Aïcirits-Camou-Suhast is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The people of the commune are known as Aiziriztar; the commune is part of the Mixe country in the French Basque Country of Lower Navarre. It is located north of Saint-Palais. Highway D29 runs north from Saint-Palais through the entire commune from south to north and passing through the town; the D529 Highway runs east from the commune to its junction with Highway D134. Highway D933 enters the commune in the southeast and runs north along the eastern side of the commune to exit in the north; the commune is located in the Drainage basin of the Adour and is watered by the Bidouze, a tributary of the Adour, it has its tributaries: the Joyeuse and the Eyherachar and Recalde streams. The commune's name in Basque is Aiziritze-Gamue-Zohazti. For Aïcirits, Jean-Baptiste Orpustan proposed the Basque etymology aitz, meaning "high" and aratze, meaning "fern patch", giving "high fern patch" or "rocky fern patch".
He indicated that Suhast may come from zuhaztoi, meaning "plantation of trees". The inhabitants of Camou are known as Gamuar and the inhabitants of Suhast are known as Zohaztiar; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Ldh/EHESS/Cassini: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Notaries: Notaries of Labastide-Villefranche Bayonne: Cartulary of Bayonne or Livre d'Or Ohix: Navarre: Titles of the Kingdom of Navarre Biscay: Martin Biscay Pamplona: Titles of Pamplona Suhast the village of Camou-Mixe, joined Aïcirits and Camou-Mixe on 22 March 1842. List of Successive Mayors of Aïcirits-Camou-Suhast The commune is linked to the following administrative bodies: the catchment area of Saint-Palais Local Agency for Employment of Biarritz the social welfare fund of Bayonne the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Bayonne Basque Country the sanitation sector of Bayonne Saint-Palais-South-West-Landes the subdivision of the Departmental Equipment management of Saint-Palais-Bidache The town depends on the district court of Bayonne, the High Court of Bayonne and the Court of Appeal of Pau.
The commune belongs to six inter-communal structures: the community of communes of Amikuze the AEP union for the Mixe country the energy union of Pyrenees-Atlantiques. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Aïcirits-Camou-Suhast is classified by the INSEE among the communes which are predominantly rural areas in the hilly agricultural region of the Basque Country, it is part of a favoured agricultural area known as "simple". The registered office of the Lur Berri company, a large food cooperative group, is located in Aïcirits-Camou-Suhast; the town is part of the designated zone of Ossau-iraty. It hosts other companies in the agri-food sector as one of the first fifty two communes of the department: Union agricultural coop feed livestock. According to the Map of the Seven Basque Provinces published in 1863 by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte, the dialect of Basque spoken in Aicirits-Camou-Suhast is eastern low Navarrese; the village has a cave at Camou linked to the Basque legend of Txahalgorri, the young red bull.
The former Chateau of Camou. It contains collections of ancient models of machines from plans of Leonardo da Vinci; the Church of Saint Martin. Martin Landerretche, born on 26 July 1842 at Bussunarits-Sarrasquette and died on 29 January 1930 at Espelette was a bascologue, a priest, writer and a Basque French academic in the Basque language, he was the pastor at Aïcirits. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department AIZIRITZE-GAMUE-ZOHAZTI in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Aïcirits-Camou-Suhast on Lion1906 Aïcirits-Camou-Suhast on Google Maps Aïcirits-Camou-Suhast on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Aïcirits and Suhast on the 1750 Cassini Map Aïcirits-Camou-Suhast on the INSEE website INSEE
Came is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It is located in the former province of Lower Navarre. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE AKAMARRE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish
La Bastide-Clairence is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bastidotes; the village is a member of the Les Plus Beaux Villages de France association. La Bastide-Clairence is located in the former province of Lower Navarre some 20 km east by south-east of Bayonne and 5 km north-east of Hasparren. Access to the commune is by the D10 road which branches from the D936 north of the commune and comes south to the village continuing south to join the D251 just west of Ayherre. Part of the D510 forms the western border of the commune as it goes south to join the D10 near Hasparren; the D123 goes east from the village through the length of the commune to Amorots-Succos to the south-east. The D610 connects the D510 to the D10 in the commune; the commune is farmland interspersed with forest. La Joyeuse stream flows from the south through the village and continues north to become the Aran which joins the Adour at Urt.
