Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centers in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire. Developed in reaction to World War I, the Dada movement consisted of artists who rejected the logic and aestheticism of modern capitalist society, instead expressing nonsense and anti-bourgeois protest in their works; the art of the movement spanned visual and sound media, including collage, sound poetry, cut-up writing, sculpture. Dadaist artists expressed their discontent with violence and nationalism, maintained political affinities with the radical far-left. There is no consensus on the origin of the movement's name. Others note that it suggests the first words of a child, evoking a childishness and absurdity that appealed to the group. Still others speculate that the word might have been chosen to evoke a similar meaning in any language, reflecting the movement's internationalism; the roots of Dada lie in pre-war avant-garde. The term anti-art, a precursor to Dada, was coined by Marcel Duchamp around 1913 to characterize works which challenge accepted definitions of art.
Cubism and the development of collage and abstract art would inform the movement's detachment from the constraints of reality and convention. The work of French poets, Italian Futurists and the German Expressionists would influence Dada's rejection of the tight correlation between words and meaning. Works such as Ubu Roi by Alfred Jarry, the ballet Parade by Erik Satie would be characterized as proto-Dadaist works; the Dada movement's principles were first collected in Hugo Ball's Dada Manifesto in 1916. The Dadaist movement included public gatherings and publication of art/literary journals. Key figures in the movement included Hugo Ball, Marcel Duchamp, Emmy Hennings, Hans Arp, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Johannes Baader, Tristan Tzara, Francis Picabia, George Grosz, John Heartfield, Man Ray, Beatrice Wood, Kurt Schwitters, Hans Richter, Max Ernst, Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven among others; the movement influenced styles like the avant-garde and downtown music movements, groups including Surrealism, nouveau réalisme, pop art and Fluxus.
Dada was an informal international movement, with participants in North America. The beginnings of Dada correspond to the outbreak of World War I. For many participants, the movement was a protest against the bourgeois nationalist and colonialist interests, which many Dadaists believed were the root cause of the war, against the cultural and intellectual conformity—in art and more broadly in society—that corresponded to the war. Avant-garde circles outside France knew of pre-war Parisian developments, they had seen Cubist exhibitions held at Galeries Dalmau, Galerie Der Sturm in Berlin, the Armory Show in New York, SVU Mánes in Prague, several Jack of Diamonds exhibitions in Moscow and at De Moderne Kunstkring, Amsterdam. Futurism developed in response to the work of various artists. Dada subsequently combined these approaches. Many Dadaists believed that the'reason' and'logic' of bourgeois capitalist society had led people into war, they expressed their rejection of that ideology in artistic expression that appeared to reject logic and embrace chaos and irrationality.
For example, George Grosz recalled that his Dadaist art was intended as a protest "against this world of mutual destruction."According to Hans Richter Dada was not art: it was "anti-art." Dada represented the opposite of everything. Where art was concerned with traditional aesthetics, Dada ignored aesthetics. If art was to appeal to sensibilities, Dada was intended to offend; as Hugo Ball expressed it, "For us, art is not an end in itself... but it is an opportunity for the true perception and criticism of the times we live in."A reviewer from the American Art News stated at the time that "Dada philosophy is the sickest, most paralyzing and most destructive thing that has originated from the brain of man." Art historians have described Dada as being, in large part, a "reaction to what many of these artists saw as nothing more than an insane spectacle of collective homicide."Years Dada artists described the movement as "a phenomenon bursting forth in the midst of the postwar economic and moral crisis, a savior, a monster, which would lay waste to everything in its path... a systematic work of destruction and demoralization...
