Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of
Old Saint Peter's Church, Strasbourg
The Church of Old Saint Peters is a by simultaneum Catholic and Lutheran church building in Strasbourg, Alsace is first mentioned in 1130. In the Middle Ages it was one of Diocese of Strasbourg's nine parish churches. On 22 May 1398 the Chapter of the Abbey of Honau, in Rhinau since 1290, moved to Old St Peter's because of flooding in Rhinau; the Chapter stayed there until 1529, conducting its services in the choir, while the parish occupied the nave. When the Catholic rite was restored in 1683, the Chapter returned to the Church and stayed there until 1790, when it was wound up. On 20 February 1529, when Strasbourg joined the Reformation and suspended the practice of the mass, the Church became Lutheran. Martin Bucer and the other Strasbourg reformers had campaigned for several years to have Protestant services in all of Strasbourg's churches, but in 1525 the city council had voted to retain the mass in several churches, including Old St Peter's. In 1535, in the context of the Reform, a Latin school, or'Middle school' was opened at Old Saint Peters.
In 1683, two years after the annexation of Strasbourg by France, Louis XIV ordered that part of the Church be returned to the Catholics and that a wall be constructed inside the church by the rood screen, to restrict the Protestant services to the Nave. It was not until 2012. In the 19th century, the Catholic part of the Church was extended; the extension was designed by the architect Conrath and opened in 1867. The Catholic Church contains relics of Brigit of Kildare as well as a number of important works of art classified as Monuments historiques such as the "Passion of Christ", a series of ten Gothic paintings by Heinrich Lutzelmann, the "Scenes from the Life of St Peter" an series of four wooden early Renaissance or late Gothic reliefs made around 1500 and a series of four 1504 paintings depicting "Scenes of the Life of Christ after the Resurrection"; the Lutheran part of the church, presently owned and used by a congregation within the Protestant Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine features some notable works of art, among which the wooden Renaissance relief "Holy Family" by Hans Wydyz, classified as a Monument historique.
Views of the Catholic Church Views of the Protestant Church Media related to Églises St Pierre le Vieux at Wikimedia Commons
Saint Stephen's Church, Strasbourg
Saint Stephen’s Church in Strasbourg is located inside the catholic ‘Saint-Étienne’ college in Strasbourg, for which it serves as a chapel. Saint Stephen's is one of the oldest churches in Strasbourg; the crypt contains the remains of a fifth-century Roman basilica. The site was occupied by a Roman fort. A new church was built on the site in early in 717 by Duke Adalbert of Alsace, brother of Saint Odile, as part of a new convent, in which he installed his daughter Attala as the first abbess; the Church served for many years as the episcopal seat for the north of Alsace. The church was rebuilt in 1220 in Romanesque-Gothic style. At the beginning of the 16th century, St Stephen's was a parish church, the parish of Stephen's being one of the nine parishes of Strasbourg. In 1534, as the reform was being introduced in Strasbourg, the parish of St Stephen's was transferred to St William's, on account of the opposition of the cannonesses of St Stephen's to the new teaching. In the seventeenth century Louis XIV closed the abbey and transferred it to the Visitandines to serve as a boarding school for young women, a function which continued up until the French Revolution.
In 1714 the church was equipped with an organ by Andreas Silbermann, now in Bischheim. After the French Revolution, the building was used as a warehouse as a theatre. In 1802, the church was deprived of its tower and in 1805 this was transformed into a theatre; the college, of which the church now forms part, began life in 1861 as a'Petit seminaire', educating future priests as well as lay students. Allied bombing destroyed much of the building in 1944. Only the wide transept with its triple apse survived. In 1956, the ancient site was excavated and a Merovingian apse was discovered beneath the foundations of the old tower. In 1961, the nave was renovated; the church was classified as a historical monument in 1962. In 2016, the monumental concert organ from the former conservatory located in the National Theatre of Strasbourg was moved into the nave in order to be used as a church organ; the instrument, a 1963 work by organ builder Curt Schwenkedel, had been out of use since 1995. It was restored by Quentin Blumenroeder from Haguenau.
