Peat known as turf, is an accumulation of decayed vegetation or organic matter. It is unique to natural areas called peatlands, mires, moors, or muskegs; the peatland ecosystem is the most efficient carbon sink on the planet, because peatland plants capture CO2 released from the peat, maintaining an equilibrium. In natural peatlands, the "annual rate of biomass production is greater than the rate of decomposition", but it takes "thousands of years for peatlands to develop the deposits of 1.5 to 2.3 m, the average depth of the boreal peatlands". Sphagnum moss called peat moss, is one of the most common components in peat, although many other plants can contribute; the biological features of Sphagnum mosses act to create a habitat aiding peat formation, a phenomenon termed'habitat manipulation'. Soils consisting of peat are known as histosols. Peat forms in wetland conditions, where flooding obstructs the flow of oxygen from the atmosphere, slowing the rate of decomposition. Peatlands bogs, are the primary source of peat, although less-common wetlands including fens and peat swamp forests deposit peat.
Landscapes covered in peat are home to specific kinds of plants including Sphagnum moss, ericaceous shrubs, sedges. Because organic matter accumulates over thousands of years, peat deposits provide records of past vegetation and climate by preserving plant remains, such as pollen; this allows humans to reconstruct past environments and study changes in human land use. Peat is harvested as an important source of fuel in certain parts of the world. By volume, there are about 4 trillion cubic metres of peat in the world, covering a total of around 2% of the global land area, containing about 8 billion terajoules of energy. Over time, the formation of peat is the first step in the geological formation of other fossil fuels such as coal low-grade coal such as lignite. Depending on the agency, peat is not regarded as a renewable source of energy, due to its extraction rate in industrialized countries far exceeding its slow regrowth rate of 1 mm per year, as it is reported that peat regrowth takes place only in 30-40% of peatlands.
Because of this, the UNFCCC, another organization affiliated with the United Nations classified peat as a fossil fuel. However, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has begun to classify peat as a "slowly renewable" fuel; this is the classification used by many in the peat industry. At 106 g CO2/MJ, the carbon dioxide emission intensity of peat is higher than that of coal and natural gas. Peat forms when plant material does not decay in acidic and anaerobic conditions, it is composed of wetland vegetation: principally bog plants including mosses and shrubs. As it accumulates, the peat holds water; this creates wetter conditions that allow the area of wetland to expand. Peatland features can include ponds and raised bogs. Most modern peat bogs formed 12,000 years ago in high latitudes after the glaciers retreated at the end of the last ice age. Peat accumulates at the rate of about a millimetre per year. Peat material is either hemic, or sapric. Fibric peats are the least consist of intact fibre.
Hemic peats are decomposed and sapric are the most decomposed. Phragmites peat are composed of reed grass, Phragmites australis, other grasses, it is denser than many other types of peat. Engineers may describe a soil as peat which has a high percentage of organic material; this soil is problematic because it exhibits poor consolidation properties – it cannot be compacted to serve as a stable foundation to support loads, such as roads or buildings. In a cited article and Clarke defined peatlands or mires as...the most widespread of all wetland types in the world, representing 50 to 70% of global wetlands. They cover over 3 % of the land and freshwater surface of the planet. In these ecosystems are found one third of the world’s soil carbon and 10% of global freshwater resources; these ecosystems are characterized by the unique ability to accumulate and store dead organic matter from Sphagnum and many other non-moss species, as peat, under conditions of permanent water saturation. Peatlands are adapted to the extreme conditions of high water and low oxygen content, of toxic elements and low availability of plant nutrients.
