The Trans-Canada Highway is a transcontinental federal-provincial highway system that travels through all ten provinces of Canada from the Pacific Ocean on the west to the Atlantic on the east. The main route spans 7,821 km across the country, one of the longest routes of its type in the world; the highway system is recognizable by its distinctive white-on-green maple leaf route markers, although there are small variations in the markers in some provinces. Throughout much of Canada, there are at least two routes designated as part of the Trans-Canada Highway. For example, in the western provinces, both the main Trans-Canada route and the Yellowhead Highway are part of the Trans-Canada system. Although the TCH, being a transcontinental route, does not enter any of Canada's three northern territories or run to the Canada–US border, the Trans-Canada Highway forms part of Canada's overall National Highway System, providing connections to the Northwest Territories and the border, although the NHS is unsigned.
Canada's national highway system is not under federal jurisdiction, as decisions about highway and freeway construction are under the jurisdiction of the individual provinces. Route numbering on the Trans-Canada Highway is handled by the provinces; the Western provinces have coordinated their highway numbers so that the main Trans-Canada route is designated Highway 1 and the Yellowhead route is designated Highway 16 throughout. East of Manitoba the highway numbers change at each provincial boundary, or within a province as the TCH piggybacks along separate provincial highways en route. In addition and Quebec use standard provincial highway shields to number the highway within their boundaries, but post numberless Trans-Canada Highway shields alongside them to identify it; as the Trans-Canada route was composed of sections from pre-existing provincial highways, it is unlikely that the Trans-Canada Highway will have a uniform designation across the whole country. The Trans-Canada Highway, uniformly designated as Highway 1 in the four western provinces, begins in Victoria, British Columbia at the intersection of Douglas Street and Dallas Road and passes northward along the east coast of Vancouver Island for 99 km to Nanaimo.
Short freeway segments of the TCH can be found near Victoria and Nanaimo, but the rest of the highway on Vancouver Island operates as a signalized low-to-limited-mobility arterial road that uniquely does not bypass any of its areas of urban sprawl Nanaimo and Duncan. The section of Highway 1 that crosses the Malahat northwest of Victoria has no stoplights yet, but is pinched by rugged terrain that prevents comprehensive widening to four lanes and sometimes forces closure for hours at a time after a traffic accident; the Departure Bay ferry is the only marine link on the Trans-Canada system that has no freeway or other high mobility highway access, instead routing TCH traffic through downtown Nanaimo streets to reach the ferry to Vancouver. The Vancouver Island TCH is one of four parts of the Trans-Canada system in which the highway runs north-south, the others being Highway 1 from Hope to Cache Creek, Ontario Highway 17 from White River to Sault Ste Marie, Ontario Highways 69 and 400 from Sudbury to Waubaushene, Autoroute 85/Route 185 from Autoroute 20 in Quebec to the New Brunswick border.
The Trans-Canada is otherwise designated as east-west from Nanaimo to St. John's. From Departure Bay, a 57 km ferry route connects the highway to Horseshoe Bay in West Vancouver. At this point, the Trans-Canada Highway becomes a high mobility freeway and passes through the Vancouver metropolitan area, crossing the Fraser River with the Port Mann Bridge, electronically tolled between December 8, 2012 and September 1, 2017. From the Port Mann Bridge, the TCH heads east through the Fraser Valley to Hope covering a total distance of 170 km from the Horseshoe Bay ferry. At Hope, the TCH exits the freeway and turns north for 186 km through the Fraser Canyon toward Cache Creek as a high mobility highway with only occasional mandatory stops east for 79 km where it re-enters a short freeway alignment through Kamloops. From there, it continues east as a two-lane expressway through Salmon Arm, Revelstoke, Rogers Pass and Kicking Horse Pass, to Field, British Columbia while passing by Yoho National Park.
Using the South Fraser Perimeter Road from Surrey to Tsawwassen Ferry Terminal, Vancouver Island or interior-bound traffic can bypass the busiest sections of Highway 1 in Metro Vancouver and the Horseshoe Bay-Departure Bay Ferry. Victoria-bound traffic can use the same highway as a shortcut that bypasses the entire circuitous Vancouver Island route of the Trans-Canada with its numerous traffic lights and bottlenecks. Speed limits on the British Columbia mainland segment of the Trans-Canada range from 80 to 110 km/h. A combination of difficult terrain and growing urbanization limits posted speeds on the Vancouver Island section to 50 km/h in urban areas, 80 km/h across the Malahat and through suburban areas, a maximum of 90 km/h in rural areas. From Field, British Columbia, the highway continues 206 km east as Alberta Highway 1 to Lake Louise, Banff and Calgary where it becomes known as 16 Avenue N an expressway and a busy street with many signalized intersections; the northwest and northeast segments of
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century. The translation was the work of Jerome, who in 382 had been commissioned by Pope Damasus I to revise the Vetus Latina Gospels in use by the Roman Church. Jerome, on his own initiative, extended this work of revision and translation to include most of the books of the Bible, once published, the new version was adopted and eclipsed the Vetus Latina; the Catholic Church affirmed the Vulgate as its official Latin Bible at the Council of Trent, though there was no authoritative edition at that time. The Clementine edition of the Vulgate of 1592 became the standard Bible text of the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church and remained so until 1979 when the Nova Vulgata was promulgated; the Vulgate has a compound text, not the work of Jerome. While Jerome revised all the Gospels of the Vetus Latina from the Greek, it is unknown who revised the rest of the New Testament.
