The Aosta Valley is a mountainous autonomous region in northwestern Italy. It is bordered by Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France, to the west, Switzerland, to the north and by the Metropolitan City of Turin in the region of Piedmont, Italy, to the south and east. Covering an area of 3,263 km2 and with a population of about 128,000 it is the smallest, least populous, least densely populated region of Italy, it is the only Italian region, not sub-divided into provinces. Provincial administrative functions are provided by the regional government; the region is divided into 74 comuni. Italian and French are the official languages, though much of the native population speak Valdôtain, a dialect of Arpitan, as their home language; the regional capital is Aosta. The Aosta Valley is an Alpine valley which with its tributary valleys includes the Italian slopes of Mont Blanc, Monte Rosa, Gran Paradiso and the Matterhorn; this makes it the highest region in Italy by list of Italian regions by highest point. The valleys above 1,600 metres, annually have a Cold Continental Climate.
In this climate the snow season is long, as long as 8 or 9 months at the highest points. During the summer, mist occurs every day; these areas are the wettest in the western Alps. Temperatures are low, between −7 °C and −3 °C in January, in July between 20 °C and 35 °C. In this area is the town of Rhêmes-Notre-Dame, which may be the coldest town in the Western Alps and where the winter average temperature is around −7 °C. Areas between 2,000 and 3,500 metres have a Tundra Climate, where every month has an average temperature below 10 °C; this climate may be a kind of more severe Cold Oceanic Climate, with a low summer average but mild winters, sometimes above −3 °C near lakes, or a more severe Cold Continental Climate, with a low winter average. Temperature averages in Pian Rosà, at 3,400 metres high, are − 1.4 °C in July. It is the coldest place in Italy. In the past, above 3,500 metres, all months had an average temperature below freezing, with a Perpetual Frost Climate. In recent years though there was a rise in temperatures.
See as an example the data for Pian Rosà. The first inhabitants of the Aosta Valley were Celts and Ligures, whose language heritage remains in some local placenames. Rome conquered the region from the local Salassi around 25 BC and founded Augusta Prætoria Salassorum to secure the strategic mountain passes, they went on to build bridges and roads through the mountains. Thus, the name Valle d'Aosta means "Valley of Augustus". In 1031–1032, Humbert I of Savoy, the founder of the House of Savoy, received the title Count of Aosta from Emperor Conrad II of the Franconian line and built himself a commanding fortification at Bard. Saint Anselm of Canterbury was born in Aosta in 1033 or 1034; the region was divided among fortified castles, in 1191, Thomas I of Savoy found it necessary to grant to the communes a Charte des franchises which preserved autonomy—rights that were fiercely defended until 1770, when they were revoked in order to tie Aosta more to Piedmont, but which were again demanded during post-Napoleonic times.
In the mid-13th century, Emperor Frederick II made the County of Aosta a duchy, its arms charged with a lion rampant were carried in the Savoy arms until the reunification of Italy in 1870. The region remained part of Savoy lands, with the exceptions of French occupations from 1539 to 1563 in 1691 between 1704 and 1706, it was ruled by the First French Empire between 1800 and 1814. During French rule, it was part of Aoste arrondissement in Doire department; as part of the Kingdom of Sardinia, it joined the new Kingdom of Italy in 1861. The region gained special autonomous status after the end of World War II. For more than 20 years the valley has been dominated by autonomist regional parties; the last regional election was held in May 2018. On 27 June 2018 Nicoletta Spelgatti of the Lega Nord was elected president by the region's cabinet, she is the first Lega Nord member to hold the position. The population density of Aosta Valley is by far the lowest of the Italian regions. In 2008, 38.9 inhabitants per km2 were registered in the region, whereas the average national figure was 198.8, though the region has extensive uninhabitable areas of mountain and glacier, with a substantial part of the population living in the central valley.