Their water chemistry varies from alkaline to acidic. Peatlands occur on all continents, from the tropical to boreal and Arctic zones from sea level to high alpine conditions. Peatlands are areas of land with formed layers of peat, they can cover around 4 million square kilometres. In Europe, peatlands extend to about 515,000 km2. About 60% of the world's wetlands are made of peat. Peat deposits are found in many places around the world, including northern Europe and North America; the North American peat deposits are principally found in the Northern United States. Some of the world's largest peatlands include the West Siberian Lowland, the Hudson Bay Lowlands, the Mackenzie River Valley. There is less peat in part because there is less land; that said, the vast Magellanic Moorland in South America is an extensive peat-dominated landscape. Peat can be found in New Zealand
In the World Reference Base for Soil Resources and similar soil classification systems, a sapric is a subtype of a histosol where all of the organic material has undergone sufficient decomposition to prevent the identification of plant parts. Muck is a sapric soil, waterlogged or is artificially drained; the soils are deep, dark colored, friable underlain by marl, or marly clay. The World Reference Base for Soil Resources defines "sapric" as a histosol having less than one-sixth of the organic material consisting of recognizable plant tissue within 100 cm of the soil surface. Muck soils fall under the Organic Order in the Canadian system of soil classification. Muck soils are organic soils, with at minimum of a depth of at least 40 cm. In the USDA soil taxonomy, sapric may be a subtype of a haplohemist or glacistel type, may be a diagnostic organic soil material where the fiber content is less than one-sixth of the volume. Muck soils are defined by the USDA NRCS as sapric organic soils that are saturated more than 30 cumulative days in normal years or are artificially drained.
In other words, it is a soil made up of humus from drained swampland. Muck soil is used for growing specialty crops such as onions, carrots and potatoes. Muck farming on drained swamps is an important part of agriculture in New York, Illinois, Michigan and Florida, where vegetables are grown; the muckland of Torrey Farms of Elba, New York, which covers the counties of Orleans and Genesee, is thought to be the largest continuous section of muckland in the world. American "muckers" have roots from the Netherlands or Eastern Europe, where their ancestors practiced a similar type of farming. Holland Marsh, north of Toronto, Ontario, is the site of the Muck Crops Research Station, a part of the University of Guelph. Muck farming is controversial, because the drainage of wetlands destroys wildlife habitats and results in a variety of environmental problems, it is unlikely that any more will be created in the United States, because of environmental regulations. It is prone to problems; as the soil is light, windbreaks are necessary to protect these fields in dry weather.
It can catch fire and burn underground for months. Oxidation removes a portion of the soil each year, so it becomes progressively shallower. Oxidation discharges carbon dioxide; some muck land has been restored as wetlands for wildlife preserves. The word muck has much usage in the English language, referring in some cases to agricultural soil, in others to dirt in general, animal dung in particular. Origins are from Norse and Proto-Germanic roots referring to cow dung. Peat Barbagallo, Tricia. "Black Beach: The Mucklands of Canastota, New York". Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-22; the Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, established on muck land returned as much as possible to the original state An example of a typical muck farming operation
Greater Montreal is the most populous metropolitan area in Quebec, the second most populous in Canada after Greater Toronto. In 2015, Statistics Canada identified Montreal's Census Metropolitan Area as 4,258.31 square kilometres with a population of 4,027,100. A smaller area of 3,838 square kilometres is governed by the Montreal Metropolitan Community; this level of government is headed by a president. The inner ring is composed of densely populated municipalities located in close proximity to Downtown Montreal, it includes the entire Island of Montreal and the Urban Agglomeration of Longueuil. The outer ring is composed of low-density municipalities located on the fringe of Metropolitan Montreal. Most of these cities and towns are semi-rural; the term off-island suburbs refers to those suburbs that are located on the North Shore of the Mille-Îles River, those on the South Shore that were never included in the megacity of Longueuil, those on the Vaudreuil-Soulanges Peninsula. Communities in that area are informally referred to as the 450, after the telephone area code that has served the region since 1998.
