New Brunswick is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. According to the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick is the only bilingual province. About two thirds of the population declare themselves a third francophones. One third of the population describes themselves as bilingual. Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas in Greater Moncton, Greater Saint John and the capital Fredericton. Unlike the other Maritime provinces, New Brunswick's terrain is forested uplands, with much of the land further from the coast, giving it a harsher climate. New Brunswick is 83% forested, less densely-populated than the rest of the Maritimes. Being close to Europe, New Brunswick was among the first places in North America to be explored and settled by Europeans, starting with the French in the early 1600s, who displaced the indigenous Mi'kmaq and the Passamaquoddy peoples; the French settlers were displaced when the area became part of the British Empire.
In 1784, after an influx of refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the province was partitioned from Nova Scotia. The province prospered in the early 1800s and the population grew reaching about a quarter of a million by mid-century. In 1867, New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada. After Confederation, wooden shipbuilding and lumbering declined, while protectionism disrupted trade ties with New England; the mid-1900s found New Brunswick to be one of the poorest regions of Canada, now mitigated by Canadian transfer payments and improved support for rural areas. As of 2002, provincial gross domestic product was derived as follows: services 43%. Tourism accounts for about 9 % of the labour force indirectly. Popular destinations include Fundy National Park and the Hopewell Rocks, Kouchibouguac National Park, Roosevelt Campobello International Park. In 2013, 64 cruise ships called at Port of Saint John carrying on average 2600 passengers each.
Indigenous peoples have been in the area since about 7000 BC. At the time of European contact, inhabitants were the Mi'kmaq, the Maliseet, the Passamaquoddy. Although these tribes did not leave a written record, their language is present in many placenames, such as Aroostook, Petitcodiac and Shediac. New Brunswick may have been part of Vinland during the Norse exploration of North America, Basque and Norman fishermen may have visited the Bay of Fundy in the early 1500s; the first documented European visits were by Jacques Cartier in 1534. In 1604, a party including Samuel de Champlain visited the mouth of the Saint John River on the eponymous Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day. Now Saint John, this was the site of the first permanent European settlement in New Brunswick. French settlement extended up the river to the site of present-day Fredericton. Other settlements in the southeast extended from Beaubassin, near the present-day border with Nova Scotia, to Baie Verte, up the Petitcodiac and Shepody Rivers.
By the early 1700s the area was part of the French colony of Acadia, in turn part of New France. Acadia covered what is now the Maritimes, as well as bits of Maine. In the early 1700s, rivalry between Britain and France for control of territory led to the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, under which Acadia was reduced to Île Saint-Jean and Île-Royale; the ownership of New Brunswick being disputed, with an informal border on the Isthmus of Chignecto. The British prevailed, leading to the 1755 Expulsion of the Acadians. Present-day New Brunswick became part of the colony of Nova Scotia. Hostilities ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Acadians returning from exile discovered several thousand immigrants from New England, on their former lands; some settled along the Saint John River. Settlement was slow. Pennsylvanian immigrants founded Moncton in 1766, English settlers from Yorkshire arrived in the Sackville area. After the American Revolution, about 10,000 loyalist refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit.
The number reached 14,000 by 1784, with about one in ten returning to America. The same year New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia and that year saw its first elected assembly; the colony was named New Brunswick in honour of George III, King of Great Britain, King of Ireland, Prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in what is now Germany. In 1785 Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city; the population of the colony reached 26,000 in 1806 and 35,000 in 1812. The 1800s saw an age of prosperity based on wood export and shipbuilding, bolstered by The Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 and demand from the American Civil War. St. Martins became the third most productive shipbuilding town in the Maritimes, producing over 500 vessels; the first half of the 1800s saw large-scale immigration from Ireland and Scotland, with the population reaching 252,047 by 1861. In 1848, responsible home government was granted and the 1850s saw the emergence of political parties organised along religious and ethnic lines.
The notion of unifying the separate colonies of British North America was discussed i
Area codes 367, 418, and 581
North American area codes 367, 418 and 581 are overlaid telephone area codes serving the Canadian province of Quebec, encompassing the eastern portion of the province. Communities served by the 367, 418 and 581 area codes include Quebec City, Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean, Rivière-du-Loup and the Gaspé Peninsula, Côte-Nord and southeastern Mauricie regions. 418 serves the tiny hamlet of Estcourt Station, in the U. S. state of Maine. The main area code, 418, was one of the original area codes created in 1947; as now, its boundaries were depicted as the eastern half of Quebec. Nominally, northwestern Quebec—one of the few areas of North America without telephone service—was shifted to 418 from 514 in 1957. From the 1950s to the 1970s, 418 was nominally the area code for the eastern Northwest Territories. However, in the 1970s, as direct distance dialling was introduced to the far northern and western portions of 418, these points were shifted to area code 819, leaving the present area. In 2008, area code 581 was implemented.