Migration from tributary valleys has now been stemmed by generous regional support for agriculture and tourist development. The population is growing but steadily. Negative population growth since 1976 has been more than offset by immigration; the region has one of Italy's lowest birth rates, with a rising average age. This, too, is compensated by immigration, since most immigrants arriving in the region are younger people working in the tourist industry. Between 1991 and 2001, the population of Aosta Valley grew by 3.1%, the highest growth among the Italian regions. With a negative natural population growth, this is due to positive net migration
Brusson, Aosta Valley
Brusson. It is well known as a summer and winter vacationing spot, better known for its plentiful cross-country skiing trails, it is a good starting point for climbing Monte Rosa. Brusson is part of the Monterosa Ski domain, home to cross-country skiing trails used for several World Cup races. Sights include the medieval Graines Castle. Forio, Italy Media related to Brusson at Wikimedia Commons
Châtillon, Aosta Valley
Chatillon. It was renamed as "Castiglion Dora" in 1939 during Fascist rule in Italy, it was reverted old name in 1946. Châtillon is the ancestral home of the Bich family, whom most famous member was Marcel Bich, founder of Société Bic. Bourg, Breil de Barrel, Gros Breil, Grand Frayan, Petit Frayan, Barma des Antesans, Cret de Breil, Baron Gamba, Grange de Barme, Chaméran, Ventoux, Garín, Sez de Val, La Fournaise, Conoz Dessus, Conoz Dessous, La Verdettaz, Isseuries, Brusoncles des Gard, Brusoncles des Janin, Bren, Devies, Boettes, Champlong, Sopien, Champ, Chancellier Dessous, Chancellier Dessus, Pracarrà, Salere, La Nouva, Varé, Devies, Pointé, Etavé, Toniquet, Fontanella, Nissod, Nuarsa, Domianaz, Closel Dessous, Closel Dessus, La Tour, Lo Cret, Albard, Pissin Dessous, Pissin Dessus, La Sounere, Cretadonaz, Cret Blanc Dessous, Cret Blanc Dessus, Merlin, Tour de Grange, Barmafol, Perolles, Bretton, St-Valentin, Govergnou, Panorama, Neran, Glereyaz, La Marca, Grand Prà, Cloitres, Plan Pissin, Bertina, Gare, St-Clair, Cerouic, Etrop Dessus, Cretaz Chardon, Pragarin Dessous, Pragarin Dessus, Salé, Salé Dessus, Les Iles, Taxard, Ussel, Château d'Ussel, Biolasse Dessous, Biolasse Dessus, Bellecombe, Mon Ross Dessus, Toule
Saint-Pierre, Aosta Valley
Saint-Pierre is a town and comune in the Aosta Valley region of north-western Italy. There are about 150 medieval castles and fortified houses in the Aosta Valley; the main sight is the Saint-Pierre Castle. Nearby, the Sarriod family built the Sarriod de la Tour Castle. Saint-Pierre is a town in the Aosta Valley, a bilingual region in the Italian Alps, 110 km north-northwest of Turin, it is situated near the Italian entrance of the Mont Blanc Tunnel, near the confluence of the Buthier and the Doire baltée, near the junction of the Great and Little St. Bernard routes. Saint-Pierre is twinned with: Saint-Pierre-en-Faucigny, France Saint-Pierre Castle "Saint-Pierre", Office for Tourism, Sports and Transport, Autonomous Region of Aosta Valley, 2017. Http://www.lovevda.it/en/database/3/proprieta-denom_ing-non-trovata-il-nome-della-proprieta-e-case-sensitive-e-per-ciascuna-tipologia-di-campo-deve-essere-uniforme-verificare-il-mapping-dell-entita/aosta-valley/saint-pierre/422
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19
A bedroom is a room of a house, castle, hotel, apartment, duplex or townhouse where people sleep. A typical western bedroom contains as bedroom furniture one or two beds (ranging from a crib for an infant, a single or twin bed for a toddler, teenager, or single adult to bigger sizes like a full, queen, king or California king, a clothes closet, a nightstand, a dresser. Except in bungalows, ranch style homes, or one-storey motels, bedrooms are on one of the floors of a dwelling, above ground level. In larger Victorian houses it was common to have accessible from the bedroom a boudoir for the lady of the house and a dressing room for the gentleman. Attic bedrooms exist in some houses; the slope of the rafters supporting a pitched roof makes them inconvenient. In houses where servants were living in they used attic bedrooms. In the 14th century the lower class slept on mattresses that were stuffed with broom straws. During the 16th century mattresses stuffed with feathers started to gain popularity, with those who could afford them.