Several unrevised books of the Vetus Latina Old Testament commonly became included in the Vulgate. Medieval Vulgate Bibles might further include the Prayer of Manasses, 4 Esdras, the Epistle to the Laodiceans and Psalm 151. Jerome himself translated all books of the Jewish Bible from Hebrew; the Vulgate's components include: Independent translation from the Hebrew by Jerome: the books of the Hebrew Bible, including a translation of the Psalms from the Hebrew, found in early medieval Vulgate manuscripts but is supplanted by Jerome's Gallican version in bibles. This was completed in 405. Free translation from a secondary Aramaic version by Jerome: Tobias and Judith. Translation from the Greek of Theodotion by Jerome: The three additions to the Book of Daniel; the Song of the Three Children was retained within the narrative of Daniel, Susanna was moved by Jerome from before the beginning of Daniel to the end of the book along with Bel and the Dragon. These additions he marked with an obelus to distinguish them from the canonical text.
Translation from the Common Septuagint by Jerome: the Additions to Esther. Jerome gathered all these additions together at the end of the Book of Esther, marking them with an obelus. Translation from the Hexaplar Septuagint by Jerome: his Gallican version of the Book of Psalms. Jerome's Hexaplaric revisions of other books of Old Testament continued to circulate in Italy for several centuries, but only Job and fragments of other books survive. Revision of the Old Latin by Jerome: the Gospels, corrected with reference to the best Greek manuscripts Jerome considered available. Revision of the Old Latin: the Roman Psalter including Psalm 151, undertaken prior to Jerome but continuing in liturgical use, included in many medieval Vulgate Old Testaments and liturgical psalters. Revision of the Old Latin by a person or persons unknown, contemporary with Jerome: Acts, Pauline epistles, Catholic epistles and the Apocalypse. Old Latin, wholly unrevised: Epistle to the Laodiceans, Prayer of Manasses, 4 Esdras, Ecclesiasticus, 1 and 2 Maccabees.
The Book of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah were excluded by Jerome as non-canonical, but sporadically re-admitted into the Vulgate tradition from the Additions to the Book of Jeremiah of the Old Latin from the 9th century onwards. Independent translation, distinct from the Old Latin, he had been commissioned by Damasus I in 382 to revise the Old Latin text of the four Gospels from the best Greek texts. By the time of Damasus' death in 384, Jerome had completed this task, together with a more cursory revision from the Greek Common Septuagint of the Old Latin text of the Psalms in the Roman Psalter, a version which he disowned and is now lost. How much of the rest of the New Testament he revised is difficult to judge today, but none of his work survived in the Vulgate text of these books; the revised text of the New Testament outside the Gospels is the work of one or more other scholars. This unknown reviser worked more than Jerome had done using older Greek manuscript sources of Alexandrian text-type, had published a complete revised New Testament text by 410 at the latest, when Pelagius quoted from it in his commentary on the letters of Paul.
In 385, Jerome was forced out of Rome and settled in Bethlehem. There he was able to use a surviving manuscript of the Hexapla from the nearby Theological Library of Caesarea Maritima, a column
Saint-Jérôme station is an intermodal transit station in Saint-Jérôme, Canada. It serves CIT Laurentides and intercity buses as well as Réseau de transport métropolitain commuter rail trains on the Saint-Jérôme line, it serves bus routes operated by the CIT Laurentides, a suburban transit agency, by two intercity bus companies. In addition to loading areas for buses, it includes train platforms which are used by the Saint-Jérôme line; the line is operated by the Réseau de transport métropolitain, the umbrella organization that integrates and coordinates public transportation services in the Greater Montreal area. Commuter trains towards Montreal began serving the station on Monday, January 8, 2007, with four trains on weekdays; the ride from Saint-Jérôme to Lucien-L'Allier station takes 85 minutes. Saint-Jérôme is in Fare Zone 7, the station has parking for 775 cars; the station is built of wood, drawing its inspiration from the former Canadian Pacific Railway station in Saint-Jérôme and from industrial architecture of the 1900s.
