Basic fighter maneuvers
Basic fighter maneuvers are tactical movements performed by fighter aircraft during air combat maneuvering, to gain a positional advantage over the opponent. BFM combines the fundamentals of aerodynamic flight and the geometry of pursuit, with the physics of managing the aircraft's energy-to-weight ratio, called its specific energy. Maneuvers are used to gain a better angular position in relation to the opponent, they can be offensive, to help an attacker get behind an enemy or defensive, to help the defender evade an attacker's air-to-air weapons. They can be neutral, where both opponents strive for an offensive position or disengagement maneuvers, to help an escape. Awareness is taught as the best tactical defense, removing the possibility of an attacker getting or remaining behind the pilot. Basic fighter maneuvers are actions that a fighter aircraft makes during air combat maneuvering known as dogfighting; the development of BFM began with the first fighter aircraft, during World War I continued with each following war, adapting to the changing weapons and technologies.
Basic fighter maneuvers consist of many varying tactical turns and other actions to get behind or above an enemy, before the opponent can do the same. BFM are universal maneuvers which can be performed in any fighter aircraft, are considered to be training maneuvers. Training begins with pilots flying the same type of aircraft, pitting only their skills against each other. In advanced training, pilots learn to fly against opponents in different types of aircraft, so pilots must learn to cope with different technological advantages as well, which more resembles real combat. In actual air combat maneuvering, variations of these basic maneuvers may become necessary, depending on the different types of aircraft involved, the weapon systems each side is using, the number of aircraft involved. BFM are used in the three-dimensional arena of air combat, where maneuvers are not limited by simple two-dimensional turns, such as during a car chase. BFM not only relies on an aircraft's turn performance, but on the pilot's ability to make trade-offs between airspeed and altitude to maintain an energy level that will allow the fighter to continue maneuvering efficiently.
BFM relies on the pilot's understanding of the geometry of pursuit within the three-dimensional arena, where different angles of approach can cause different rates of closure. The fighter pilot uses these angles not only to get within a range where weapons can be used, but to avoid overshooting, which consists either of flying out in front of the opponent, called a "wingline overshoot", or crossing the enemy's flight path, called a "flight path overshoot"; the fighter pilot with the most advantageous position is above or behind the opponent, is called the attacker. Conversely, the pilot in the disadvantageous position is either below or ahead of the opponent, is referred to as the defender. Most maneuvers are offensive, such as the "barrel roll attack", "high Yo-Yo", "low Yo-Yo", "lag roll". Defensive maneuvers more consist of turning aggressively to avoid the attacker's guns, with maneuvers like the "break" and the "high Yo-Yo defense"; the defender will maneuver to force an overshoot, or to extend the range enough to dive away and escape.
However, other "last-ditch" maneuvers are used by the defender when the attacker achieves a firing solution, or the defender's energy becomes depleted so that maximum turn performance cannot be maintained, such as "guns defense" or the "defensive spiral". Basic fighter maneuver development began during World War I, with maneuvers such as the "Immelmann", named after German pilot Max Immelmann, the "break" and the "barrel roll"; the modern Immelmann differs from the original version, now called a stall turn or "Hammerhead turn". The Immelmann turn was an effective maneuver in the early part of the war but as aircraft technology advanced and fighter engines became more powerful, it became a dangerous maneuver, because the opponent could climb and shoot the German fighters when they were motionless at the top of the turn. Billy Bishop, the top Canadian ace of World War I, described a break: Watching over your shoulder and judging the moment he will open fire, you turn your machine so as to fly at right angles to him.