The common person was doing well. In the 18th century cotton and wool started to become more common; the first coil spring mattress was not invented until 1871. The most common and most purchased mattress is the innerspring mattress, though a wide variety of alternative materials are available including foam, latex and silk; the variety of firmness choices range from soft to a rather firm mattress. A bedroom may have bunk beds. A chamber pot kept under the bed or in a nightstand was usual in the period before modern domestic plumbing and bathrooms in dwellings. Furniture and other items in bedrooms vary depending on taste, local traditions and the socioeconomic status of an individual. For instance, a master bedroom may include a bed of a specific size. Built-in closets are less common in Europe than in North America. An individual’s bedroom is a reflection of their personality, as well as social class and socioeconomic status, is unique to each person. However, there are certain items. Mattresses have a bed set to raise the mattress off the floor and the bed provides some decoration.
There are many different types of mattresses. Night stands are popular, they are used to put various items such as an alarm clock or a small lamp. In the times before bathrooms existed in dwellings bedrooms contained a washstand for tasks of personal hygiene. In the 2010s, having a television set in a bedroom is common as well. 43% of American children from ages 3 to 4 have a television in their bedrooms. Along with television sets many bedrooms have computers, video game consoles, a desk to do work. In the late 20th century and early 21st century the bedroom became a more social environment and people started to spend a lot more time in their bedrooms than in the past. Bedding used in northern Europe is different from that used in North America and other parts of Europe. In Japan futons are common. In addition to a bed, a child's bedroom may include a small closet or dressers, a toy box or computer game console, bookcase or other items. Many houses in North America have at least two bedrooms—usually a master bedroom and one or more bedrooms for either the children or guests.
In some jurisdictions there are basic features that a room must have in order to qualify as a bedroom. In many states, such as Alaska, bedrooms are not required to have closets and must instead meet minimum size requirements. A closet by definition is a small space used to store things. In a bedroom, a closet is most used for clothes and other small personal items that one may have. Walk in closets are more popular today and vary in size. However, in the past wardrobes have been the most prominent. A wardrobe is a tall rectangular shaped cabinet that clothes can be hung in. Clothes are kept in a dresser. Nicer clothes are kept in the closet because they can be hung up while leisure clothing and undergarments are stored in the dresser. In buildings with multiple self-contained housing units, the number of bedrooms varies widely. While many such units have at least one bedroom—frequently, these units have at least two—some of these units may not have a specific room dedicated for use as a bedroom.
Sometimes, a master bedroom is connected to a dedicated bathroom called an ensuite. Bedrooms have a door for privacy and a window for ventilation. In larger bedrooms, a small desk and chair or an upholstered chair and a chest of drawers may be used. In Western countries, some large bedrooms, called master bedrooms, may contain a bathroom. Where space allows bedrooms may have televisions and / or video players, in some cases a personal computer. Cabin Comforter Laundry room Nursery
Jean-Baptiste Cerlogne was a poet-priest and scholar of the Valdôtain dialect of Franco-Provençal. He is celebrated as a pioneer of Franco-Provençal grammar and lexicography, identifying a vocabulary for a set of dialects that had hitherto largely been transmitted only orally, he is considered the principal poet of the Aosta Valley, where he lived for most of his life, being a Savoyard in his youth before becoming an Italian. Cerlogne was born in the hamlet with which he shared his surname, in the comune of Saint-Nicolas, a mountain village several kilometers west of Aosta, his father, Jean-Michel Cerlogne, was a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars who worked as the village school master. While still a child, Cerlogne had to leave the family home in order to support himself as a shepherd; this was normal for boys of his age, as was his moving away from home to find work, becoming a chimney sweep in Marseilles. He returned to the Aosta Valley in 1841, this time when he went back to Marseilles he obtained a job at the "Hôtel des Princes" where he worked as a scullion in the kitchens.
