section of the Circuit de Monaco; the race visited six countries: Monaco, Spain, Andorra and Italy, finished on 26 July on the Champs-Élysées in Paris. The total length was sfn including 93 kilometres in time-trials. There were seven mountain stages, three of which had mountaintop finishes, one medium-mountain stage; the race had a team time trial for the first time since 2005, the shortest distance in individual time trials since 1967, the first penultimate-day mountain stage in the Tour's history. 2007 winner Alberto Contador won the race by a margin of 4′11″, having won both a mountain and time trial stage. His Astana team took the team classification, and supplied the initial third-place finisher, Lance Armstrong. Armstrong's achievement was voided by the UCI in October 2012 following his non-dispute of a doping accusation by USADA, fourth place Bradley Wiggins was promoted to the podium.
Andy Schleck, second overall, won the young riders' competition. Franco Pellizotti won the polka dot jersey as the King of the Mountains, but had that result stripped by the Court of Arbitration for Sport in 2011 due to his irregular values in the UCI's biological passport program detected in May 2010. Mark Cavendish won six stages, including the final stage on the Champs-Élysées, but was beaten in the points classification by Thor Hushovd, who won the green jersey. 20 teams were invited to take part in the race. They include 17 of the 18 UCI ProTour teams and three other teams: Skil–Shimano, Cervélo TestTeam and Agritubel; each team started with 9 riders. The teams entering the race were:UCI ProTour teams Invited teams Favorites for the race included 2008 winner Carlos Sastre, 2007 winner Alberto Contador, 2009 Giro d'Italia winner Denis Menchov and two time runner-up Cadel Evans. Lance Armstrong competed in the race on the same team as Contador. Menchov and Evans performed far below the levels expected of them, finishing 51st and 30th and Sastre only showed among the leaders on the mountain stages that would have provided his best chance of making a bid for victory, coming 17th overall.
Alejandro Valverde, the team leader of Caisse d'Epargne, was not selected by his team for the Tour de France, because the race travelled through Italy on stage 16 and he had received a ban in May 2009 from the Italian Olympic Committee, prohibiting him from competing in Italy. He had finished in the top ten of the general classification of the Tour in the two previous years and was considered one of the favourites for overall victory. News about a positive retest of a 2007 out-of-competition control concerning Thomas Dekker broke three days before the start; the race started in Monaco with a 15 kilometres individual time trial, won by Olympic time trial champion Fabian Cancellara, who retained the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification throughout the first week, dominated by stages suited to sprinters, with Mark Cavendish establishing himself as the strongest finisher. The significant action of the first week in relation to the overall classification was restricted to a split in the field on stage 3, a team time trial the following day.
The second weekend saw the Tour in the Pyrenees, the first attack on the field by eventual winner Alberto Contador, while the leadership was taken over by Rinaldo Nocentini. Thor Hushovd showed an ability to take points in stages that did not include flat sprint finishes that would be key to the contest for the points classification, the main contenders for the mountains classification emerged; the journey towards the Alps the following week had a second pair of successive stage wins for Cavendish and a series of wins from riders in breakaways that held no threat to the general classification. An infringement in the sprint finish to stage 14 saw Cavendish relegated in finishing position, Hushovd gaining the upper hand in the points classification; the first alpine stage was the occasion of Contador's assumption of the race leadership, the emergence of Andy Schleck as the only rider to challenge him in the mountains, as the top young rider, giving Schleck the right to wear the white jersey.
Franco Pellizotti focussed on collecting points on the climbs early in stages to overhaul Egoi Martínez in the race for the mountains classification, without threatening the race leaders. By the end of the three stages in the Alps, after Contador's victory in the final time trial, it was only the minor placings that were realistically under question in the last mountain stage, held for the first time on the penultimate day of the tour on Mont Ventoux; the UCI introduced a ban on radio communication between team management and riders on stage 10, but the riders responded with a conservative style of racing for most of the stage and the intended repetition of the experiment on stage 13 was abandoned. At the victory ceremony, the national anthem of Denmark was mistakenly played instead of that of Spain. Contador described the incident as an "enormous blunder" at a post-Tour press conference in Madrid. At the victory ceremony for teams, the anthem of Spain was yet played, because Contador was part of the winning team, Astana.
In the 2009 Tour, Doping controls were conducted by the UCI, with the French body AFLD shadowing the process. Of
Saint-Lizier is a commune in the Ariège department in southwestern France, situated on the river Salat. Saint-Lizier has a rich history stretching back to pre Gallo-Roman times. In 72 BC, returning from his triumphs in Spain against Sertorius, stopped here, he gathered together the ancient tribes of the area under the name Consorani. The ramparts seen today enclose the oppidum. During the fifth century the citadel became, its first bishop is thought to have been Saint Valier. The town is named in honor of its 6th Century bishop Lycerius, canonized as Saint Lizier, a bishop who participated in the Council of Agde in 506; the town has two former cathedrals: Notre-Dame-de-la-Sède Cathedral. Inhabitants of Saint-Lizier are called Licérois. Communes of the Ariège department INSEE
Aleu is a commune in the Ariège department in the Occitanie region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aleudiens or Aleudiennes Aleu is located some 10 km south-east of Saint-Girons and 30 km west by south-west of Foix, it can be accessed by the D618 road coming from the west and following the northern border of the commune continuing to Biert in the east. The only access to the village by vehicle is by a small mountain road branching from the D618 at Castet d'Aleu. There is a small unsealed airstrip north-east of the village at approx 1000m altitude; the commune is rugged with extensive forests. Apart from the village, there are numerous hamlets: Castet d'Aleu, Galas d'en Bas and Galas d'en Haut, La Trappe, La Bordasse, Pinsou, La Rouere and Fontale; the Ruisseau d'Aleu rises in the south of the commune and flows north through the centre of the commune and the village gathering many tributaries and continues to join the Arac which forms the entire northern border of the commune.
The Ruisseau de Loule forms most of the eastern border and flows into the Arac. In the west the Ruisseau de Regude forms most of the border and flows north-west to join the Arac north-west of the commune; the commune of Aleu was created in the French Revolution superseding the Community of Aleu, detached in 1776 from that of Soulan. List of successive mayors Joubac, a small peak just above Aleu, has an altiport with a view of all the surrounding mountains and the Mont Valier mountain chain The Church of Saint Benedict contains a 12th-century font, registered as an historical object. Church of Saint Roch and Saint Germaine at Castet d'Aleu Castelet of Castet at Aleu dating from the 12th or 13th century Léopold Galy, born in Aleu on 12 March 1908 and died at Toulouse on 17 February 2001, was a French aviator and test pilot Communes of the Ariège department Cantons of the Ariège department Arrondissements of the Ariège department Aleu on the old IGN website Aleu on Lion1906 Aleu on Google Maps Aleu on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Aleu on the 1750 Cassini Map Aleu on the INSEE website INSEE