Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly
Abbesses (Paris Métro)
Abbesses is a station on Paris Métro Line 12, in the Montmartre district and the 18th arrondissement. Abbesses is the deepest station in the Paris Métro, at 36 metres below ground, it is located on the western side of the butte of Montmartre. Access to the platforms is by elevators, but they are accessed by decorated stairs. Nearby are the Montmartre district, the Basilique du Sacré-Cœur de Montmartre, the Place du Tertre and the Église Saint-Jean-de-Montmartre; the station is named after the Place des Abbesses, referring to the abbesses of the nearby abbey of the Dames-de-Montmartre. The station opened on 30 January 1913, three months after the extension of the Nord-Sud company's line A from Pigalle to Jules Joffrin. On 27 March 1931, line A became line 12 of the Métro; the station's entrance, designed by Hector Guimard, is one of only two remaining glass-covered "dragonfly" entrances, known as édicules. Though a Guimard original, the édicule at Abbesses was located at Hôtel de Ville and was transferred to its current location in 1974.
The entrance is technically anachronistic, since line 12 of the Paris metro was built by a competing firm, the Nord-Sud Company, which did not hire Guimard but engaged other architects to design its stations and station entrances. Abbesses is featured in Le Fabuleux destin d'Amélie Poulain. Though set at Abbesses station, the film was shot at Porte des Lilas station, which has a disused platform, specially set up for filming; the entrance to Abbesses metro station is featured near the beginning of music video for Howard Jones' What Is Love as well as several other locations around Paris Louis Vuitton has a messenger style bag in the Monogram Canvas line named after the station. A cartoon version of the station appears in the official music video for "Flowers", the ninth track on Émilie Simon). "Abbesses" is where Minette's fashion studio is located in a Nancy Drew Pc game Danger By Design. The French DJ crew Birdy Nam Nam has composed a musical piece called Abbesses. Featured in multiple scenes of the final episode of Netflix original series Sense8.
Renovation works schedule from RATP web-site
Pierre-François-Henri Labrouste was a French architect from the famous École des Beaux-Arts school of architecture. After a six-year stay in Rome, Labrouste established an architectural training workshop, which soon became known for rationalism, he became noted for his use of iron-frame construction and was one of the first to realize the importance of its use. Born in Paris, Labrouste was one of five children of fr:François-Marie-Alexandre Labrouste, a lawyer and politician from Bordeaux and Anne-Dominique Gourg and granddaughter of cognac merchants, he entered the Collège Sainte-Barbe as a student in 1809. He was admitted into the second class and the Lebas-Vaudoyer workshop in the École Royale des Beaux Arts in 1819. In 1820, he was promoted to the first class. Competing for the Grand Prix, Labrouste was awarded second place by Guillaume-Abel Blouet in 1821. In 1823, he won the departmental prize and worked as a lieutenant-inspector for the director Étienne-Hippolyte Godde during the construction of the Saint-Pierre-du-Gros-Caillou parish in Paris.
In 1824 Labrouste won the competition with a design of a Court of Appeals. In November, he left Paris for Italy, visiting Turin, Lodi, Parma, Bologna and Arezzo. In July 1835 in Paris he was present at the scene when Giuseppe Marco Fieschi attempted the assassination of King Louis-Philippe using a home-made, multi-barrel gun fired from an upstairs window. Although the King only received a minor injury, 18 people were killed, including Henri's father, Alexandre Labrouste.. Receiving a pension or stipend from the French government for five years, he and the other Académie française laureates stayed in the Medici Villa in Rome; the directors of the Académie stated in correspondence in French about the laureates that, in their studies of antiquity, they "must research the laws of proportion and reduce them to formulas to be used by masters and students in Paris."His work was the subject of "Henri Labrouste: Structure Brought to Light," the first solo exhibition in the U. S. of his work, at The Museum of Modern Art in New York City.
His buildings include: Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, built between 1843 and 1850 The Salle Labrouste, a reading room in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in the Rue de Richelieu and built between 1862 and 1868
The Paris Métro is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A symbol of the city, it is known for its density within the city limits, uniform architecture and unique entrances influenced by Art Nouveau, it is underground and 214 kilometres long. It has 302 stations. There are 16 lines, numbered 1 to 14 with two lines, 3bis and 7bis, which are named because they started out as branches of lines 3 and 7. Lines are identified on maps by number and colour, direction of travel is indicated by the terminus, it is the second busiest metro system in Europe, after the Moscow Metro, the tenth-busiest in the world. It carried 1.520 billion passengers in 2015, 4.16 million passengers a day, which amounts to 20% of the overall traffic in Paris. It is one of the densest metro systems in the world, with 245 stations within the 86.9 km2 of the city of Paris. Châtelet – Les Halles, with five Métro lines, three RER commuter rail and platforms up to 800 m apart, is one of the world's largest metro stations.
