Arces identified under the name Arces-sur-Gironde, is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in southwestern France. Its residents are referred to as Arcillonnes; the small village is situated on the fringes of the côte de Beauté connected with the nearby capital of the Royan hinterland canton, which hosts the area's largest concentration of businesses and commerce. The expansion of rural urbanization and the proximity of the commune to local tourist attractions, such as the bastide of Talmont-sur-Gironde, explains the recent development of the commune, with a population increase of 485 in 1990 to 622 in 2007; the commune is a part of the framework of the Communauté d'agglomération Royan Atlantique, with 72,136 inhabitants. The village centre, with flowery alleys of roses, is concentrated around a small, prominent knoll with marshes and fields; the Romanesque Church of Saint Pierre, an ancient fixture on the Way of Saint James, is a dominant feature of the village. The commune of Arces is situated in the southwest department of Charente-Maritime, along the côte de Beauté.
A part of Southern France, or Le Midi, or more along the mid-Atlantic. The commune belongs to two large geographic, French regions: the Great West and the Ground Southwest. Administratively, the commune belongs to the arrondissement of Saintes, it is 3.9 kilometres south-east of Cozes, 7.1 kilometres east of Meschers-sur-Gironde, 12.4 kilometres south-east of Saint-Georges-de-Didonne 14.1 kilometres south-east of Saujon, 15.6 kilometres south-east of Royan, 27.6 kilometres south-west of Saintes, 44 kilometres south by south-east of Rochefort, 71.2 kilometres south of La Rochelle, 82.1 kilometres north of Bordeaux. The commune is a stop on the Grand Randonnée GR 360. Access to the commune is by the D114 road from Cozes in the north-east which passes through the commune and the village and continues to Barzan in the south; the D244 from Semussac in the north-west passes through the village and continues to Épargnes in the south-east. The D114E9 passes from the village south-west to Talmont-sur-Gironde.
The D145 passes through the commune near the coast. The commune is farmland with small areas of forest; the population is centred around the town. The main hamlets are Liboulas, Brézillas, Maine-Moutard, it is spread along the D244, called the Route de l'Estuaire. In the south of the commune, in the middle of marshlands, is a place called les Mottes Gachins. In the west of the commune are the Barrails marshes which are dotted with many channels flowing to the Gironde estuary; the main ones are the Ruisseau de Bardécille, which marks the border with Semussac commune, in the east the Desir, a stream which crosses the Lorivaux area. Most of the commune is located on a rolling plateau formed of layers of limestone dating from the Cretaceous period. To the west the marsh consists of much more recent alluvium. Part of the commune consists of a succession of hills overlooking the Gironde estuary, which dominate a vast prairie wetland that extends west to Talmont-sur-Gironde and Meschers-sur-Gironde; the northwest of the commune retains some traces of the original forest that stretched to Chenac in Gallo-Roman times.
These meagre woodlands lie north of the hamlet of Maine-Moutard and around the hamlet of Breuil. The town itself is located at the foot of a limestone hill; the village takes its name from the Latin Arcis, which means a fortified place. In 1170 it was shown under the name Villa de Arcis in the cartulary of Vaux, before becoming Arx during part of the Middle Ages. Although remains of cut and polished flint have been found in the commune which attest to human occupation from the Neolithic period, the village seems to have been founded in Roman times, it seems that the promontory overlooking the village was the location of a Roman camp situated on a Roman road which linked the Santones capital of Mediolanum Santonum to the port of Novioregum, a few kilometres to the east. Only traces of this period, such as the remains of pottery, terra cotta, amphoras, have been found in the surrounding fields. In the 11th century Arces was a small village with a church dedicated to Saint Martin. Between 1083 and 1091 Arnaud de Gammon from the House of Mortagne founded the Abbey of Vaux which gave him all the rights and privileges of the parish of Arces.