Due to their proximity to Montreal's downtown core, some suburbs on the South Shore are not included in the off-island suburbs though they are on the mainland. There are 82 municipalities that are part of the MMC and 91 municipalities that are part of the CMA. A total of 79 municipalities overlap between the two, with 3 municipalities being part of the MMC but not the CMA, 12 municipalities being part of the CMA but not the MMC. Kanesatake and Kahnawake are not included in the previous counts. Exo operates the region's commuter rail and metropolitan bus services, is the second busiest such system in Canada after Toronto's GO Transit. Established in June 2007, Exo's commuter rail system has six lines linking the downtown core with communities as far west as Hudson, as Far south as Mont-Saint-Hilaire, as far east as Mascouche, as far north as Saint-Jérôme. Along with Exo, a sister agency, the Autorité régionale de transport métropolitain plans and coordinates public transport across Greater Montreal, including the Island of Montreal and communities along both the north shore of the Rivière des Mille-Îles and the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River.
The ARTM's mandate includes the management of reserved High-occupancy vehicle lanes, metropolitan bus terminuses, park-and-ride lots, a budget of $163 million, shared amongst the transit corporations and inter-municipal public transit organizations. The Exo/ARTM's territory spans 63 municipalities and one native reserve, 13 regional county municipalities, 21 transit authorities, it serves a population of 3.7 million people who make more than 750,000 trips daily. The major transit commissions under the ARTM are: Société de transport de Montréal, serving the Island of Montreal Société de transport de Laval, serving the city of Laval Réseau de transport de Longueuil, serving the Urban agglomeration of Longueuil Montreal Urban Community Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Metropolitan Community of Montreal website Greater Montreal Area Restaurants Greater Montreal Area map in.pdf
Vaudreuil-Soulanges Regional County Municipality
Vaudreuil-Soulanges is a regional county municipality in Quebec, Canada. It is located on a triangular peninsula in the western Montérégie region of Quebec, formed by the confluence of the Ottawa River to the north, the St. Lawrence River to the south. Ontario is located west of here. Vaudreuil-Soulanges is part of the St Lawrence Valley. Two million years ago the region was subject to a series of glaciations that covered much of North America; the last in the series was the Wisconsin glaciation. The ice sheet weighed down the landscape; this created the depressions in the land that created the basins for Lake Saint-Louis, Lac des Deux-Montagnes and Lake Saint-Francis. As the ice sheet eroded, the region was submerged 12000 years ago by an inland saltwater sea known as the Champlain sea. Once the glacier was melted, the land rose again. 10000 years ago the body of water, now a fresh water lake, has been named by scholars as Lake Lampsilis. During the French colonial period, the region of New France was divided into several seigneuries populated by French colonists.
Seigneurie de L'Île-Perrot founded on October 29th 1672 Seigneurie de Vaudreuil founded on October 12th 1702 (modern day Vaudreuil-Dorion, Vaudreuil-sur-le-Lac, L'Île-Cadieux, Saint-Lazare and Hudson Seigneurie de Soulanges founded on October 12th 1702 Seigneurie de Rigaud founded on October 29th 1732 Seigneurie de Nouvelle-Longueuil founded on April 21 1734 Canton Newton founded in August 1791 The seigneurial system was abolished in 1854, nearly a century after Great Britain took over the territory after defeating France in the Seven Years' War. It is the only county in Quebec, south of the Ottawa River. Great Britain wanted to keep most of the French-speaking, ethnic French population of the area within Lower Canada during the 1791 division of Upper and Lower Canada, it is geographically isolated from the Montérégie region, as it is its only county located north of the St. Lawrence River; the name relates to the historical division of the area into two counties: Vaudreuil County -- for the communities along the Ottawa River, Soulanges County -- for the communities along the St. Lawrence.