His bullets will pass behind you during the maneuver. During World War I, due to the low power of early aircraft, the most common type of engagement was known as a Lufbery, which consisted of two fighters chasing each other around the same circle 180 degrees apart; this type of engagement is energy-depleting, causing the fighters to lose altitude until they run out of maneuvering room. This type of fight became a game of chicken, forcing one fighter to attempt an escape before crashing into the ground and giving the advantage to the other; as engines became more powerful, three-dimensional tactics became available to counter the stalemate of the Lufbery, allowing fighters to maneuver onto the tail of their opponents. Development continued through each war, as weapon systems became more advanced. Maneuvers such as the "combat spread" were first devised by pilots like Werner Molders during the Spanish civil war. A simple, non-turning form of the low-Yo-Yo is depicted in John Godfrey's description of his first kill, flying a Republic P-47 Thunderbolt over Europe during World War II, Breathlessly I watched the 109 in between the breaks in the clouds as I dove.
At 12,000 feet I leveled off
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Canada Flight Supplement
The Canada Flight Supplement is a joint civil/military publication and is a supplement of the Aeronautical Information Publication. It is the nation's official airport directory, it contains information on all registered Canadian and certain Atlantic aerodromes and certified airports. The CFS is published, separately in English and French, as a paper book by Nav Canada and is issued once every 56 days on the ICAO AIRAC schedule; the CFS was published by Natural Resources Canada on behalf of Transport Canada and the Department of National Defence until 15 March 2007 edition, at which time Nav Canada took over production. The CFS presents runway data and departure procedures, air traffic control and other radio frequencies and services such as fuel, hangarage that are available at each listed aerodrome; as well, the CFS contains useful reference pages, including interception instructions for civil aircraft, chart updating data and search and rescue information. Most pilots flying in Canada carry a copy of the CFS in case a weather or mechanical diversion to another airport becomes necessary.
The Canada Flight Supplement is made up of seven sections: Special Notices — list of new or amended procedures. General Section — glossary, airport code listing, list of abandoned aerodromes, other introductory information. Aerodrome/Facility Directory — list all aerodromes alphabetically by the community in which they are located. A sketch of the airport is included showing runway layout, locations of buildings and tower. Included in the sketch is an obstacle clearance circle. Planning — general flight planning information, including flight plans and position reports, lists of significant new towers and other obstructions, chart updating, preferred IFR routes, similar information. Radio Navigation and Communications — listing of radio navigation aids and communication outlets, together with all known commercial AM broadcasters and their locations and frequencies. Military Flight Data and Procedures — military flight and reporting procedures for Canada and the U. S. Emergency — emergency procedures and guidelines for hijacks, fuel dumping and rescue, etc.
Carrying "current aeronautical charts and publications covering the route of the proposed flight and any probable diversionary route" is a requirement under CAR 602.60 for night VFR, VFR Over-The-Top and instrument flight rules flights. This Canadian Aviation Regulation does not require carriage of a copy of the CFS, but, one way to satisfy the regulation; because information in the CFS may be out of date with regard to such issues as runway closures and fuel availability, pilots should check NOTAMs before each flight. NOTAM information in Canada can be obtained from the Nav Canada Aviation Weather Website or by contacting the appropriate regional Nav Canada Flight Information Centre. While Nav Canada's CFS has the monopoly on paper-version airport directories in Canada, there are several competing internet publications, including the Canadian Owners and Pilots Association's Places to Fly user-editable airport directory. Nav Canada publishes the Water Aerodrome Supplement, as a single volume in English and French.
This contains information on all Canadian water aerodromes as shown on visual flight rules charts and other information such as navaids. The WAS is published on an annual basis. Airport/Facility Directory – U. S. publications equivalent to the Aerodrome/Facility and Planning chapters of the CFS, but divided into several volumes covering different regions. Official website
A motor glider is a fixed-wing aircraft that can be flown with or without engine power. The FAI Gliding Commission Sporting Code definition is: a fixed-wing aerodyne equipped with a means of propulsion, capable of sustained soaring flight without thrust from the means of propulsion. In the US, a powered glider may be certificated for up to two occupants, up to 850 kg maximum weight, with a maximum ratio of weight to wing span squared of 3 kg/m2. Similar requirements exist at a maximum weight of 750 kg. In 1935, an occasional or auxiliary motor that could be retracted was suggested by Sir John Carden; this was incorporated into the Carden-Baynes Auxiliary. Most motor gliders are equipped with a propeller, which may be fixed, retractable; however jet engine-powered motorgliders are now available from some manufacturers, some of which are intended for use only as "sustainer" engines, i.e. for sustaining gliding flight rather than as self-launching aircraft. Motor with fixed or full feathering propellers are classified as Touring Motor Gliders.