The monks installed two priories in Arces: one near the church of Saint Martin and the second in the hamlet of Loriveau. Of the latter there remains a bridge built over the Désir stream. During this period the economy was based on cereals, the salt marshes along the Gironde, timber. Arces became a stage on the Way of Saint James to Santiago de Compostela, as many pilgrims went to Talmont-sur-Gironde to cross the Gironde. In 1151 Benoît de Mortagne invaded the village and attempted to monopolize the land and privileges of the priory of Saint-Martin. Threatened with excommunication, he was forced to retire and promise to respect the rights of the abbot; the parish depended for a long time two-thirds on the Barony of Cozes and the remaining third on the Lordship of Talmont. Conflicts between the lords and the villagers seem to have been commonplace. In 1661 Mademoiselle d'Orleans, purchaser of the Barony of Cozes, required new Corvées or unpaid labour from the residents but was dismissed by the Parliament of Bordeaux.
Several noble houses seem to have existed under the old regime: the Logis du Breuil, the Chateau of Theon, that of Conteneuil are still visible. In the 17th century the Dame de Theon became famous for her hatred of the Calvinists who she persecuted. Th
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Angoulins is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Angoulinoises. Angoulins is located in the northwest of the department of Charente-Maritime some 8 km south-east of La Rochelle and 5 km north of Châtelaillon-Plage in the former province of Aunis, it is a coastal commune on the Atlantic Ocean. Access is by the E602 highway from La Rochelle continuing south-east with an exit in the commune just east of Angoulins town. There is the D202 from Salles-sur-Mer in the east turning south and continuing to Chatelaillon-Plage. Access to the town is by the D111E1 from the D202 on the southern border continuing through the town and turning east to the motorway exit. Angoulins town has a large urban area occupying 50% of the commune, with farmland to the north and west; the entire commune is located on Jurassic terrain which covers the plain of Aunis. Jurassic Marl and limestone outcrops appear on the surface of the commune and the relief is rolling.
The coastal strip of Angoulins, which corresponds to the last extremity of the plain of Aunis, is varied. It alternates between high limestone cliffs. Low-lying coasts, which were salt marshes, have today been transformed into oyster beds and are derived from Quaternary sedimentary deposits of marine origin - from the last Flandrian transgression; the sandy coast is situated in a small cove formed by the phenomena of marine erosion and ocean currents. The coastal cliffs are located all around the Chay Point and form a limestone peninsula - a sharp promontory jutting into the ocean. Layers of alternating beds of oolitic marl and limestone can be seen on the cliffs that line the coast from La Rochelle to Angoulins-sur-Mer, they are highlighted by thick layers of white rocks alternating with layers of friable sand and mud, formed during glacial periods with layers containing various corals from tropical periods. Chay Point, about five kilometres south of La Rochelle, contains many fossils of marine animals and is an famous place of palaeontological studies.
The limestone thus formed is used as a building material in traditional houses in the region. Aytré 3 km Châtelaillon-Plage 3.1 km La Rochelle 6.1 km Rochefort 20.7 km La Rochelle 10.8 km Rochefort-St-Agnant 26 km Aerodrome of Royan-Médis 54 km List of successive mayors The population of the town is old. The rate of people above the age of 60 years is higher than the national rate and the departmental rate; as at the national and departmental levels, the female population of the commune is higher than the male population. The percentage is of the same order of magnitude as the national rate. Percentage distribution of age groups in Angoulins and Charente-Maritime department in 2009 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2009, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2009, INSEE. There are 12 enterprises in industry, 24 in construction, 83 shops, 37 service enterprises, two farms, one shellfish farm. Angoulins is best known for its shopping area.
The Church of Saint-Peter is registered as an historical monument. There remains the Machicolations on the walkway that connects the three Bartizans located in the north-east corner and the two corners of the apse; the west façade forms a bell tower wall in a fortified triangle. The Chevet preserves the structure of the walkway between the two Bartizans; the nave is Gothic with arched ribs. The church contains two items that are registered as historical objects: A pulpit A bronze bell Colette Besson, gold medalist in the 400m at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico, died in Angoulins and was buried in the cemetery. Father Daniel Brottier, founder of the Foundation of Auteuil, came to spend his summer holidays. Angoul'Loisirs: Association of Youth and Popular Education founded under the 1901 Act in 1992 which includes different sectors: a day nursery, a leisure centre, a Youth Projects area, a Family area. Centre Nautique d'Angoulins: An association under the 1901 Act founded in 1976. Comprising a handful of enthusiasts and a wooden hut, the association now has more than a hundred members and hosted nearly 2,000 people over the year.