However, the system has poor disabled accessibility, because most stations were built well before this became a consideration. The first line opened without ceremony on 19 July 1900, during the World's Fair; the system expanded until the First World War and the core was complete by the 1920s. Extensions into suburbs and Line 11 were built in the 1930s; the network reached saturation after World War II with new trains to allow higher traffic, but further improvements have been limited by the design of the network and in particular the short distances between stations. Besides the Métro, central Paris and its urban area are served by the RER, developed beginning in the 1960s, several tramway lines, Transilien suburban trains and two VAL lines, serving Charles De Gaulle and Orly airports. In the late 1990s, the automated line 14 was built to relieve RER line A. Métro is the abbreviated name of the company that operated most of the network: La Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris, shortened to "Le Métropolitain".
It was abbreviated to métro, which became a common word to designate all rapid transit systems in France and in many cities elsewhere. The Métro is operated by the Régie autonome des transports parisiens, a public transport authority that operates part of the RER network, bus services, light rail lines and many bus routes; the name métro was adopted in many languages, making it the most used word for a urban transit system. It is possible that "Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain" was copied from the name of London's pioneering underground railway company, the Metropolitan Railway, in business for 40 years prior to the inauguration of Paris's first line. By 1845, Paris and the railway companies were thinking about an urban railway system to link inner districts of the city; the railway companies and the French government wanted to extend main-line railways into a new underground network, whereas the Parisians favoured a new and independent network and feared national takeover of any system it built.
The disagreement lasted from 1856 to 1890. Meanwhile, the population became traffic congestion grew massively; the deadlock gave the city the chance to enforce its vision. Prior to 1845, the urban transport network consisted of a large number of omnibus lines, consolidated by the French government into a regulated system with fixed and unconflicting routes and schedules; the first concrete proposal for an urban rail system in Paris was put forward by civil engineer Florence de Kérizouet. This plan called for a surface cable car system. In 1855, civil engineers Edouard Brame and Eugène Flachat proposed an underground freight urban railroad, due to the high rate of accidents on surface rail lines. On 19 November 1871 the General Council of the Seine commissioned a team of 40 engineers to plan an urban rail network; this team proposed a network with a pattern of routes "resembling a cross enclosed in a circle" with axial routes following large boulevards. On 11 May 1872 the Council endorsed the plan.
After this point, a serious debate occurred over whether the new system should consist of elevated lines or of underground lines. The underground option emerged as the preferred solution because of the high cost of buying land for rights-of-way in central Paris required for elevated lines, estimated at 70,000 francs per metre of line for a 20-metre-wide railroad; the last remaining hurdle was the city's concern about national interference in its urban rail system. The city commissioned renowned engineer Jean-Baptiste Berlier, who designed Paris' postal network of pneumatic tubes, to design and plan its rail system in the early 1890s. Berlier recommended a special track gauge of 1,300 mm to protect the system from national takeover, which inflamed the issue substantially; the issue was settled when the Minister of Public Works begrudgingly recognized the city's right to build a local system on 22 November 1895, by the city's secret designing of the trains and tunnels to be too narrow for main-line trains, while adopting standard gauge as a compromise with the state.
On 20 April 1896, Par
Aristide Cavaillé-Coll, was a French organ builder. He has the reputation of being the most distinguished organ builder of the 19th century, he pioneered innovations in the art and science of organ building that permeated throughout the profession and influenced the course of organ building and organ composing through the early 20th century. The organ reform movement sought to return organ building to a more Baroque style. After Cavaillé-Coll's death, Charles Mutin maintained the business into the 20th century. Cavaillé-Coll was the author of many scientific journal articles and books on the organ in which he published the results of his researches and experiments, he was the inventor of several organ stops such as the flûte harmonique. His most famous organs in Paris are in Basilique du Sacré-Coeur, Basilique Sainte-Clotilde and Eglise de la Madeleine. Born in Montpellier, France, to Dominique, one in a line of organ builders, he showed early talent in mechanical innovation, he exhibited an outstanding fine art when building his famous instruments.