TMGs can cruise like an airplane or soar with power off, like a glider. They are fitted with front-mounted engines, similar to a small airplane; the large wingspans of TMGs provide a moderate gliding performance, not as good as that of unpowered gliders. However TMGs are more efficient than conventional light aircraft. Most TMGs are designed with engines of 80 to 100 hp and cruise at 85–100 knots. Most have fuel tanks capable of holding between 50 and 100 liters of fuel, giving a range under power of up to 450 nautical miles. Modern TMGs like the Phoenix Air Phoenix are capable of longer range under power; some TMGs are equipped with folding wings to allow them to fit in standard small airplane T-hangars. Tow hooks are unnecessary, since aircraft with self-launch ability do not require access to winch or tow plane for launching like a conventional glider; some TMGs, like the Europa or the Phoenix, can be supplied with interchangeable wings or wingtips so that they can be flown as a standard touring aircraft as well as a TMG.
The landing gear configuration on TMGs incorporates two fixed main wheels, allowing it to be taxied on the ground without a wing walker. While some TMGs have only one main wheel, with auxiliary trolley wheels on the wings for taxiing, it is becoming more common to find them being manufactured with tricycle and conventional landing gear configurations. Since the additional drag of the stopped propeller and landing gear reduces their gliding performance, TMGs are used in competition; the retractable propeller is mounted on a mast that rotates up and forward out of the fuselage, aft of the cockpit and wing carry-through structure. The fuselage has engine bay doors that close automatically, similar to landing gear doors; the engine may be near the top or bottom of the mast, newer designs have the engine fixed in the fuselage to reduce noise and drag. Unlike TMGs, most gliders with retractable propellers are fitted with a tow-hook for aero-towing or ground launch, they have a single-axle retractable main wheel on the fuselage like most unpowered gliders, so they do require assistance during ground operations.
The two-stroke engines used are not efficient at reduced power for level cruising flight, instead must use a "saw-tooth" flight profile where the glider climbs at full power glides with the propeller retracted. Sustainer motor gliders must be launched like an unpowered glider, but can climb to extend a flight once the engine is deployed and started, they do not have an alternator or starter motor, so the engine is started by "wind-milling" the propeller in flight. The propeller may be a rigid 2-blade design, or may have more than two blades that fold at the hub when the engine is retracted; the propeller hub is attached directly to the crankshaft, but there is at least one example of a sustainer with a belt reduction drive, the DG-1000T. The smaller sustainer engines are not equipped with a throttle, but instead have a cable to open decompression valves in each cylinder to allow the engine to turn for starting. Sustainer engines are two-stroke two-cylinder air-cooled engines in the range of 18–30 hp.
They are lighter in weight, simpler to operate than self-launching powerplants. Self-launching retractable propeller motor gliders have sufficient thrust and initial climb rate to take off without assistance, or they may be launched as with a conventional glider; the engines have a starter motor and a large battery to allow the engine to be started on the ground, an alternator to recharge the battery. A two-blade propeller is coupled to the engine via a belt reduction drive. In older designs, the propeller alignment must be checked by the pilot using a mirror, before it is retracted into the fuselage. Another solution is the single-blade propeller that offers the advantage of a smaller opening in the fuselage to retract the engine. Internal combustion engines can benefit from mounting in the fuselage, rather than on the propeller mast; this allows them to be connected to a larger muffler for reduced noise when operating, something, relevant to European operation. It allows the belt tension to be relieved when the engine is retracted to extend the life of the belt and bearings.