As the Church is now part of a school, public access is only possible on special occasions, such as European Heritage Days. The school owns some valuable historical tapestries from the abbey church, some of which can be seen in the nearby Notre Dame museum. Eglise Saint Etienne - 2 rue de la Pierre Large on archi-wiki.org website of the Saint-Etienne college Aerial photo on French historical monuments website
The Temple Neuf in Strasbourg is a Lutheran church built on the site of the former Dominican convent where Meister Eckhart studied. The Temple was constructed at the end of the 19th century after the old Dominican Church was destroyed during the Siege of Strasbourg on the night of 24 to 25 August, during the Franco-Prussian War; the ensuing fire destroyed the libraries of the University of Strasbourg and the City of Strasbourg which were located at the Temple Neuf site. The Dominican convent had been built in 1260 and in 1538 the Jean Sturm Gymnasium was attached; when Strasbourg became Protestant in 1590, the library of the Protestant seminary was transferred to the convent building. The current church building was built from 1874 to 1877 in pink sandstone and a Neo-Romanesque style; the architect was Emile Salomon. The name "Temple Neuf" is a translation of the German name "Neue Kirche" that the former Dominican Church had carried since 1681, with the annexation of Strasbourg by Louis XIV of France, the Protestants had to leave Strasbourg Cathedral.
The Church contains the tombstone of the famous Dominicain mystic and preacher. The 1877 organ is by the famous German organ maker Joseph Merklin. Website of the Temple Neuf parish CDV Photos of Temple Neuf after bombing in Franco-Prussian War
Carl Wilhelm Ernst Schäfer was a German architect and university professor. Schäfer became the most important representative of the late Gothic Revival in Germany, he created several churches: Modification of the Catholic Propsteikirche St. Gertrude of Brabant in Wattenscheid, Catholic parish church of St. Nikolai in Lippstadt, Protestant church in Bralitz, Catholic parish church of St. John Baptist in Birkung, Old Catholic Church in Karlsruhe; as a monument conservator, he led the reconstruction of the Friedrichsbaues of Heidelberg Castle, the Romanesque monastery church of St. Gangolf in Münchenlohra in Nordhausen and the Church of Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune in Strasbourg, he supplemented the Meissner Dom with a two-man system in neo-Gothic style. In 1871, he had built a fountain on the property of his lawyer Carl Grimm in Marburg
The Sainte-Madeleine Church is a Catholic church in Strasbourg, built in Gothic style in the late 15th century, but rebuilt in a style close to Jugendstil after a devastating fire in 1904. Destroyed again during World War II, the church was re-constructed in its modern form; this is the fourth building dedicated to Mary Magdalene built in the city since the 13th century. The church is classified as a historic monument by a decree of 6 December 1898; the first convent dedicated to Mary Magdalene was built in 1225 on the outskirts of the city of Strasbourg, on the site of the current place de la République. The institution, which welcomed repentant prostitutes, was evacuated and destroyed around 1470, since the city feared imminent invasion by the armies of the Duke of Burgundy. A new convent was rebuilt in the Krutenau district; the Gothic church of the convent of the sisters of the order of St. Mary Magdalene, completed in 1478, was destroyed by fire in 1904. All that remains of this church, the last Gothic structure built in Strasbourg, is the choir housing fragments of some frescoes.