The former Canadian Pacific Railway station in Saint-Jérôme at 160, rue de la Gare was designated in 1994 as a heritage railway station by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, is now used as an exhibition space and events facility. Some documents give the station's address as 455, boul. Jean-Baptiste-Rolland E. in Saint-Jérôme, but the address is more shown as 280, rue Latour. CIT Laurentides Route List Route Maps Transport adapté et collectif des Laurentides Transport Collectif Intermunicipal Laurentides Saint-Jérôme station page on official RTM website
Mont-Tremblant is a city in the Laurentian Mountains of Quebec, Canada 130 kilometres northwest of Montreal and 140 kilometres northeast of Ottawa, Ontario. The current municipality with city status was formed in 2000. Mont-Tremblant is most famous for its ski resort, the Mont-Tremblant Ski Resort, 5 kilometres from the village proper, at the foot of a mountain called Mont Tremblant. Mont-Tremblant has a race track called Circuit Mont-Tremblant, it has hosted or hosts Formula One, Can-Am, Trans-Am, Champ Car World Series competitions amongst others. The surrounding area features hiking, canoeing, golfing, a host of other outdoor activities. Since the summer of 2006, Mont-Tremblant has its own senior amateur Canadian football team, the Mystral, Junior AA hockey team, Les Diables; the area was inhabited by Algonquins before European colonization. It was settled in 1872 by parish priest Antoine Labelle, leading to formal establishment of the parish in 1879. A railway line from Montreal was completed to the village of Saint-Jovite in 1892, extended to Lac Mercier in 1904.
The Lac-Mercier station would become the village of Mont-Tremblant. In 1905 a hydroelectric dam was erected on the banks of the Ruisseau Clair and the Rivière-du-Diable providing electricity for Saint-Jovite. Principal economic activities were logging. Constructed by Joseph Bondurant Ryan, the ski resort Mont-Tremblant Lodge began operation of their first chair lift in 1939, his family sold the resort in 1965 to a consortium of investors. In 2002 the four municipalities in the area merged, Ville Saint-Jovite, Paroisse de Saint-Jovite, Mont-Tremblant, Lac-Tremblant-Nord, becoming the amalgamated Ville de Mont-Tremblant. Afterwards the Municipality of Lac-Tremblant-Nord separated, effective 2006. Population: Population in 2016: 9646 Population in 2011: 9494 Population in 2006: 8892 Population in 2001: 8317 Population total in 1996: Mont-Tremblant: 977 Lac-Tremblant-Nord: 4 Saint-Jovite: 4609 Saint-Jovite: 1708 Population in 1991: Mont-Tremblant: 707 Lac-Tremblant-Nord: 0 Saint-Jovite: 4118 Saint-Jovite: 1275Language: English as first language: 7.4% French as first language: 89.0% Other as first language: 2.3% The city has five elementary schools on its territory, one high school, one professional training school, one public college.
The Commission scolaire des Laurentides operates French-language schools: Elementary schools: Fleur-Soleil, La-Doyenne, La Ribambelle, Trois Saisons. High school: École Polyvalente Curé-Mercure; the Sir Wilfrid Laurier School Board operates English-language schools: Saint Agathe Academy in Sainte-Agathe-des-Monts serves students for both elementary and secondary levels. Arundel Elementary School in Arundel serves students at the elementary levelProfessional training school: Centre Le Florès. CEGEP: Centre Collégial de Mont-Tremblant. Gray Rocks Mont-Tremblant public transit Mont Blanc, Quebec Mont-Tremblant travel guide from Wikivoyage Ville de Mont-Tremblant Official Site [https://web.archive.org/web/20120116225445/http://tremblantexpress.com/accueilen.php Mont-Tremblant Local Newspaper - Tremblant Express
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Rivière-du-Nord (electoral district)
Rivière-du-Nord is a federal electoral district in Quebec, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 2004. The district consists of the La Rivière-du-Nord Regional County Municipality, it includes the communities of Saint-Jérôme, Sainte-Sophie, Prévost, Saint-Hippolyte and Saint-Colomban The neighbouring ridings are Argenteuil—La Petite-Nation, Laurentides—Labelle, Montcalm and Mirabel. The electoral district was created in 2003: 83.3% of the population of the riding came from Laurentides, 9.3% from Berthier—Montcalm and 7.4% from Argenteuil—Papineau—Mirabel ridings. In the 2012 electoral redistribution, the riding lost Saint-Colomban to Mirabel; this riding has elected the following Member of Parliament: List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-07. Campaign expense data from Elections Canada Riding history from the Library of Parliament 2011 Results from Elections Canada
Exo (public transit)
Exo known as Réseau de transport métropolitain, is a public transit system in the Greater Montreal Region, including the Island of Montreal and communities along both the North Shore of the Mille Îles River and the South Shore of the St. Lawrence River, it was created on June 2017, taking over from the Agence métropolitaine de transport. The RTM operates Montreal's commuter rail and metropolitan bus services, is the second busiest such system in Canada after Toronto's GO Transit. In May 2018, the erstwhile Réseau de transport métropolitain rechristened itself as Exo. Exo's territory is concurrent with Montreal Metropolitan Community limits, with the addition of the Kahnawake First Nations reserve and the city of Saint-Jérôme, it serves a population of 4.1 million people who make more than 750,000 trips daily in the 4,258.97 km2 area radiating from Montreal. Exo's mandate includes the operation of Montreal's commuter rail service, which links the downtown core with communities as far west as Hudson, as far east as Mont-Saint-Hilaire, as far north as Saint-Jérôme and commuter buses operated by local operators.