The drawback of this arrangement is that engines fixed low in fuselages are more difficult to pre-flig
Ultralight aviation is the flying of lightweight, 1- or 2-seat fixed-wing aircraft. Some countries differentiate between weight-shift control and conventional 3-axis control aircraft with ailerons and rudder, calling the former "microlight" and the latter "ultralight". During the late 1970s and early 1980s stimulated by the hang gliding movement, many people sought affordable powered flight; as a result, many aviation authorities set up definitions of lightweight, slow-flying aeroplanes that could be subject to minimum regulations. The resulting aeroplanes are called "ultralight aircraft" or "microlights", although the weight and speed limits differ from country to country. In Europe, the sporting definition limits the maximum take-off weight to 450 kg and a maximum stalling speed of 65 km/h; the definition means that the aircraft has a slow landing speed and short landing roll in the event of an engine failure. In most affluent countries, microlights or ultralight aircraft now account for a significant percentage of the global civilian-owned aircraft.
For instance in Canada in February 2018, the ultralight aircraft fleet made up to 20.4% of the total civilian aircraft registered. In other countries that do not register ultralight aircraft, like the United States, it is unknown what proportion of the total fleet they make up. In countries where there is no specific extra regulation, ultralights are considered regular aircraft and subject to certification requirements for both aircraft and pilot. In Australia, ultralight aircraft and their pilots can either be registered with the Hang Gliding Federation of Australia or Recreational Aviation Australia. In all cases, except for built single seat ultralight aeroplanes, microlight aircraft or trikes are regulated by the Civil Aviation Regulations. Paramotor and powered hang-glider pilots do not need a licence, provided the weight of the aircraft is not more than 75 kg, but they must obey the rules of the air. For heavier microlights the current UK regulations match the European ones, except that helicopters and gyroplanes are not included.
Earlier UK microlight definitions described an aeroplane with a maximum weight of 390 kg, a maximum wing loading of 25 kg per square metre. Other than the earliest aircraft, all two-seat UK microlights have been required to meet an airworthiness standard. In 2007, Single Seat DeRegulated, a sub-category of single seat aircraft was introduced, allowing owners more freedom for modification and experiments. By 2017 the airworthiness of all single seat microlights became the responsibility of the user, but pilots must hold a microlight licence. Ultralights in New Zealand are subject to NZCAA General Aviation regulations with microlight specific variations as described in Part 103 and AC103; the United States FAA's definition of an ultralight is different from that in most other countries and can lead to some confusion when discussing the topic. The governing regulation in the United States is FAR 103 Ultralight Vehicles. In 2004, the FAA introduced the "Light-sport aircraft" category, which resembles some other countries' microlight categories.
Ultralight aviation is represented by the United States Ultralight Association, which acts as the US aeroclub representative to the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. There are several categories of aircraft which qualify as ultralights in some countries: Fixed-wing aircraft: traditional airplane-style designs. Weight-shift control trike: use a hang glider-style wing, below, suspended a three-wheeled carriage which carries the engine and aviators; these aircraft are controlled by pushing against a horizontal control bar in the same way as a hang glider pilot flies. Powered parachute: fuselage-mounted engines with parafoil wings, which are wheeled aircraft. Powered paraglider: backpack engines with parafoil wings, which are foot-launched. Powered hang glider: motorized foot-launched hang glider harness. Autogyro: rotary wing with fuselage-mounted engine, a gyrocopter is different from a helicopter in that the rotating wing is not powered, the engine provides forward thrust and the airflow through the rotary blades causes them to autorotate or "spin up" thereby creating lift.
Helicopter: there are a number of single-seat and two-place helicopters which fall under the microlight categories in countries such as New Zealand. However, few helicopter designs fall within the more restrictive ultralight category defined in the United States of America. Hot air balloon: there are numerous ultralight hot air balloons in the US, several more have been built and flown in France and Australia in recent years; some ultralight hot air balloons are hopper balloons, while others are regular hot air balloons that carry passengers in a basket. Advancements in batteries and motor controllers has led to some practical production electric propulsion systems for some ultralight applications. In many ways, ultralights are a good application for electric power as some models are capable of flying with low power, which allows longer duration flights on battery power. In 2007, the first pioneering company in this field, the Electric Aircraft Corporation, began offering engine kits to convert ultralight weight shift trikes to electric power.