Soulanges is a name of Québécois derivation, referring to its southerliness. Since the RCM formation on 14 April 1982, the division of the county into "Vaudreuil" and "Soulanges" is still salient; the "Vaudreuil" area is closer to Montreal. It is more suburban and economically and ethnically diverse. By contrast, the Soulanges area is predominantly rural and ethnically French-Canadian. Owing to the county's geographic isolation within Quebec, its growing population as a suburb of the city of Montreal, Elections Canada assigned the electoral district to the county in 1997. There are 23 subdivisions within the RCM: The region is served by the CIT La Presqu'Île and CIT du Sud-Ouest bus services as well as the Vaudreuil-Hudson commuter rail line. Highways and numbered routes that run through the municipality, including external routes that start or finish at the county border: List of regional county municipalities and equivalent territories in Quebec
In soil science, Podzols are the typical soils of coniferous or boreal forests. They are the typical soils of eucalypt forests and heathlands in southern Australia. In Western Europe, Podzols develop on heathland, a construct of human interference through grazing and burning. In some British moorlands with Podzolic soils, Cambisols are preserved under Bronze Age barrows. Podzol means "under-ash", is derived from the Russian под + зола́; the term was introduced in 1875 by Vasily Dokuchaev. It refers to the common experience of Russian peasants of plowing up an apparent under-layer of ash during first plowing of a virgin soil of this type. Podzols are able to occur on any parent material but derive from either quartz-rich sands and sandstones or sedimentary debris from magmatic rocks, provided there is high precipitation. Most Podzols are poor soils for agriculture due to the sandy portion, resulting in a low level of moisture and nutrients; some are excessively drained. Others have shallow rooting poor drainage due to subsoil cementation.
A low pH further compounds aluminum toxicity. The best agricultural use of Podzols is for grazing, although well-drained loamy types can be productive for crops if lime and fertilizer are used; the E horizon, 4 to 8 centimetres thick, is low in Fe and Al oxides and humus. It is formed under moist and acidic conditions where the parent material, such as granite or sandstone, is rich in quartz, it is found under a layer of organic material in the process of decomposition, 5 to 10 centimetres thick. In the middle, there is a thin horizon of 0.5 to 1 centimetre. The bleached soil horizon goes over into a red-brown horizon; the colour is strongest in the upper part, change at a depth of 50 to 100 centimetres progressively to the part of the soil, not affected by processes. The soil profiles are designated by the letters A, E, B and C. In some Podzols, the E horizon is absent—either masked by biological activity or obliterated by disturbance. Podzols with little or no E horizon development are classified as brown Podzolic soils called Umbrisols or Umbrepts.
Podzols cover about 4,850,000 square kilometres worldwide and are found under sclerophyllous woody vegetation. By extent Podzols are most common in temperate and boreal zones of the northern hemisphere but they can be found in other settings including both temperate rainforests and tropical areas. In South America Podzols occur beneath Nothofagus betuloides forests in Tierra del Fuego. Podzolization is complex soil formation process by which dissolved organic matter and ions of iron and aluminium, released through weathering of various minerals, form organo-mineral complexes and are moved from the upper parts of the soil profile and deposit in the deeper parts of soil. Through this process, the eluvial horizon becomes bleached and of ash-grey colour; the complexes move with percolating water further down to illuviated horizons which are coloured brown, red or black as they accumulate and consist of cemented sesquioxides and/or organic compounds. The podzolization is a typical soil formation process in Podzols.
Podzolization occurs under forest or heath vegetation and is common in cool and humid climates as these climates inhibit the activity of soil microbes in the topsoil. Overall, podzolization happens where the decomposition of organic matter is inhibited and as a result, acidic organic surface layers build up. Under these acidic conditions, nutrient deficiency further hampers the microbial degradation of organic complexing agents. Medium to coarse textured soils with base-poor parent material promote podzolization, as they encourage percolating water flow; the soil-forming process of podzolization can be broken down into two main steps: Mobilization and translocation of organic matter, Fe and Al from the surface horizon, Immobilization and stabilization of organic matter, Fe and Al into the subsoil. In the topsoil of acidic soils, organic matter together with Al- and Fe-ions, form organo-mineral complexes; these soluble chelates relocate with percolating water from the A to the B-horizon. As a result of this, the E horizon is left bleached and ash-grey in colour, while the B horizon becomes enriched with relocated organo-mineral complexes.