A few years he had risen to the rank of kitchen assistant, which meant that when he next returned to his home valley, in 1845, he had a "trade". Still only 19, he now resumed his attendance at the local school for a couple of years. On 4 January 1847 he left the valley again, this time in order to enlist as a soldier for King Charles Albert, he participated in the First Italian War of Independence, taking part in the Battles of Goito and Santa Lucia. He was captured by the Austrians and held as a prisoner of war, before being released on 7 September 1848. In his autobiography he took care to stress the humanity with which, as a prisoner, he was treated by the Austrian army. After the Battle of Novara the war spluttered to an end, he was sent on indefinite leave: he returned to Saint-Nicolas where, despite his age, he resumed his habit of attending the village school as a pupil, alongside the children, it turned out. He was head-hunted to take on the catering at the principal seminary in Aosta, where he started work in September 1851.
It was while working at the seminary that, encouraged by a senior seminarian, Canon Édouard Bérard, he composed his first poems. He continued to live at home in Saint-Nicolas, but in August 1854, following the death of the seminary superintendent, he became concerned that he might be about to lose his job, took the opportunity to move into the seminary. After the death of his mother the following year he temporarily returned to Saint-Nicolas, but in August 1855 he was invited to return and resume his culinary duties at the seminary. In 1855 as a test, Bérard invited Cerlogne to compose a poem in the Valdôtain patois on the subject of the Prodigal Son, he duly set in two weeks, L'Infan prodeuggo. The poem was read out in the presence of the Bishop of André Jourdain; the same year, before Christmas, Cerlogne wrote a second poem, entitled La maènda à Tsésalet. On 16 August 1856, Cerlogne left his job in the seminary kitchen and started to study with Father Basile Guichardaz, the priest at Saint-Nicolas though it became apparent that Cerlogne's interest in poetry did not extend to an interest in the Latin grammar, a required topic.
He returned to the seminary on 15 October 1859, but now, aged 33, he entered not as the cook but as a seminarian. In 1861, he composed the best known of his Valdôtain poems,'La Pastorala', published in 1884, still the Christmas song of choice in the Aosta Valley. In 1862, he produced a French version,'La Pastorale'. Soon after becoming a seminarian, he became aware of his vocation and, after some years of preparation, he became a country priest. Cerlogne celebrated his first mass at Saint-Nicolas on 22 December 1864; this was the start of a new life. On 1 February 1865, he was appointed deacon at Valgrisenche, where he would recall wryly that the holy water in the church remained frozen for five months, where he translated the papal bull "Ineffabilis Deus" into patois. Towards the end of September 1866, he was transferred to Pontboset, where he was awarded a medal of civil merit in recognition of the help he gave the people during the cholera epidemic of 1867. In a single month, he buried 63 dead ones.
The next year he composed the'hymn','Les petits chinois', to be set to the melody of a regionally well-known folk tune. On 19 November 1870 he was given charge of his own parish, sent to take on Champdepraz, a small agricultural mountain parish in the eastern part of the Aosta Valley region, he now sought to clear the plot. Neighbours subsequently followed his example, as a result of which, during the closing decades of the nineteenth century, vineyards came to dominate the hills of the comune. In October 1879, by now somewhat fatigued by nine years of parish responsibilities and viticulture, Cerlogne an invitation to live in the priory-rectory at Ayas. For the next four years he was able to use "the solitude of his room for scholarship", he used the opportunity to prepare material for his Dictionary and Grammar Book of the Valdôtain