In the end it became nothing but an act of sacrilege." To quote Dona Budd's The Language of Art Knowledge, Dada was born out of negative reaction to the horrors of the First World War. This international movement was begun by a group of artists and poets associated with the Cabaret Voltaire in Zürich. Dada rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense and intuition; the origin of the name Dada is unclear. Others maintain that it originates from the Romanian artists Tristan Tzara's and Marcel Janco's frequent use of the words "da, da," meaning "yes, yes" in the Romanian language. Another theory says that the name "Dada" came during a meeting of the group when a paper knife stuck into a French–German dictionary happened to point to'dada', a French word for'hobbyhorse'; the movement involved
The Square René Viviani is a public square adjacent to the Church of Saint-Julien-le-Pauvre in the 5th arrondissement of Paris. The Square René Viviani is a city park located to the north of the Gothic church of Saint-Julien-le-Pauvre, built at the same time as Notre-Dame Cathedral and one of Paris' oldest churches. Disaffected during the Revolution, in the 19th century the ruinous church was taken over by the city's Greek Melchite Church and is today the center of that religious community in Paris; the Square is an irregular polygon in shape, bounded by the Rue Galande and church buildings to the south. The Rue de la Bûcherie ends on the western side of the square, but it resumes its course on the eastern side, the Pont au Double, a bridge to the Île de la Cité, lies across the Quai de Montebello from the square; the Square René Viviani offers one of the best views of the Cathedral of Notre Dame in all of Paris. Around the corner, in the Rue de la Bûcherie, stands the well-known English-language bookshop and Company which took the name of Sylvia Beach's legendary bookshop and independent publishing house near the Place de l'Odéon, which first published James Joyce's novel Ulysses and was a literary center for English writers until it was definitively closed when Germany occupied France.
Inside the square, there are two features, other than the lawns, well-trimmed plane trees, benches, that deserve a mention here. There is an odd-looking fountain, known as the Saint Julien fountain, erected in 1995, it is the work of the French sculptor, Georges Jeanclos, it is emblematic of the legend of St. Julien the Hospitaller, a tale, now discounted, involving a curse by witches, a talking deer, a case of mistaken identity, an horrific crime, several improbable coincidences, a supernatural intervention; the story was told and retold during the Middle Ages, it became a favorite. Hospitals and churches all over Europe adopted Julien as their patron, he was a patron saint of hunters and ferrymen. The other feature worthy of note is an ancient tree, surrounded by a circular curbstone, its significance is described below. Before 1909, this plot was occupied by one of the annexes of the Hôtel-Dieu, the ancient Paris hospital on the nearby Île de la Cité. In earlier times, monastic buildings, dormitories and a refectory belonging to the Clunesian priory of St. Julien, occupied this site.
Earlier still, this place was a cemetery established next to a 6th-century basilica, the original Church of St. Julien. Merovingian-era graves and tombs were excavated near the walls of Saint-Julien-le-Pauvre during the 19th century; some of the relics are now in the Carnavalet Museum. Here and there on the square, there are odd pieces of carved stone, they are pieces of architectural rubble salvaged from the Cathedral of Notre Dame, during the 19th century, the exterior of the cathedral was restored by the architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. Many of the most degraded pieces of carved limestone were replaced by newly carved reproductions, the older pieces were deposited here; the square is noted for being the site of the oldest planted tree in Paris. The Robinia pseudoacacia, a species known as a locust tree, is believed to have been planted by its namesake, Jean Robin, in 1601, it is supported by two concrete crutches. The tree lost its upper branches to a shell during World War I, but it proves its continuing vitality by blooming every year.
Despite some speculation about its true age, it is universally recognized as the oldest tree in the city. The Square René Viviani is: It is served by lines 4 and 10; the Square René Viviani is named for the French political figure René Viviani who, was France's first Minister of Labour. After several old buildings standing on the site were cleared away in 1928, including an annex of the public hospital across the river, the empty space was arranged to be a public park. Le square René Viviani-Montebello on Paris.fr
Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours was a Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours, which made him a leading prelate of the area, referred to as Gaul by the Romans. He was born Georgius Florentius and added the name Gregorius in honour of his maternal great-grandfather, he is the primary contemporary source for Merovingian history. His most notable work was his Decem Libri Historiarum, better known as the Historia Francorum, a title that chroniclers gave to it, but he is known for his accounts of the miracles of saints four books of the miracles of Martin of Tours. St. Martin's tomb was a major pilgrimage destination in the 6th century, St. Gregory's writings had the practical effect of promoting this organized devotion. Gregory was born in the Auvergne region of central Gaul, he was born into the upper stratum of Gallo-Roman society as the son of Florentius, Senator of Clermont, by his wife Armentaria II, niece of Bishop Nicetius of Lyons and granddaughter of both Florentinus, Senator of Geneva, Saint Gregory of Langres.