The Arbéroue stream flows from the south-east northwards through the eastern part of the commune to join the Lihoury north-east of the commune. Le Bourg la Côte la Chapelle Pessarou The commune name in Basque is Bastida or Bastida Arberoa and in Gascon Occitan is La Bastida Clarença; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Origins: Camara: Titles of the Camara of Comptos Navarre: Titles of the Kingdom of Navarre Duchesne: Duchesne collection volume 114 Oloron: Notaries of Oloron Pamplona: Titles of Pamplona Register: Register of the States of Navarre Collations: Collations of the Diocese of BayonneLa Bastide-Clairence appears as'LA BASTIDE Clerence on the 1750 Cassini Map and as LA BASTIDE on the 1790 version. A Navarrese fortified village was founded in 1288 by Claire de Rabastens on a hillside next to the Aran river hence its Gascon name Bastida Clarença.
800 refugees from Bigorre, were granted a charter in July 1312 by Louis I of Navarre, the future Louis X of France. The birth of the village corresponds to a need for Navarre to create a strong town in the forested frontier area. La Bastide-Clairence, as its name suggests, was a fortified town; the historian Paul Broca could still see the remains of its ancient fortress in 1875. La Bastide-Clairence accumulated a population of shop-keepers from south-western France from Spanish refugees fleeing the Inquisition, from Basque towns and villages nearby. Another version of the origin of the town exists: it was populated by settlers from diverse backgrounds including pilgrims to Santiago de Compostela called the Francos. By 1700 the population had reached 2,000; the inhabitants lived on the nail industry, woollen garments and knitwear, agriculture. 12-day fairs ensured the prosperity of the town. In the 16th century the locals spoke Gascon. Subsequently they adopted the Basque language and customs; the town has 320 mills from the 17th century.
From 1575 to 1789, La Bastide-Clairence depended on the lords of Gramont. The city had a large Jewish community after the expulsion of Portuguese Jews in the 16th and 17th centuries. Today, its half-timbered houses attract many art craftsmen; the houses are typical of the region - there are two architectural types: the Baserri style with gabled roofs with two slopes, half-timbered façade with red or green colour on overhangs, carved window mullions and lintels. The Navarrese style with roofs of 2 or 4 sides and doors with vaulted Arches; the commune was known as Labastide-Clairence and was renamed La Bastide-Clairence on 25 June 1988. There was a Jewish community for about 200 years from the early 17th century to the end of the 18th century. Refugees who came from Spain and Portugal, the Sephardi Jews, settled in Bayonne at the end of the 16th century from where they spread to the three small towns of Peyrehorade, La Bastide-Clairence which were protected by the Duke of Gramont. Called "Portuguese", there were about 70-80 families in the commune in the 17th century.
They lived in a autonomous community designated by the expression "Jewish Nation" on the municipal records and had their own separate cemetery, opened at the beginning of the 17th century. The inscriptions on the tombs, numbering 62, were found from 1962 to 1964 by Professor Gérard Nahon; the oldest tomb dates from 1620 with the most recent in 1785. On 18 of them, the date of death is expressed in the Hebrew calendar. From 1659 all had biblical names: Jacob, Benjamin, Sarah, Rebecca. Among family names there are: Dacosta, Lopez Nunez, Alvares; the number of Jews decreased in the middle of the 18th century when there were only 15 Jewish families. There remained only 6 in 1798; the cemetery belongs to the Jewish Consistory of Bayonne. List of Successive Mayors The town participates in nine inter-communal associations: the community of communes of Pays d'Hasparren Hazparneko Lurraldea.
Arbérats-Sillègue is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Arberaztar. Arbérats-Sillègue is located in Mixe Country in the former Basque province of Lower Navarre, 3 km north-east of Saint-Palais and 10 km south-west of Sauveterre-de-Béarn; the D933 road from Saint-Palais to Osserain-Rivareyte in the north passes through the northern part of the commune. The D134 road passes through the east of the commune from Sussaute in the north continuing south to join the D11 road west of Domezain-Berraute. Access to the village is by country road from the western border passing through the village and going east to join the D134; the commune is located in the Drainage basin of the Adour. The Ruisseau de Recaide forms part of the northern border flowing north-west to join the Bidouze; the Ruisseau d'Eyherachar rises north-east of the village and flows west through the commune south forming part of the western border before joining the Bidouze just south of Aïcirits.