The colour of B horizon is red, brown or black, depending on the dominance of metal ions or organic matter. The boundary between the B and eluvial Ae horizon is distinct, sometimes a hardpan can form, as the relocated Fe and Al and organic matter increase mineral particles, cementing them into this compacted layer. There are several reasons why these organo-mineral complexes immobilize in the B horizon: If during the eluviation process more Al- or Fe-ions bind to the organic compounds, the complex can flocculate as the solubility of it decreases with increasing metal to carbon ratio. Apart from that, a higher pH in the lower soil horizons can result in the breakdown of metal-humus complexes. In the lower soil layers, the organic complexing agents can be degraded by functio
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Rigaud is a municipality in southwestern Quebec, Canada in the county of Vaudreuil-Soulanges in Vallée-du-Haut-Saint-Laurent region. The municipality is located at the junction of Rigaud River, it is situated 130 kilometres east of Ottawa. The population as of the Canada 2011 Census was 7,346; the town was named for Pierre François de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal, the last governor of New France. Rigaud is located at the northwestern part of the Suroît region, part of the Montérégie administrative region, on the Ontario-Quebec border. Across the Ottawa River lies the Laurentides region. Neighbouring municipalities are Hudson, Vaudreuil-Dorion, Sainte-Marthe, Très-Saint-Rédempteur, East Hawkesbury and Pointe-Fortune; the municipality located across Ottawa River is Saint-André-d'Argenteuil. The geographic location of Rigaud, at the head of the Ottawa River and between the Montreal and Ottawa metropolitan areas, has contributed to its economic development throughout its history; the land area of the municipality is 99 km².
The relief is composed, on the North side, of the Ottawa River plain and, on the South side, of Mount Rigaud. The Ottawa River and Mount Rigaud are the main elements in the landscape; the plain is used for agricultural purposes and in bush. Mount Rigaud covers an area of 47 km². A lot of rock pieces scatter the woods all over the mountain, it is a moraine shaped by a glacier that, by moving, broke up from the bedrock of the Canadian Shield, fragments that it disaggregated and rounded by rolling over them, moving them and leaving them in this basin, some thousand years ago, at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. The main attraction is Mont-Rigaud, a hill with downhill ski runs, a private school, a monastery, a shrine dedicated to the Virgin Mary; the mountain is home to an unusual, natural rock garden known as the "champs de patates", so named because of the local legend that it was once a potato field, turned to stone by God because the farmer worked on Sunday. On the opposite side of the mountain is a residential community known as "Mountain Ranches."
The middle to upper-middle class community features large secluded building lots in a wooded setting that draws residents because of its isolated tranquility and privacy. As such, it was the hiding place for fugitive Charlie Wilson, one of the leaders of the notorious 1963 Great train robbery in England; this area was known for its "tree farms" in the 1960s and 1970s, providing a tax shelter for the well off, until the tax laws were changed to require harvesting of those "tree farms". The "Pitcairn Tree Farm", was one such example. Located in Rigaud is the training center for the Canada Border Services Agency; the communities of Dragon and Rigaud are found within the municipality. The Rigaud station was the former terminus of the AMT commuter train to downtown Montreal. On July 1, 2010, service to Rigaud was discontinued, as the town was unable to pay the $300,000 annual fee to the AMT to allow service to continue to the town. After that date, the rail line ends at Hudson; the town is served by the 61 bus from the CIT La Presqu'Île.
Commission Scolaire des Trois-Lacs operates Francophone schools. École de l'Épervière Some areas are served by École Sainte-Marthe in Sainte-MartheLester B. Pearson School Board operates Anglophone schools. Soulanges Elementary School in Saint-Télesphore or Evergreen Elementary and Forest Hill Elementary in Saint-Lazare List of municipalities in Quebec Surrounding area - Hudson, Quebec