Gregory had several noted bishops and saints as close relatives, according to Gregory, he was connected to thirteen of the eighteen bishops of Tours preceding him by ties of kinship. Gregory's paternal grandmother, descended from Vettius Epagatus, the illustrious martyr of Lyons, his father evidently died while Gregory was young and his widowed mother moved to Burgundy where she had property. Gregory went to live with his paternal uncle St. Gallus, Bishop of Clermont), under whom, his successor St. Avitus, Gregory had his education. Gregory received the clerical tonsure from Gallus. Having contracted a serious illness, he made a visit of devotion to the tomb of St. Martin at Tours. Upon his recovery, he was ordained deacon by Avitus. Upon the death of St. Euphronius, he was chosen as bishop by the clergy and people, charmed with his piety and humility, their deputies overtook him at the court of King Sigebert of Austrasia, being compelled to acquiesce, though much against his will, Gregory was consecrated by Giles, Bishop of Rheims, on 22 August 573, at the age of thirty-four.
He spent most of his career at Tours, although he assisted at the council of Paris in 577. The rough world he lived in was on the cusp of the dying world of Antiquity and the new culture of early medieval Europe. Gregory lived on the border between the Frankish culture of the Merovingians to the north and the Gallo-Roman culture of the south of Gaul. At Tours, Gregory could not have been better placed to hear everything and meet everyone of influence in Merovingian culture. Tours lay on the watery highway of the navigable Loire. Five Roman roads radiated from Tours, which lay on the main thoroughfare between the Frankish north and Aquitania, with Spain beyond. At Tours the Frankish influences of the north and the Gallo-Roman influences of the south had their chief contact; as the center for the popular cult of St Martin, Tours was a pilgrimage site, a political sanctuary to which important leaders fled during periods of violence and turmoil in Merovingian politics. Gregory struggled through personal relations with four Frankish kings, Sigebert I, Chilperic I, Childebert II and he knew most of the leading Franks.
Gregory wrote in Late Latin which departed from classical usage in syntax and spelling with few changes in inflection. The Historia Francorum is in ten books. Books I to IV recount the world's history from the Creation but move to the Christianization of Gaul, the life and times of Saint Martin of Tours, the conversion of the Franks and the conquest of Gaul under Clovis, the more detailed history of the Frankish kings down to the death of Sigebert I in 575. At this date Gregory had been bishop of Tours for two years; the second part, books V and VI, closes with Chilperic I's death in 584. During the years that Chilperic held Tours, relations between him and Gregory were tense. After hearing rumours that the Bishop of Tours had slandered his wife, Chilperic had Gregory arrested and tried for treason—a charge which threatened both Gregory's bishopric and his life; the most eloquent passage in the Historia is the closing chapter of book VI, in which Chilperic's character is summed up unsympathetically through the use of an invective.
The third part, comprising books VII to X, takes his personal account to the year 591. An epilogue was written in 594, the year of Gregory's death. Readers of the Historia Francorum must decide whether this is a royal history and whether Gregory was writing to please his patrons, it is that one royal Frankish house is more generously treated than others. Gregory was a Catholic bishop, his writing reveals views typical of someone in his position, his views on perceived dangers of Arianism led him to preface the Historia with a detailed expression of his orthodoxy on the nature of Christ. In addition, his ridiculing of pagans and Jews reflected how his works were used to spread the Christian faith. For example, in book 2, chapters 28-31, he describes the pagans as incestuous and weak and describes the process by which newly converted King Clovis leads a much better life than that of a pagan and is healed of all the conundrums he experienced as a pagan. Gregory's education was the standard Latin one of Late Antiquity, focusing on Virgil's Aeneid and Martianus Capella's Liber de Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae, but other key texts such as Orosius' Chronicle
Julian of Le Mans
Saint Julian of Le Mans is a saint venerated in both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Church, honored as the first bishop of Le Mans. His feast day is January 27; the translation of his relics is celebrated on July 25. It is believed that he may have been a Roman nobleman, but he was identified with Simon the Leper or as one of the seventy-two disciples of Christ, he was consecrated a bishop at Rome and around the middle of the 3rd century, Julian was sent to Gaul to preach the Gospel to the tribe of the Cenomani. Their capital city was Civitas Cenomanorum, suffering from a shortage of drinking water. According to the legends surrounding his life, Julian prayed. Water began to gush out of the ground; this miracle allowed him to preach within Le Mans. The city's principal citizen was converted to Christianity along with his family, donating to the Church part of his palace to serve as Le Mans' first cathedral church. Julian converted many other citizens and Le Mans' new bishop cared for the poor, the infirm, the orphans.
