The Gauls were a group of Celtic peoples of West-Central Europe in the Iron Age and the Roman period. The area they inhabited was known as Gaul, their Gaulish language forms the main branch of the Continental Celtic languages. The Gauls emerged around the 5th century BC as the bearers of the La Tène culture north of the Alps. By the 4th century BC, they spread over much of what is now France, Spain, Switzerland, Southern Germany, the Czech Republic and Slovakia by virtue of controlling the trade routes along the river systems of the Rhône, Seine and Danube, they expanded into Northern Italy, the Balkans and Galatia. Gaul was never united under a single ruler or government, but the Gallic tribes were capable of uniting their forces in large-scale military operations, they reached the peak of their power in the early 3rd century BC. The rising Roman Republic after the end of the First Punic War put pressure on the Gallic sphere of influence. After this, Gaul became a province of the Roman Empire, the Gauls culturally adapted to the Roman world, bringing about the formation of the hybrid Gallo-Roman culture.
The Gauls of Gallia Celtica according to the testimony of Caesar called themselves Celtae in their own language, Galli in Latin. As is not unusual with ancient ethnonyms, these names came to be applied more than their original sense, Celtae being the origin of the term Celts itself while Galli is the origin of the adjective Gallic, now referring to all of Gaul; the name Gaul itself is not from the Germanic word * Walhaz. Gaulish culture developed out of the Celtic cultures over the first millennia BC; the Urnfield culture represents the Celts as a distinct cultural branch of the Indo-European-speaking people. The spread of iron working led to the Hallstatt culture in the 8th century BC; the Hallstatt culture evolved into the La Tène culture in around the 5th century BC. The Greek and Etruscan civilizations and colonies began to influence the Gauls in the Mediterranean area. Gauls under Brennus invaded Rome circa 390 BC. By the 5th century BC, the tribes called Gauls had migrated from Central France to the Mediterranean coast.
Gallic invaders settled the Po Valley in the 4th century BC, defeated Roman forces in a battle under Brennus in 390 BC and raided Italy as far as Sicily. In the 3rd century BC, the Gauls attempted an eastward expansion in 281-279 BC, towards the Balkan peninsula, which at that time was a Greek province, with the ultimate goal to reach and loot the rich Greek city-states of the Greek mainland, but the majority of the Gaul army was exterminated by the Greeks and the few Gauls that survived were forced to flee. A large number of Gauls served in the armies of Carthage during the Punic Wars, one of the leading rebel leaders of the Mercenary War, was of Gallic origin. During the Balkan expedition, led by Cerethrios and Bolgios, the Gauls raided twice the Greek mainland. At the end of the second expedition the Gallic raiders had been repelled by the coalition armies of the various Greek city-states and were forced to retreat to Illyria and Thrace, but the Greeks were forced to grant safe-passage to the Gauls who made their way to Asia Minor and settled in Central Anatolia.
The Gallic area of settlement in Asia Minor was called Galatia. But they were checked through the use of war elephants and skirmishers by the Greek Seleucid king Antiochus I in 275 BC, after which they served as mercenaries across the whole Hellenistic Eastern Mediterranean, including Ptolemaic Egypt, where they, under Ptolemy II Philadelphus, attempted to seize control of the kingdom. In the first Gallic invasion of Greece, they achieved victory over the Macedonians and killed the Macedonian king Ptolemy Keraunos, they focused on looting the rich Macedonian countryside, but avoided the fortified cities. The Macedonian general Sosthenes assembled an army, defeated Bolgius and repelled the invading Gauls. In the second Gaulish invasion of Greece, the Gauls, led by Brennos, suffered heavy losses while facing the Greek coalition army at Thermopylae, but helped by the Heracleans they followed the mountain path around Thermopylae to encircle the Greek army in the same way that the Persian army had done at the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC, but this time deafeating the whole of the Greek army.
After passing Thermopylae the Gauls headed for the rich treasury at Delphi, where they were defeated by the re-assembled Greek army. This led to a series of retreats of the Gauls, with devastating losses, all the way up to Macedonia and out of the Greek mainland; the major part of the Gaul army was defeated in the process, those Gauls survived were forced to flee from Greece. The Gallic leader Brennos was injured at Delphi and committed suicide there. (He is not to be confused with another Gaulish leader bearing the same name who had sacked Rome a century earlier. In 278 BC Gaulish settlers in the Balkans were invited by Nicomedes I of Bithynia to help him in a dynastic struggle against his brother, they numbered about 10,000 fighting men and about the same number of
Allan is a commune in the Drôme department in southeastern France. Communes of the Drôme department INSEE
Trecate is a comune in the Province of Novara in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 90 kilometres northeast of Turin and about 9 kilometres east of Novara. It harbors a major refinery complex for fuels and liquefied petroleum gas, serving northern and central Italy, it is served by Trecate railway station. Among its churches are: Santa Maria Assunta - main parish church San Francesco - Contains frescoes by il Cerano Sanctuary of the Madonna delle Grazie Oratory del Gonfalone Trecate is twinned with: Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux, France Official website
Arthémonay is a commune in the Drôme department in southeastern France. Communes of the Drôme department INSEE
Ancône is a commune in the Drôme department in southeastern France. Communes of the Drôme department INSEE
Aouste-sur-Sye is a commune in the Drôme department in southeastern France. Communes of the Drôme department INSEE
Eltmann is a town of 5256 inhabitants (in the Haßberge district of Lower Franconia, in Bavaria, Germany. It lies on the south bank of the Main river, 18 km west of Bamberg, it comprises the town proper, its outlying districts, Eschenbach, Lembach, Roßstadt, Weissbrunn, as well as an industrial district. Eltmann lies within the Naturpark Steigerwald; the German federal highway 26 passes through town, the German Main Valley Autobahn 70 has an interchange adjacent to town. Eltmann receives rail service from the German national railway system, Deutsche Bahn, at the Ebelsbach-Eltmann train station. Several Kindergartens, the Johann-Baptist-Graser Grundschule, the Wallburg Realschule, the Georg-Göpfert-Hauptschule are located within the town. Eltmann lies within the Naturpark Steigerwald; the German federal highway 26 passes through town, the German Main Valley Autobahn 70 has an interchange adjacent to town. Eltmann receives rail service from the German national railway system, Deutsche Bahn, at the Ebelsbach-Eltmann train station.