The name of the commune in basque is Arberatze-Zilhekoa. Paul Raymond indicated on page 161 of his 1863 dictionary. Jean-Baptiste Orpustan suggested two possible origins of the name Arbérats, both from basque: ar-bera meaning ’fragile’ or ’friable'. Brigitte Jobbé-Duval interpreted Arbérats as place of slate. For Sillègue Jean-Batiste Orpustan suggested the name was a blend of the Basque word zilo, meaning "hole" or "depression in the terrain" and a second element leku meaning "place"; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini1: Arbérats-Sillègue on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Cassini2: Sillègue on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Duchesne: Duchesne collection volume CXIV Ohix: Pamplona: Titles of Pamplona Notaries: Notaries of Labastide-Villefranche Regulations: Regulations of the Court of Licharre The village of Sillègue was merged with Arbérats on 14 April 1841.
List of Successive Mayors The commune belongs to six inter-communal structures: the Community of communes of Amikuze. In 1350 there were 6 in Sillègue; the fiscal census of 1412-1413, made on the orders of Charles III of Navarre, compared with that of 1551 "of men and weapons that are in this Kingdom of Navarre below the ports" reveals a demography with strong growth. The first indicated the presence at Arbérats of 7 fires, the second of 26; the same for Sillègue: the 1412 census reported 5 fires and that of 1551 22 fires. The census of the population of Lower Navarre in 1695 showed 40 fires at Arbérats and 20 at Sillègues. In 2009 the commune had 307 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 · Although from 1793 to 1836 Arbérats and Sillègue were separate communes, the total population for both communes is shown in the above table.
The commune is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée of Ossau-iraty. According to the Map of the Seven Basque Provinces published in 1863 by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte the Basque dialect spoken in Arbérats-Sillègue is western lower-navarrese; the Church of Saint-Laurent is registered as an historical monument. The commune has an elementary school The commune has a festival hall located in the centre of the village; the original building was a school and has been renovated. As it was only equipped with a left wall, Arbérats-Sillègue in 2007 opened a new fronton with toilets and a Pétanque area. There is a football field in the same complex. A pit dating to Roman times has been converted to a leisure park. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Arberatze-Zilhekoa in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Arbérats-Sillègue on Lion1906 Arbérats-Sillègue on Google Maps Arbérats-Sillègue on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Arberats and Sillegue on the 1750 Cassini Map Arbérats-Sillègue on the INSEE website INSEE
Arraute-Charritte is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Arruetar. Arraute-Charritte is located in the former province of Lower Navarre some 40 km east by south-east of Bayonne and 15 km north-west of Saint-Palais. Access to the commune is by the D11 road from Bidache in the north passing through the commune east of the village and continuing to Masparraute in the south. Access to the village is by the D246 from Orègue in the west passing the village south-west to Masparraute; the D313 passes down the western border of the commune from the D11 south of Bidache and joins the D246 west of the village. The D310 goes east from the D11 north of the village to Bergouey-Viellenave. There are forests in the north-east and north-west of the commune with a band of patchy forest through the centre; the rest of the commune is farmland. There is a stop in the commune on bus route 870 from Tardets-Sorholus to Bayonne on the Interurban Network of Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
The Bidouze river forms the north-eastern border of the commune with the Ruisseau de Mandeheguy flowing into it there. Numerous other streams rise all over the flow east to the Bidouze; the Ruiusseau de Bordaberry rises in the north of the commune and flows west to join the Apatharena which forms the western border of the commune and continues north to join the Lihoury. Numerous other streams rise in the flow to the Apatharena; the commune name in basque is Arrueta-Sarrikota. Jean-Baptiste Orpustan indicated that Charrite came from Sarri-ko-ta meaning "place of small bushes". However, there is no certainty of the origin of the name Arraute; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 Ldh/EHESS/Cassini: Charritte on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Duchesne: Duchesne collection volume CXIV Pamplona: Titles of Pamplona Biscay: Martin Biscay The commune of Arraute and its village, Charritte-Mixe, were merged on 27 June 1842.