There is an after Cavaillé-Coll. His organs are "symphonic organs": that is, they can reproduce the sounds of other instruments and combine them as well, his largest and greatest organ is in Paris. Featuring 100 stops and five manuals, this magnificent instrument, which unlike many others remains unaltered, is a candidate to become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Cavaillé-Coll was well known for his financial problems; the art of his handcrafted instruments, unparalleled at that time, was not enough to ensure his firm's survival. It was inherited in 1898, shortly before his death by Charles Mutin, he continued in the organ business, but by World War II the firm had disappeared. Cavaillé-Coll is responsible for many innovations that revolutionized organ building and composition. Instead of the Positif, Cavaillé-Coll placed the Grand-Chœur manual as the lowest manual, included couplers that allowed the entire tonal resources of the organ to be played from the Grand-Chœur, he refined the English swell box by devising a spring-loaded pedal with which the organist could operate the swell shutters, thus increasing the organ's potential for expression.
He adjusted pipemaking and voicing techniques, thus creating a whole family of stops imitating orchestral instruments such as the bassoon, the oboe and the english horn. He popularized the harmonic flute stop, together with the montre, the gambe and the bourdon, formed the fonds of the organ, he introduced divided windchests. These allowed the use of higher wind pressures and for each manual's anches to be added or subtracted as a group by means of a pedal. Higher wind pressures allowed the organ to include many more stops of 8' pitch in every division, so complete fonds as well as reed choruses could be placed in every division, designed to be superimposed on top of one another. Sometimes he placed the treble part of the compass on a higher pressure than the bass, to emphasize melody lines and counteract the natural tendency of small pipes to be softer. For a mechanical tracker action and its couplers to operate under these higher wind pressures, pneumatic assistance provided by the Barker lever was required, which Cavaillé-Coll included in his larger instruments.
This device made it possible to couple all the manuals together and play on the full organ without expending a great deal of effort. He invented an ingenious pneumatic combination action system for his five-manual organ at Église Saint-Sulpice, Paris. All these innovations allowed a seamless crescendo from pianissimo all the way to fortissimo, something never before possible on the organ, his organ at the Basilique Ste-Clotilde, Paris was one of the first to be built with several of these new features. It influenced César Franck, the titular organist there; the organ works of Franck have inspired generations of organist-composers. Marcel Dupré stated once that "composing for an orchestra is quite different from composing for an organ... with exception of Master Cavaillé-Coll's symphonic organs: in that case one has to observe an extreme attention when writing for such kind of majestic instruments." A century beforehand, César Franck had ecstatically said of the rather modest Cavaillé-Coll instrument at l'Eglise St.-Jean-St.-François in Paris with words that summed up everything the builder was trying to do: "Mon nouvel orgue?
C'est un orchestre!". Franck became organist of a much larger Cavaillé-Coll organ at Ste. Clotilde in Paris. In 1878 Franck was featured recitalist on the four-manual Cavaillé-Coll organ at the Palais du Trocadéro in the Trocadéro area of Paris. Franck's Trois Pièces were premiered on the Trocadéro organ. A documentary film titled The Genius of Cavaillé-Coll was released in 2012 by Fugue State Films to mark both the 200th anniversary of Cavaillé-Coll's birth in 2011 and the 150th anniversary of his organ at St Sulpice, it won the DVD Documentary Award of the BBC Music Awards 2014. For a complete list of all organs by Cavaillé-Coll, see: List of Organs by Aristide Cavaillé-Coll Bonsecours: Basilique Notre-Dame de Bonsecours Caen: Église Saint Etienne Carcassonne: St. Michel's Cathedral Castelnau-d'E
Pierre Roche, pseudonym of Pierre Henry Ferdinand Massignon, was a French sculptor, painter and medallist. He was the father to Louis Massignon. Roche first studied medicine and chemistry in Paris, but switched to studying painting at the Académie Julian 1873-1878 under Alfred Roll, exhibited at the Paris Salon 1884-1889. In 1888 Roche tried sculpture to compete for a monument to Georges Danton, leading to encouragement by sculptor and teacher Jules Dalou, he went on to produce a number of commissioned works, like the fountain April in the Musée Galliera gardens, L'Effort in the Jardin du Luxembourg. His works are collected in the Musée d'Orsay, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Courtauld Institute of Art, Harvard University Art Museums. Léandre Vaillat, Pierre Roche, 1855-1922, J. Charpentier, 1923. Answers.com entry Insecula images Artcyclopedia entry Pierre Roche in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
Montmartre is a large hill in Paris's 18th arrondissement. It is 130 m high and gives its name to the surrounding district, part of the Right Bank in the northern section of the city; the historic district established by the City of Paris in 1995 is bordered by rue Caulaincourt and rue Custine on the north, rue de Clignancourt on the east, boulevard de Clichy and boulevard de Rochechouart to the south, containing 60 ha. Montmartre is known for its artistic history, the white-domed Basilica of the Sacré-Cœur on its summit, as a nightclub district; the other church on the hill, Saint Pierre de Montmartre, built in 1147, was the church of the prestigious Montmartre Abbey. On August 15, 1534, Saint Ignatius of Loyola, Saint Francis Xavier and five other companions bound themselves by vows in the Martyrium of Saint Denis, 11 rue Yvonne Le Tac, the first step in the creation of the Jesuits. Near the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the twentieth, during the Belle Époque, many artists lived in, had studios, or worked in or around Montmartre, including Amedeo Modigliani, Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Suzanne Valadon, Piet Mondrian, Pablo Picasso, Camille Pissarro, Vincent van Gogh.