A 43-meter-high watchtower dating from the 11th century attached by a bridge to an adjacent castle, the upper portion of the tower fell into disrepair following the destruction of the remainder of the castle. The present 27-meter height was established; the Wallburg offers a panoramic view of Eltmann, the Steigerwald and Main river valley, the top is accessible via an internal staircase. From German Wikipedia: de:Burg Wallburg. Begun in 1835, the current Roman Catholic parish church incorporates a portion of the original 14th-century church, whose foundations date back to the 11th century; the medieval stone carvings therein include the epitaphs of the Knights of the von Fuchs family. Dedicated in the year 1755, the Wallfahrtskirche Mariaheimsuchung pilgrimage church in Limbach stands as the last major work of the architect, Balthasar Neumann; the stunning Rococo interior is complemented by the High Altar, a masterpiece completed in 1761 by the renowned sculptor Johann Peter Wagner. Adjacent to the church is found the Spring of Mercy, to which several miraculous cures have been attributed.
The Olympic-sized municipal swimming pool consists of several pools suitable for swimmers of all ages to enjoy. The surrounding lawn is shaded by chestnut trees, a restaurant and tennis courts are adjacent. Kilometers of well-groomed trails winding through the hills of the Steigerwald, one of the German national parks, offer unlimited hiking and wildlife viewing opportunities; the Kreuzkapelle overlooks the graveyard. First completed in 1612, the chapel received a complete reconstruction in 1768, it was relocated to its current location in the graveyard in 1961. This chapel, dating from the 13th century, is the oldest structure in town; the promenade along the Main River offers. The town center, with many charming shops, is an easy walk away. Founded c. 741 during a period of expansion of civil administration and military fortifications in the Franconian region, Eltmann is first mentioned in 8th-century historical records as "Altimoin" or "Eltimoin", interpreted as "on the upper Main", or more appropriately as "by the old Main" denoting its location on a side channel of the Main river.
Eltmann was granted rights as a town in 1335 during the reign of Holy Roman Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian. The first use of the spelling "Eltmann" appears in records from 1456, but the spelling was not standardized until the 17th century. Although the town proper was spared any destruction during World War Two, a nearby ball bearing plant was attacked by American heavy bombers of the 92nd Bomb Group on July 21, 1944, damaged. Eltmann celebrated its 650th anniversary in 1985; the earliest coat of arms of the town of Eltmann dates from the late 14th century, comprised the red and white quartered shield of Würzburg. From 1512 onward the town seal added the man-at-arms adding a T symbol in the 19th century. Four breweries call Eltmann home, giving the town its nickname of the "Beer Town of the Steigerwald". In July, the town holds an annual beer festival, featuring live music and entertainment, and, of course, the local beers; the local history museum provides interesting displays detailing the rich history of the town and area, including displays on daily life and local viniculture.
Eltmann has a diversified economy of agriculture, light manufacturing and tourism. Eltmann lies at the eastern border of the renowned Franconian wine-producing region. Franconian wines are known throughout Germany for their dryness, have a spicy or earthy flavor; these wines are bottled in the distinctive, flagon-shaped bottle called the Bocksbeutel. The superior quality of these wines has ensured their popularity among Germans, as a result little of the Franconian production is exported. Https://web.archive.org/web/20061027021720/http://steigerwald.org/unser_steigerwald/unser_steigerwald.html http://www.eltmann.de http://92ndma.org/missions.html#1944 http://www.ngw.nl/int/dld/e/eltmann.htm http://www.beers-of-the-world.com/directory/local/eltmann.germany/ http://www.oke-gmbh.de http://www.stein-vetter.de/frontend.php?en/aee570631bbcfc2f9c2b5b607d6ad7ab/template/3/n/n/n https://web.archive.org/web/20070312075801/http://www.fag.com/content.fag.de/en/regions/region-germany.jsp?country_id=53&continent_id=39&location_id=80230& https://web.archive.org/web/20061112195346/http://www.wein.com/info/en/regions/franconia.htm http://fuenf-sterne.t3-kundenserver.de/ http://www.sg-eltmann.de/