His miracles included the resurrection of a dead man. Upon reaching old age, he retired to live as a hermit at Sarthe; the Cathédrale St-Julien, in Le Mans, is dedicated to him. The feast of St. Julian of Le Mans was celebrated in England because Henry II of England had been born in Le Mans, his feast was kept throughout the south of England in at least nine Benedictine English monasteries. The Church of St. Julian in Norwich may be dedicated to him. Having rested in a shrine at the Benedictine convent of Saint-Julian-du-Pré since the Middle Ages, his relics were burnt or scattered by the Huguenots in 1562. Julian's head is still shown at the cathedral of Le Mans, where it has been shown since 1254. Saint of the Day, January 27: Julian of Le Mans at SaintPatrickDC.org Catholic Online: Julian of Le Mans Catholic Forum: Julian of Le Mans San Giuliano di Le Mans
The Dauphiné or Dauphiné Viennois Dauphiny in English, is a former province in southeastern France, whose area corresponded to that of the present departments of Isère, Drôme, Hautes-Alpes. The Dauphiné was the County of Albon. In the 12th century, the local ruler Count Guigues IV of Albon bore a dolphin on his coat of arms and was nicknamed le Dauphin, his descendants changed their title from Count of Albon to Dauphin of Viennois. The state took the name of Dauphiné, it became a state of the Holy Roman Empire in the 11th century. The Dauphiné is best known for its transfer from the last non-royal Dauphin to the King of France in 1349; the terms of the transfer stipulated that the heir apparent of France would henceforth be called "le Dauphin" and included significant autonomy and tax exemption for the Dauphiné region, most of which it retained only until 1457, though it remained a province until the French Revolution. The historical capital is Grenoble and the other main towns are Vienne, Montélimar and Romans-sur-Isère.
The demonym for its inhabitants is Dauphinois. Under the Ancien Régime, the province was bordered in the North by the River Rhône which separated the Dauphiné from the Bresse and Bugey. To the east it bordered the Savoy and Piedmont, to the south the Comtat Venaissin and Provence; the western border was marked by the Rhône to the south of Lyon. The Dauphiné extended up to, it was divided into the "High Dauphiné" and "Low Dauphiné". The first covered: the Grésivaudan the Royans the Champsaur the Trièves the Briançonnais the Queyras the Embrunais the Gapençais the Dévoluy the Vercors the Bochaine the BaronniesThe second included: the County of Albon with the Viennois around the city of Vienne, annexed in 1450 and the Turripinois around the city of La Tour-du-Pin; the County of Valentinois with the city of Valence, annexed in 1404 the County of Diois, around the episcopal city of Die annexed in 1404 the Tricastin the Principality of Orange annexed to Dauphiné, The province included the current Italian Dauphiné, which belonged to France and to Briançonnais until 1713.
Vivaro-Alpine dialect was still spoken there until the 20th century: the Oulx valley the Pragela the Castelade de Châteaudauphin. The province offers a range of terrain, from the alpine summits of the High-Dauphiné, the Prealps, the plains of the Drôme, which resemble the landscapes of Provence; the area of the future Dauphiné was inhabited by the Allobroges and other Gaulish tribes in ancient times. The region was conquered by the Romans before Gallia conquest by Julius Caesar. Vienne became a Roman one of the most important cities of Gallia. After the end of the Western Roman Empire, the region suffered from invasions of Visigoths and Alans tribes; the Burgundians settled in Vienne. After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the region became part of the kingdom of Lotharingia. However, the King of France Charles the Bald soon claimed authority over this territory; the governor of Vienne, Boson of Provence, proclaimed himself king of Burgundy and the region became part of the Kingdom of Arelat, which remained independent until 1032, when it became part of the Holy Roman Empire.
At that time, the development of feudal society and the weakness of the Emperor's rule allowed for the creation of several small ecclesiastic or secularist States. In the middle of that chaos, the Counts of Albon succeeded in uniting these different territories under their rule. Amidst the chaos of feudal rule, the Counts of Albon began to rise above other feudal lords and acquire dominance over the region, their story begins with Guigues I the Old, Lord of Annonay and Champsaur. During his reign, he gained significant territories for his province: a part of the Viennois, the Grésivaudan and the Oisans. Moreover, the Emperor gave him the region of Briançon; the territories combined under his personal rule became a sovereign mountain principality within the Holy Roman Empire. The count made a significant decision when he chose the small city of Grenoble as capital of his state instead of the prestigious city of Vienne, the long-established seat of a powerful bishop; this choice allowed him to assert authority over all his territories.