Exo's parent agency, the Autorité régionale de transport métropolitain, is charged with transportation planning for the Greater Montreal area. Exo operates commuter train service as well as the bus service outside of the three main population centres of Greater Montreal. In these areas service is provided by the Société de Transport de Montréal on the Island of Montreal, the Société de Transport de Laval in Laval, the Réseau de transport de Longueuil for the urban agglomeration of Longueuil. Exo's commuter trains are its highest-profile division, it has two types of trains: electric multiple unit trains, used on the Deux-Montagnes line, diesel-electric push-pull trains, used on all the others. The Deux-Montagnes line was electrified because of the 4.8 km long poorly ventilated tunnel under Mount Royal to Central Station. Diesel trains through the tunnel are now prohibited; the Exo commuter trains operate on tracks owned by Canadian Pacific. The Mont-Saint-Hilaire line run on CN trackage and operate out of Central Station, while the Vaudreuil-Hudson, Saint-Jérôme, Candiac lines run on CP trackage and operate out of Lucien L'Allier terminus, beside the historic Windsor Station.
The Saint-Jérôme line runs on Canadian Pacific trackage and on the RTM's own trackage between Sainte-Thérèse and Saint-Jérôme. The Deux-Montagnes line, including trackage and all infrastructure, as well as the Mount Royal tunnel, is fully owned by the RTM. Operation of all commuter rail was provided by contract to CN and CP until June 30, 2017. Operations were taken over by Bombardier Transportation beginning July 1, 2017, on an 8-year contract; the train lines are integrated with the bus and Metro network maintained by the Société de transport de Montréal. The greater Montreal area is divided into 8 fare zones. Starting from downtown Montreal, they stretch outwards in all directions; the first three zones are within the cities of Montreal and Longueuil only. The commuter train fare system is based on the assumption that the user is travelling to or from downtown, it is the same price, for example, to travel within zone 3 or from zone 3 to zone 2 as opposed to travel from zone 3 to zone 1. To use the train, passengers must have a validated TRAM or TRAIN fare that covers the furthest zone travelled.
TRAM fares provide access to the Montreal Metro and buses within the fare zone without any additional payment while the TRAIN fares are only valid on commuter trains. Tickets can be purchased individually or in a six-trip card Single and 6-trip TRAM fares are available for zones 1, 2, 3 only, are valid only on STM buses. Regular users can get a monthly pass. Tickets and passes for commuter trains are valid for any line, as long as the ticket is used within 120 minutes from the time of purchase or validation. Travel is limited to the zone for which the ticket is purchased, or any lower-numbered zone, but not a higher-numbered one. For example, a zone 5 ticket is valid for zones 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, but not zones 6, 7, 8. Local bus tickets and passes are not valid on commuter trains. There are no faregates. All fares are available in a cheaper "reduced" category for children 6 to 15 years old, students 16 and 17 years old, seniors that are 65 or older. Additionally, monthly passes are available in a "student" category for students 18 to 25 years old.
To benefit from the reduced or student fares, the passenger must have a reduced-fare OPUS card with their name and photo on it. Travel on the commuter trains is free for anyone 5 and under as well as children 6 to 11 years old travelling with an adult. Following the introduction of the OPUS, smart card system tickets and passes are now sold by automated vending machines at each station; the machines accept cash and debit cards. Purchases of more than $80 must be paid by cards. Tickets and passes are sold at a few stores near the suburban stations. Consult the full list on the RTM's website. Passes are valid for a calendar month, are on sale from the 20th of the previous month to the 5th of their month of validity. Passengers can subscribe to OPUS+ which automatically debits the passenger's bank account or credit card