An artificial body of water was added to the site in 1990. On the night of 27 to 28 February 2010, the Centre Nautique d'Angoulins was badly affected by the storm Xynthia; the buildings were flooded to an average height of 1.60 m. The club's pontoon for teaching fishing, available to rent, was destroyed by the storm. Communes of the Charente-Maritime department Articles on Angoulin's history Angoulins on Lion1906 Angoulins on Google Maps Angoulins on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Angoulin on the 1750 Cassini Map Angoulins on the INSEE website INSEE
Allas-Bocage is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Allasiens or Allasiennes Allas-Bocage is located some 5 km north-east of Mirambeau and 40 km south by south-west of Cognac, it can be accessed by the minor D151 road running off the D730 in the south-west and continuing north-east through the commune to the village north to Jonzac. The D153 road goes from Nieul-le-Virouil in the north-west through the commune north of the village and continues to join the D19 highway in the east; the D50 road from Nieul-le-Virouil passes through the western part of the commune going south to Soubran. There are three hamlets in the commune apart from the village: Le Pain, Le Maine-Neuf, Berceleu; the commune is farmland with forests along the eastern border. The Tarnac river forms the western border of the commune and an unnamed stream forms much of the southern border of the commune flowing west to join the Ruisseau de Fanioux to form the Tarnac river.
The Etang d'Allas is an elongated lake which forms the north-eastern border of the commune and the stream that flows out of the lake forms the northern border before joining the Maine in the north. List of Successive Mayors The population of the commune is old; the ratio of persons above the age of 60 years was higher than the national rate while being less than the departmental average. As with the national and departmental ratios, the female population of the commune is higher than the male population; the rate is higher than the national rate. The distribution of the population of the commune by age groups was, in 2009, as follows: Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Allas-Bocage and Charente-Maritime Department in 2009 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2009, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2009, INSEE; the Church of Saint Martin is a Romanesque building, registered as an historical monument. It contains four items listed as historical monuments since 5 December 1908: A Tombstone A Bronze bell in the small bell tower.
A Stoup carved on three sides with angels, the sun, a gable. A Baptismal font Communes of the Charente-Maritime department Cantons of the Charente-Maritime department Arrondissements of the Charente-Maritime department Allas-Bocage on the old IGN website Allas-Bocage on Lion1906 Allas-Bocage on Google Maps Allas-Bocage on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Allas Boccage on the 1750 Cassini Map Allas-Bocage on the INSEE website INSEE
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Arthenac is a French commune in the Charente-Maritime department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Arthenacais or ArthenacaisesThe commune has been awarded three flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Arthenac is located in the south of Charente-Maritime in the former province of Saintonge some 24 km south-east of Pons, 16 km north-east of Jonzac, south-west of Archiac. Access to the commune is by the D699 road from Archiac in the north-west passing through the village and continuing south-west to Réaux. There is the D251 road from Sainte-Lheurine in the north-west passing through south of the village to Saint-Eugène in the south-east; the D149 comes from the D700 in the north passing through the village south to Allas-Champagne. The commune is farmland with two large forests south of the village. Under the Ancien Régime Arthenac was independent but was merged with Archiac in 1789.
The commune regained its independent status on 13 October 1831. List of Successive Mayors; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1831. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The population of the town is old; the ratio of persons above the age of 60 years is higher than the national average but less than the departmental average. Unlike national and departmental allocations, the male population of the town is greater than the female population. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Arthenac and Charente-Maritime Department in 2010 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2010, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2010, INSEE; the Church of Saint Martin at Arthenac has had its central window restored.
It is registered as a historical monument. Communes of the Charente-Maritime department Arthenac on the National Geographic Institute website Arthenac on Lion1906 Arthenac on the 1750 Cassini Map Arthenac on the INSEE website INSEE
Balanzac is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in southwestern France. Communes of the Charente-Maritime department INSEE