In the 12th century, the local ruler Count Guigues IV of Albon bore a dolphin on his coat of arms and was nicknamed le Dauphin. His descendants changed their title from Count of Albon to Dauphin of Viennois; the state took the name of Dauphiné. However, the Dauphiné did not, at this point, have its modern borders; the region of Vienne and Valence were independent and in Grenoble, the capital, the authority was shared with the bishop. Furthermore, the cities of Voiron and la Côte-Saint-André were parts of the County of Savoy, while the Dauphins had the Faucigny and territories in Italy; this tangle between Dauphiné and Savoy resulted in several conflicts. The last Dauphin, Humbert II of Viennois, made peace with his neighbour, he acquired the city of Romans. He created the Conseil Delphinal and the University of Grenoble and enacted the Delphinal Status, a kind of constitution that protected the rights of his people; the significant debts of Humbert II and the death of his son and heir led to the sale of his lordship to King Philip VI in 1349, by the terms of the treaty of Romans, negotiated by his protonotary, Amblard de Beaumont.
A pilgrim is a traveler, on a journey to a holy place. This is a physical journey to some place of special significance to the adherent of a particular religious belief system. In the spiritual literature of Christianity, the concept of pilgrim and pilgrimage may refer to the experience of life in the world or to the inner path of the spiritual aspirant from a state of wretchedness to a state of beatitude. Pilgrims and the making of pilgrimages are common in many religions, including the faiths of ancient Egypt, Persia in the Mithraic period, India and Japan; the Greek and Roman customs of consulting the gods at local oracles, such as those at Dodona or Delphi, both in Greece, are known. In Greece, pilgrimages could either be state-sponsored. In the early period of Hebrew history, pilgrims traveled to Shiloh, Dan and Jerusalem. While many pilgrims travel toward a specific location, a physical destination is not always a necessity. One group of pilgrims in early Celtic Christianity were the Peregrinari Pro Christ, or "white martyrs", who left their homes to wander in the world.
This sort of pilgrimage was an ascetic religious practice, as the pilgrim left the security of home and the clan for an unknown destination, trusting in Divine Providence. These travels resulted in the founding of new abbeys and the spread of Christianity among the pagan population in Britain and in continental Europe. Many religions still espouse pilgrimage as a spiritual activity; the great Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, is an obligatory duty at least once for every Muslim, able to make the journey. Other Islamic devotional pilgrimages to the tombs of Shia Imams or Sufi saints, are popular across the Islamic world; as in the Middle Ages, modern Christian pilgrims may choose to visit Rome, where according to the New Testament the church was established by St. Peter, sites in the'Holy Land' connected with the life of Christ or places associated with saints and miracles such as Lourdes, Santiago of Compostela and Fatima. Places of pilgrimage in the Buddhist world include those associated with the life of the historical Buddha: his supposed birthplace and childhood home and place of enlightenment, other places he is believed to have visited and the place of his death, India.
Others include the many temples and monasteries with relics of the Buddha or Buddhist saints such as the Temple of the Tooth in Sri Lanka and the numerous sites associated with teachers and patriarchs of the various traditions. Hindu pilgrimage destinations may be holy cities. Beginning in 1894, Christian ministers under the direction of Charles Taze Russell were appointed to travel to and work with local Bible Students congregations for a few days at a time. International Bible Students Association pilgrims were excellent speakers, their local talks were well-publicized and well-attended. Prominent Bible Students A. H. Macmillan and J. F. Rutherford were both appointed pilgrims before they joined the board of directors of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. A modern phenomenon is the cultural pilgrimage which, while involving a personal journey, is secular in nature. Destinations for such pilgrims can include historic sites of national or cultural importance, can be defined as places "of cultural significance: an artist's home, the location of a pivotal event or an iconic destination".