In 2018, Area code 367 was implemented as 581 were close to exhaustion. The incumbent local exchange carriers in 418/581 are Bell Canada, Bell Aliant and Vidéotron, plus some independent companies. Aguanish: 533 299 Albanel: 279 501 601 Alma: 212 319 321 450 480 481 482 487 662 668 669 719 720 758 769 200 216 230 265 431 533 728 828 Amqui: 330 629 631 713 335 l'Anse-Saint-Jean: 272 608 390 Armagh: 466 328 Bagotville: see La Baie, Chicoutimi Baie-Comeau: 294 296 298 921 Baie-Comeau: 280 282 293 295 297 378 445 589 381 642 726 823 829 929 987 Baie-des-Sables: 772 396 Baie-Johan-Beetz: 539 298 Baie-Sainte-Catherine: 237 236 Baie-Saint-Paul: 200 219 240 435 436 760 237 Baie-Trinité: 920 939 Barachois: 645 365 Batiscan: 362 274 Beauceville: 217 774 420 813 Bergeronnes: 232 238 324 Bic: 736 Biencourt: 499 373 Black Lake: 423 266 679 840 Blanc-Sablon: 461 297 Boischatel: 406 762 822 538 Bonaventure: 530 534 364 630 827 Bonne-Espérance: 379 296 Cabano: 854 938 Cap-aux-Meules: 986 Cap-Chat: 786 395 Cap-des-Rosiers: 892 635 Caplan: 388 363 Cap-Saint-Ignace: 246 715 Carleton: 364 362 Causapscal: 756 394 Chambord: 342 491 602 816 Chandler: 398 616 680 689 361 Chapais: 745 Charny: 488 761 832 988 247 838 Château-Richer: 824 972 978 Chevery: 787 295 Chibougamau: 748 770 430 445 464 579 627 Chicoutimi: 290 376 437 490 540 541 543 545 549 550 557 579 590 591 592 602 612 615 690 693 696 698 718 812 815 817 818 820 944 973 221 222 234 235 248 306 433 490 532 543 560 683 882 Chute-aux-Outardes: 567 643 Chute-des-Passes: 377 599 Clarke City: 583 294 Clermont: 201 439 489 239 Cloridorme: 395 637 Colombier: 565 644 Courcelles: 483 Delisle: 301 347 442 598 Desbiens: 346 597 817 Disraeli: 449 209 714 Dolbeau: 239 276 706 979 212 596 Donnacona: 283 284 285 326 462 510 552 850 971 343 377 740 821 833 East Broughton: 351 427 331 Esprit-Saint: 779 600 Estcourt and Estcourt Station, Maine - see Saint-Éleuthère Ferland: 676 382 Fermont: 287 231 444 Forestville: 578 586 587 989 623 Frampton: 479 227 426 Garthby: 458 228 330 835 Gaspé: 355 360 361 368 348 360 822 832 887 Girardville: 258 595 651 Godbout: 568 Grande-Entrée: 985 Grande-Rivière: 385 359 Grande-Vallée: 393 575 638 883 Harrington Harbour: 795 293 Havre-Aubert: 937 Havre-aux-Maisons: 969 Havre-Saint-Pierre: 532 538 553 984 292 Hébertville: 344 594 718 Hébertville-Station: 343 593 717 Île-aux-Coudres: 438 600 240 Inverness: 453 470 272 Jonquière: 213 412 512 542 546 547 548 695 699 771 249 383 434 544 684 La Baie: 306 477 544 677 697 389 435 545 682 Lac-au-Saumon: 778 392 Lac-aux-Sables: 336 275 Lac-Bouchette: 348 591 818 Lac-Etchemin: 625 215 820 Lac-Frontière: 245 La Doré: 256 604 917 592 La Guadeloupe: 459 519 715 La Malbaie: 202 270 324 617 620 633 665 790 241 727 La Martre: 288 393 Lambton: 486 La Pocatière: 371 856 213 La Romaine: 229 291 Laterrière: 303 402 678 384 546 Leeds: 424 271 Les Boules: 936 Les Éboulements: 635 975 242 Les Escoumins: 233 243 322 Les Méchins: 729 391 Lévis: 304 603 741 830 833 834 835 837 838 839 903 250 500 534 629 920 L'Île-Verte: 898 648 L'Islet: 247 607 Loretteville: 407 574 767 840 842 843 845 847 915 251 450 836 Luceville: 739 Manicouagan 5: 584 Maria: 759 358 Matane: 429 556 560 562 566 232 261 334 379 631 834 Matapédia: 320 865 884 Métabetchouan: 349 590 716 Milot: 302 373 589 Mistissini: 923 Moisie: 927 290 Mont-Joli: 775 785 Mont-Louis: 797 347 Montmagny: 206 234 241 248 250 252 291 447 508 513 941 262 552 632 725 Murdochville: 784 639 Mutton Bay: 773 289 Natashquan: 726 288 622 Neuville: 791 876 909 New Carlisle: 375 751 752 233
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Témiscouata-sur-le-Lac is a municipality in Quebec, situated in the MRC of Témiscouata in the Bas-Saint-Laurent region. The city was created on May 2010 from the mergers of the city of Cabano and Notre-Dame-du-Lac; the new city was called Cabano–Notre-Dame-du-Lac until November 13, 2010. This region is part of traditional Maliseet territory. Témiscouata-sur-le-Lac is situated on the south side of the Saint Lawrence River, at about 260 km from Québec City, 470 km west of Gaspé; the cities of importance close to Témiscouata-sur-le-Lac are Rivière-du-Loup, at 60 km to the north-west, Trois-Pistoles at 65 km to the north, Rimouski at 110 km north-east, Edmundston in New Brunswick, at 60 km to the south-west. Témiscouata-sur-le-Lac is situated at 40 km to the north-west of the border with New Brunswick on Route 185; the city of Témiscouata-sur-le-Lac is composed of two sectors: Notre-Dame-du-Lac. There are two small communities as well: Rivière-Creuse and Route-du-Sault. Témiscouata-sur-le-Lac is situated on Lake Témiscouata.