It now serves as a chapel, dedicated to the Blessed Sacrament. Remains of the once abundant stained glass windows vy Peter Hemmel of Andlau that decorated the church are shown in the Musée de l’Œuvre Notre-Dame. John Calvin directed services in that church; the current church, perpendicular to the earlier building, was built in 1907 according to plans by Fritz Beblo and is more spacious and airy. It has a barrel vault, based on the model of St. Michael's Church, a conspicuous belltower. Damaged by Anglo-American bombing on 11 August 1944, it was rebuilt, true to Beblo's original, in 1958. A part of the former cloisters from the earlier convent can still be seen, surrounding the adjacent school building. An organ was purchased from Andreas Silbermann on 17 February 1716 and was completed in 1718, it had an echo -- on a specific keyboard -- and separate pedals. The instrument was sold in 1799 to the city of Lampertheim, before vanishing in 1876; the church owned a first Roethinger organ, destroyed during the bombing of 1944.
It was endowed with a second Roethinger organ, inaugurated by Michel Chapuis and Robert Pfrimmer on 28 November 1965. It was rebuilt by Michel Wolf of Manufacture d'orgues alsacienne in 1997 and 1998, but the harmonization was not modified. Work was done on the cabinet in 2004; the organ was restored by the firm of Alfred et Daniel Kern, which replaced the keyboards. The Gothic side chapel of the current 20th-century church, that used to serve as the choir of the medieval church, houses another much smaller organ; this instrument from 1719, built by Andreas Silbermann, was designed for Marmoutier Abbey and was installed in its current location in 2012. It is classified as a Monument historique since 1976; the church choir's rear wall is adorned by a large painting representing the Adoration of the Shepherds. This 18th-century work was displayed in Strasbourg Cathedral and moved into Sainte-Madeleine either after 1904 or 1944, it is classified as a Monument historique since 1980. The Passion of Christ, a set of ten late 15th-century paintings displayed in the church.
View of the steeple of the church
A cloister is a covered walk, open gallery, or open arcade running along the walls of buildings and forming a quadrangle or garth. The attachment of a cloister to a cathedral or church against a warm southern flank indicates that it is part of a monastic foundation, "forming a continuous and solid architectural barrier... that separates the world of the monks from that of the serfs and workmen, whose lives and works went forward outside and around the cloister."Cloistered life is another name for the monastic life of a monk or nun. The English term enclosure is used in contemporary Catholic church law translations to mean cloistered, some form of the Latin parent word "claustrum" is used as a metonymic name for monastery in languages such as German; the early medieval cloister had several antecedents, the peristyle court of the Greco-Roman domus, the atrium and its expanded version that served as forecourt to early Christian basilicas, certain semi-galleried courts attached to the flanks of early Syrian churches.
Walter Horn suggests that the earliest coenobitic communities, which were established in Egypt by Saint Pachomius, did not result in cloister construction, as there were no lay serfs attached to the community of monks, thus no separation within the walled community was required. In the time of Charlemagne the requirements of a separate monastic community within an extended and scattered manorial estate created this "monastery within a monastery" in the form of the locked cloister, an architectural solution allowing the monks to perform their sacred tasks apart from the distractions of laymen and servants. Horn offers as early examples Abbot Gundeland's "Altenmünster" of Lorsch abbey, as revealed in the excavations by Frederich Behn. Another early cloister, that of the abbey of Saint-Riquier, took a triangular shape, with chapels at the corners, in conscious representation of the Trinity. A square cloister sited against the flank of the abbey church was built at Inden and the abbey of St. Wandrille at Fontenelle.
At Fulda, a new cloister was sited to the liturgical west of the church "in the Roman manner" familiar from the forecourt of Old St. Peter's Basilica because it would be closer to the relics. Coomans, Thomas. "Life Inside the Cloister. Understanding Monastic Architecture: Tradition, Adaptive Reuse". Leuven University Press. ISBN 9789462701434. Horn, Walter. "On the Origins of the Medieval Cloister". Gesta. 2: 13–52. Doi:10.2307/766633. JSTOR 766633; the Code of Canon Law, cf canons 667 ff. New Advent Encyclopaedia III ff. on "Nuns, properly so called "Cloister" in the New Advent encyclopaedia New Advent Encyclopaedia on "Religious Life Photos and information on cloisters in France and Spain