Montmartre is the setting for several hit movies. This site is served by metro, with line 2 stations at Anvers and Blanche, line 12 stations at Pigalle, Lamarck – Caulaincourt, Jules Joffrin; the toponym Mons Martis, Latin for "Mount of Mars", survived into Merovingian times, gallicised as Montmartre. Archaeological excavations show that the heights of Montmartre were occupied from at least Gallo-Roman times. Texts from the 8th century cite the name of mons Mercori, a 9th-century text speaks of Mount Mars. Excavations in 1975 north of the Church of Saint-Pierre found coins from the 3rd century and the remains of a major wall. Earlier excavations in the 17th century at the Fontaine-du-But found vestiges of Roman baths from the 2nd century; the butte owes its particular religious importance to the text entitled Miracles of Saint-Denis, written before 885 by Hilduin, abbot of the monastery of Saint-Denis, which recounted how Saint Denis, a Christian bishop, was decapitated on the hilltop in 250 AD on orders of the Roman prefect Fescennius Sisinius for preaching the Christian faith to the Gallo-Roman inhabitants of Lutetia.
According to Hilduin, Denis collected his head and carried it as far as the fontaine Saint-Denis descended the north slope of the hill, where he died. Hilduin wrote that a church had been built "in the place called Mont de Mars, by a happy change,'Mont des Martyrs'."In 1134, king Louis VI purchased the Merovingian chapel and built on the site the church of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre, still standing. He founded The Royal Abbey of Montmartre, a monastery of the Benedictine order, whose buildings and fields occupied most of Montmartre, he built a small chapel, called the Martyrium, at the site where it was believed that Saint Denis had been decapitated. It became a popular pilgrimage site. In the 17th century, a priory called abbaye d'en bas was built at that site, in 1686 it was occupied by a community of nuns; the abbey was destroyed in 1790 during the French Revolution, the convent demolished to make place for gypsum mines. The church of Saint-Pierre was saved. At the place where the chapel of the Martyrs was located, an oratory was built in 1855.
It was renovated in 1994. By the 15th century, the north and northeast slopes of the hill were the site of a village surrounded by vineyards and orchards of peach and cherry trees; the first mills were built on the western slope in 1529, grinding wheat and rye. There were thirteen mills at one time, though by the late nineteenth century only two remained,During the 1590 Siege of Paris, in the last decade of the French Wars of Religion, Henry IV placed his artillery on top of the butte of Montmartre to fire down into the city; the siege failed when a large relief force approached and forced Henry to withdraw. In 1790, Montmartre was located just outside the limits of Paris; that year, under the revolutionary government of the National Constituent Assembly, it became the commune of Montmartre, with its town hall located on place du Tertre, site of the former abbey. The main businesses of the commune were wine making, stone quarries and gypsum mines.. The mining of gypsum had begun in the Gallo-Roman period, first in open air mines and underground, continued until 1860.
The gypsum was cut into blocks, baked ground and put into sacks. Sold as ` montmartarite, it was used for plaster, because of its resistance to water. Between the 7th and 9th centuries, most of the sarcophagi found in ancient sites were made of molded gypsum. In modern times, the mining was done with explosives, which riddled the ground under the butte with tunnels, making the ground unstable and difficult to build upon; the construction of the Basilica of Sacré-Cœur required making a special foundation that descended 40 metres under the ground to hold the structure in place. A fossil tooth found in one of these mines was identified by Georges Cuvier as an extinct equine, which he dubbed Palaeotherium, the "ancient animal", his sketch of the entire animal in 1825 was matched by a skeleton discovered later. Russian soldiers occupied Montmartre during the battle of Paris in 1814, they used the altitude of the hill for artillery bombardment of the city. Montmartre remained outside of the city limits of Paris until January 1, 1860, when it was annexed to the city along with other communities surr