List of Successive Mayors The commune is part of five inter-communal structures: the AEP association of Pays de Mixe. In 2009 the commune had 365 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Arraute-Charritte and Charente-Maritime Department in 2009 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2009, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2009, INSEE; the town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone designation of Ossau-iraty. Dwelling Tax: 9.04% Property tax: 6.39% Business Tax: 7.97%The local economy is based on agriculture: Agriculture: cereals. The village is Basque and has some Maisons à colombages.
The Parish Church of Saint-Pierre in Arraute is registered as an historical monument. The Funeral Chapel of Samacoitz is part of the religious heritage; the Banks of the Bidouze are classified as a Natura 2000 site. Amorots-Succos, Masparraute, Orègue, Béguios, Arraute-Charritte have created together an inter-communal educational grouping. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department ARRUETA-SARRIKOTA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Arraute-Charritte on Lion1906 Arraute-Charritte on Google Maps Arraute-Charritte on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Arraute and Charritte on the 1750 Cassini Map Arraute-Charritte on the INSEE website INSEE
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Ainhice-Mongelos is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. It is located in the former province of Lower Navarre; the inhabitants of the commune are known as Monjolostars. The town is part of the country Basque province of Cize of Lower Navarre, it is located in the Pyrenees mountains some 40 km in a direct line southeast of Bayonne and about 15 km northeast of the Spanish border. The commune is farmland with scattered small forests. Access to Ainhice-Mongelos is via the Highway D933 which runs northeast from Saint-Jean-le-Vieux which runs from southwest to northeast along the eastern side of the commune through the village of Mongelos continues northeast, ending near Saint Palais. Just south of the commune at Lacarre, the Highway D422 branches from the D933 to the northwest and passes through the western side of the commune, ending at Lopeenia just to the west of the commune. No other highways enter the commune; the village of Anhice-Mongelos can be reached by a country road from the D933 at Mongelos or by any of the many country roads which cover the commune.
In the Drainage basin of the Adour, the commune is traversed by a tributary of the Nive, the Lakako erreka and, a tributary of the Laurhibar, the Arzubiko erreka and by tributaries of the latter, the Bassaguibeléko erreka and the Idiondoa brook. The Artikaitéko erreka which flows into Bidouze passes through the commune; the name of the commune in Basque is Ainhize-Monjolose. According to Jean-Baptiste Orpustan the origin of the name Ainhice remains unknown. According to Brigitte Jobbé-Duval Mongelos is a Gascon name meaning Mont Jaloux; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Mérimée: Presentation of Ainhice-Mongelos on the Ministry of Culture database. Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Origins: Pamplona: Titles of Pamplona Biscay: Martin Biscay Navarre: Regulations of the States of Navarre Camara: Titles of the Camara de Comptos Ohix: Contracts of Ohix Bayonne: Visitations of the Diocese of Bayonne The medieval village of Mongelos was established in 1240 as subject to the King of Navarre.
Subject to Ainhice, they were reunited on 16 August 1841. List of Successive Mayors of Anhice-Mongelos The commune belongs to seven inter-communal organisations: the community of communes of Garazi-Baigorri the AEP union of Ainhice the energy union of Pyrenees-Atlantiques the school union for RPI Ainhice-Gamarthe-Lacarre the inter-communal association for the development and management of the abattoir at Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port the joint association for the watershed of the Nive the union to support Basque culture. Economic activity is agricultural; the town is part of the zone of appellation of Ossau-iraty. Euskal Herriko Laborantza Ganbara or the "Chamber of Agriculture for the Basque Country" is an association under the law of 1901 founded on 15 January 2005 and is headquartered in Ainhice-Mongelos. According to the Map of the Seven Basque Provinces published in 1863 by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte, the dialect of Basque spoken in Ainhice-Mongelos is eastern low Navarrese. Several houses and farms are registered as historical monuments.
These are: Houses and Farms Barnetxea Farm Elizaldea Farm Etxeparea Farm Irazabalea Farm Church of the Assumption The town has a kindergarten. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department AINHIZE-MONJOLOSE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Ainhice-Mongelos on Lion1906 Ainhice on the 1750 Cassini Map Ainhice-Mongelos on the INSEE website INSEE