It is the second lake of importance on the Saint Lawrence River. On May 5, 2010, the cities of Cabano and Notre-Dame-du-Lac merged to form the city of Cabano–Notre-Dame-du-Lac, named Témiscouata-sur-le-Lac; the name was approved by more than 60% of the population during a referendum on June 20, 2010, approved by the Minister of Municipal Affairs. The mayors of the cities of Cabano and Notre-Dame-du-Lac shared the role of mayor until June 10, 2010 when Gilles Garon was elected new mayor of the city. Fort Ingall is a museum, a reconstruction of the British fort built during the 19th century Lake Témiscouata is an ideal location for all kinds of nautical activities including fishing. Paul Triquet is a well known recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest honour for serving in the armies of the Commonwealth, native of Témiscouata-sur-le-Lac. List of cities in Quebec Media related to Témiscouata-sur-le-Lac at Wikimedia Commons
Lac Baker Parish, New Brunswick
Lac Baker is a Canadian parish in Madawaska County, New Brunswick. Lac Baker Parish is defined in the Territorial Division Act as being bounded: Beginning at a point in the New Brunswick-Quebec Boundary line where it is intersected by the northwesterly prolongation of the west limit of Range Three west of Baker Lake thence southeasterly along said prolongation and said limit of Range Three to the southwest angle of lot No. 40 in Range Three, thence in a northeasterly direction along the southwest limit of said lot No. 40 to the western limit of Range Two thence southeasterly along said western limit of Range Two to the western limit of lots in the Second Tier west of Caron Brook thence along the said western limit to the northwest angle of lot No. 15 granted to Joseph Souci and thence easterly along the northern limit of said lot No. 15, lot Letter "I" granted to George Carriveau and the northern limit of the lots fronting on the St. John River to the southeast angle of lot No. 1 east side of Caron Brook, thence northerly along the east limit of lots fronting on the east side of Caron Brook to the northeast angle of lot No. 9 granted to Louis Lavoie, thence westerly along the north limit of said lot No. 9 to the northeast limit of lot No. 10 E thence northwesterly along said limit of said lot No. 10 E to the southwest angle of lot letter "D" granted to Thomas Ouellette thence northeasterly along the southeast limit of said lot Letter "D" and lot Letter "C" to the eastern limit of Range Four Val-Nadeau thence northwesterly along said limit of Range Four, to the northeast angle of lot No. 17 in Range Four, thence southwesterly along the northwest limit of lot No. 17 to the east limit of Range Five, thence northwesterly along said limit of Range Five to the northeast angle of lot No. 33 in Range Five, thence southwesterly along the northwest limit of said lot No. 33 to the east limit of lots fronting on the east side of Baker Lake, thence northwesterly along the said limit to the New Brunswick-Quebec Boundary line thence westerly along the said boundary line to the place of beginning.
Parish population total does not include incorporated municipalities and communities within their respective boundaries. Boundary Lac-Baker Portage-du-Lac Rang-des-Collin Saint-Castin Pelletiers Mill Soucy List of parishes in New Brunswick
Packington is a parish municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec, located in the Témiscouata Regional County Municipality in the Bas-Saint-Laurent region. Temiscouata Regional County Municipality Branche à Jerry, a stream Baker River North, au stream List of parish municipalities in Quebec Media related to Packington, Quebec at Wikimedia Commons
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t