An example might be a baseball fan visiting New York. Destinations for cultural pilgrims include Auschwitz concentration camp, Gettysburg Battlefield or the Ernest Hemingway House. Cultural pilgrims may travel on religious pilgrimage routes, such as the Way of St. James, with the perspective of making it a historic or architectural tour rather than – or as well as – a religious experience. Under communist regimes, devout secular pilgrims visited locations such as the Mausoleum of Lenin, the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong and the Birthplace of Karl Marx; such visits were sometimes state-sponsored. Sites such as these continue to attract visitors; the distinction between religious, cultural or political pilgrimage and tourism is not always clear or rigid. Pilgrimage could refer symbolically to journeys on foot, to places where the concerned person expect to find spiritual and/or personal salvation. In the words of adventurer-author Jon Krakauer in his book Into The Wild, Christopher McCandless was'a pilgrim perhaps' to Alaska in search of spiritual bliss.
Many national and international leaders have gone on pilgrimages for both personal and political reasons. Benedict XVI Bridget of Sweden Columba Rangjung Rigpe Dorje Egeria El-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz Ruslan Gelayev Godric of Finchale Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama Ignatius of Loyola James, son
Musée de Cluny – Musée national du Moyen Âge
The Musée de Cluny - Musée national du Moyen Âge the Musée national du Moyen Âge, or just the Musée de Cluny, or the Musée national du Moyen Âge – Thermes et hôtel de Cluny, is a museum in Paris, France. It is located in the 5th arrondissement at 6 Place Paul-Painlevé, south of the Boulevard Saint-Germain, between the Boulevard Saint-Michel and the Rue Saint-Jacques. Among the principal holdings of the museum are the six the Unicorn tapestries; the structure is the most outstanding example still extant of civic architecture in medieval Paris. It was the town house of the abbots of Cluny, started in 1334; the structure was rebuilt by Jacques d'Amboise, abbot in commendam of Cluny 1485–1510. In 1843, it was made into a public museum, to hold relics of France's Gothic past preserved in the building by Alexandre du Sommerard. Though it no longer possesses anything connected with the abbey of Cluny, the hôtel was at first part of a larger Cluniac complex that included a building for a religious college in the Place de la Sorbonne, just south of the present day Hôtel de Cluny along Boulevard Saint-Michel.
Although intended for the use of the Cluny abbots, the residence was taken over by Jacques d'Amboise, Bishop of Clermont and Abbot of Jumièges, rebuilt to its present form in the period of 1485-1500. Occupants of the house over the years have included the sister of Henry VIII of England, she resided here in 1515 after the death of her husband Louis XII, whose successor, Francis I, kept her under surveillance to see if she was pregnant. Seventeenth-century occupants included several papal nuncios, including Mazarin. In the 18th century, the tower of the Hôtel de Cluny was used as an observatory by the astronomer Charles Messier who, in 1771, published his observations in the landmark Messier catalog. In 1789, the hôtel was confiscated by the state, for the next three decades served several functions. At one point, it was owned by a physician who used the magnificent Flamboyant chapel on the first floor as a dissection room. In 1833, Alexandre du Sommerard bought the Hôtel de Cluny and installed his large collection of medieval and Renaissance objects.
Upon his death in 1842, the collection was purchased by the state. The present-day gardens, opened in 1971, include a "forêt de la licorne" inspired by the tapestries; the Hôtel de Cluny is constructed on the remnants of the third century Gallo-Roman baths, famous in their own right, which may be visited. In fact, the museum itself consists of two buildings: the frigidarium, where the vestiges of the Thermes de Cluny are, the Hôtel de Cluny itself, which houses its impressive collections; the Musée de Cluny houses a variety of important medieval artifacts, in particular its tapestry collection, which includes the fifteenth-century tapestry cycle La Dame à la Licorne. Other notable works stored there include early medieval sculptures from the seventh and eighth centuries, works of gold, antique furnishings, stained glass, illuminated manuscripts. Herman Melville visited Paris in 1849, the Hôtel de Cluny evidently fired his imagination; the structure figures prominently in Chapter 41 of Moby-Dick, when Ishmael, probing Ahab's "darker, deeper" motives, invokes the building as a symbol of man's noble but buried psyche.
In G. K. Chesterton's The Man Who Was Thursday, the narrator states that the wealthy Dr. Renard's rooms "were like the Musée de Cluny". List of museums in Paris Seven Ages of Paris, Alistair Horne, 2004 Michelin, the Green Guide: Paris, 2001 Album du Musée national du Moyen Âge, Thermes de Cluny, Pierre-Yves Le Pogam, Dany Sandron. Official website, in French: Official website, in English