The 18 hp motor weighs an efficiency of 90 % is claimed by designer Randall Fishman. The battery consists of a lithium-polymer battery pack of 5.6kWh which provides 1.5 hours of flying in the trike applicat
General Aviation represents the'private transport' and recreational flying component of aviation. General aviation is the name or term given to all civil aviation aircraft operations with the exception of commercial air transport or aerial work, they are flight activities not involving commercial air transportation of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire, or an aerial work operation such as agriculture, photography, surveying and patrol, search and rescue, aerial advertisement, etc. It covers certain commercial and private flights that can be carried out under both visual flight and instrument flight rules, such as light aircraft and private jets or helicopters. General aviation thus represents the'private transport' component of aviation; the International Civil Aviation Organization defines civil aviation aircraft operations in three categories: General Aviation, Aerial Work and Commercial Air Transport. The International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations includes the following definitions for General Aviation aircraft activities: Corporate Aviation: Company own-use flight operations Fractional Ownership Operations: aircraft operated by a specialized company on behalf of two or more co-owners Business Aviation: self-flown for business purposes Personal/Private Travel: travel for personal reasons/personal transport Air Tourism: self-flown incoming/outgoing tourism Recreational Flying: powered/powerless leisure flying activities Air Sports: Aerobatics, Air Races, Rallies etc.
In 2003 the European Aviation Safety Agency was established as the central EU regulator, taking over responsibility for legislating airworthiness and environmental regulation from the national authorities. Of the 21,000 civil aircraft registered in the UK, 96 percent are engaged in GA operations, annually the GA fleet accounts for between 1.25 and 1.35 million hours flown. There are 28,000 Private Pilot Licence holders, 10,000 certified glider pilots; some of the 19,000 pilots who hold professional licences are engaged in GA activities. GA operates from more than 1,800 airports and landing sites or aerodromes, ranging in size from large regional airports to farm strips. GA is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority, although regulatory powers are being transferred to the European Aviation Safety Agency; the main focus is on standards of airworthiness and pilot licensing, the objective is to promote high standards of safety. General aviation is popular in North America, with over 6,300 airports available for public use by pilots of general aviation aircraft.
In comparison, scheduled flights operate from around 560 airports in the U. S. According to the U. S. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, general aviation provides more than one percent of the United States' GDP, accounting for 1.3 million jobs in professional services and manufacturing. Most countries have authorities that oversee all civil aviation, including general aviation, adhering to the standardized codes of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Examples include the Federal Aviation Administration in the United States, the Civil Aviation Authority in the United Kingdom, Civil Aviation Authority of Zimbabwe in Zimbabwe, the Luftfahrt-Bundesamt in Germany, the Bundesamt für Zivilluftfahrt in Switzerland, Transport Canada in Canada, the Civil Aviation Safety Authority in Australia, the Directorate General of Civil Aviation in India and Iran Civil Aviation Organization in Iran. Aviation accident rate statistics are estimates. According to the U. S. National Transportation Safety Board, in 2005 general aviation in the United States suffered 1.31 fatal accidents for every 100,000 hours of flying in that country, compared to 0.016 for scheduled airline flights.
In Canada, recreational flying accounted for 0.7 fatal accidents for every 1000 aircraft, while air taxi accounted for 1.1 fatal accidents for every 100,000 hours. More experienced GA pilots appear safer, although the relations between flight hours, accident frequency, accident rates are complex and difficult to assess. Environmental impact of aviation List of current production certified light aircraftAssociationsAircraft Owners and Pilots Association Canadian Owners and Pilots Association Experimental Aircraft Association General Aviation Manufacturers Association National Business Aviation Association International Aircraft Owners and Pilots Associations European General Aviation Safety Team "No Plane No Gain" website about business aviation Save-GA.org website concerned with General Aviation in the United States "GA price index". Flight International. 13 Oct 1979