Quebec Autoroute 40
Autoroute 40 known as Autoroute Félix-Leclerc outside Montreal and Metropolitan Autoroute/Autoroute Métropolitaine within Montreal, is a freeway on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River in the Canadian province of Quebec, it is one of the two major connections between Montreal and Quebec City, the other being Autoroute 20 on the south shore of the St. Lawrence. Autoroute 40 is 347 km long. Between the Ontario–Quebec boundary and the interchange with Autoroute 25, the route is signed as part of the Trans-Canada Highway; the western terminus of Autoroute 40 is located at the Ontario–Quebec border, where it continues as Highway 417 towards Ottawa. The portion of Autoroute 40 from the Ontario border to Autoroute 25 is part of the Trans-Canada Highway; the Metropolitan Autoroute portion in Montreal is the busiest highway in Quebec, the busiest section of the Trans-Canada Highway, as well as the second busiest highway section overall in Canada after Highway 401 in Toronto. Two sections of Autoroute 40 were not part of the original plans: The original intention was to bypass Trois-Rivières to the north.
In addition, a different route was planned around Sainte-Foy south of Jean Lesage International Airport. While the right-of-ways of both bypasses still exist and may still be developed in the future as congestion increases, there are no immediate plans to renew construction; some discussion of eastward extensions of A-40 into the Charlevoix region and beyond have taken place, most to Route 360 in Beaupré or as far as Route 362 in La Malbaie since tourism in the region is increasing. A 25 km stretch of the highway in Pointe-Claire, from St. John's Boulevard, near Fairview Pointe-Claire Shopping Centre, to the turnaround loop, Senneville Road was used during the 1976 Summer Olympics for the men's road team time trial cycling race. In 1997, the highway was renamed Autoroute Félix-Leclerc after the late Quebec artist and political activist Félix Leclerc. Prior to 1997, Autoroute 40 east of Montreal had four different names, the first section was named Autoroute de la Rive-Nord between Montréal and Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures.
A segment in Trois-Rivières east of Autoroute 55, named Autoroute de Francheville. Between Saint-Augustin and Autoroute 73 in Quebec City it was called Autoroute Charest. Between the junction of Autoroute 73 and Autoroute 573 and its eastern end at Route 138 it was known as Autoroute de la Capitale, a name, still used by Quebec City residents. List of crossings of the Ottawa River List of bridges in Montreal Metropolitan Expressway at Steve Anderson's MontrealRoads.com A-40 at Exitlists.com A-40 at Quebec Autoroutes Virtual tour of A-40 Transports Quebec Map
Repentigny is an off-island suburb of Montreal, Canada. It is located north of the city on the lower end of the L'Assomption River, on the Saint Lawrence River. Repentigny and Charlemagne were the first towns off the eastern tip of the Island of Montreal. Repentigny is part of the Lanaudiere region, it was founded in 1670 by son of Seigneur Pierre Le Gardeur. During the town's first 250 years, Repentigny was only inhabited by a few hundred peasants, or habitants, was an agricultural community. In 1677, the first population census only shows 30 inhabitants, its first mayor was Benjamin Moreau 1855. Repentigny merged with its neighbouring city of Le Gardeur on June 1, 2002; the city's area grew from 29 to 69 km² and the population grew by 70%. Repentigny was the western terminus of the Chemin du Roy, a road that extends eastward towards Quebec City. According to Statistics Canada 2011 census: Population in 2011: 82,000 Population in 2006: 76,237 The current mayor is Chantal Deschamps, first elected to the position in 1997 and has been re-elected to serve until 2021.
Single responses: 51.60% of respondents gave a single response of'Canadian', while a further 17.67% identified with both'Canadian', one or more other ancestries. 15.13% of respondents gave a single response of French, 1.86% of respondents gave a single response of Québécois, 1.37% gave a single response of Italian, 1.34% gave a single response of Irish and 1.27% gave a single response of Haitian. Multiple responses: Counting both single and multiple responses, the most identified ethnocultural ancestries were: Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents and may total more than 100% due to dual responses. All ethnocultural ancestries of more than 1% are listed in the table above according to the exact terminology used by Statistics Canada. Repentigny is the central point for transit in South-Central Lanaudière, its Centre d'Échange Rive Nord-Est, administrated by Réseau de transport métropolitain, is the main infrastructure for transit in the region. Unlike a bus terminal, no departures are available from the Centre d'Échange, but transfers from one circuit to the other are possible.
9 of the 10 RTCR de la MRC de L'Assomption transit system circuits travel via Centre d'Échange, in addition of the 2 CRTL regional lines. Thus, Repentigny is directly connected to Terrebonne, Charlemagne, L'Assomption, Montréal-Est, Saint-Sulpice, Lanoraie, Sainte-Geneviève-de-Berthier, Berthierville, La Visitation-de-l'Île-Dupas, Saint-Ignace-de-Loyola, Saint-Paul-d'Industrie, Sainte-Marie-Salomé and Joliette; the city of Repentigny takes part in the L'Assomption MRC public transportation network effort and pan-regional Lanaudière Regional Transport Commission, linking all of the Regional County Municipalities of Lanaudière the northmost ones. In addition there is the MRC Les Moulins. Repentigny is connected to Montreal's Central Station by commuter rail via the Repentigny Station of Réseau de transport métropolitain's Mascouche Line; the Commission scolaire des Affluents operates Francophone public schools: Centre de formation professionnelle des Riverains Centre la Croisée École secondaire Félix-Leclerc École secondaire Jean-Baptiste-Meilleur École secondaire Jean-Claude-Crevier École secondaire l'Envolée École secondaire l'Horizon École primaire Alphonse-Desjardins École primaire de la Paix École primaire des Moissons École primaire du Moulin École primaire Émile-Nelligan École primaire Entramis École primaire Henri-Bourassa et Soleil-de-l'Aube École primaire Jean-Duceppe École primaire Jean-XXIII École primaire la Majuscule École primaire la Tourterelle École primaire le Bourg-Neuf École primaire Longpré École primaire Louis-Fréchette École primaire Louis-Joseph-Huot École primaire Marie-Victorin École primaire Pie-XII École primaire Tournesol École primaire Valmont-sur-ParcSir Wilfrid Laurier School Board operates Anglophone public school: Franklin Hill Elementary School in Repentigny Julie Brosseau, women's basketball player Les Cowboys Fringants, a Québécois folk-pop band.
Marie Deschamps, a Canadian Supreme Court Justice. Benoît Hogue, a former NHL hockey player Samuel Piette, a soccer player for the Montreal Impact Jason Pominville, a hockey player for the Buffalo Sabres Pascal Leclaire, a former NHL hockey player Marie-Ève Pelletier, a former professional tennis player. Maxim Lapierre, Pittsburgh Penguins forward. Solomon Juneau, founder of Milwaukee, the largest city in the US state of Wisconsin Karl Ouimette, a soccer player for the San Francisco Deltas Thomas Meilleur-Giguère, a soccer player for the Montreal Impact Repentigny is home of many festivities: Festival de Feu et de Glace, January–February. Festival de spectacles jeune-public de Lanaudière, early July. Rendez-Vous Estival, early August. Festival Gospel, mid-August. National de Soccer, mid-August. Internationaux de Tennis junior du Canada Banque Nationale, late August-early September Fête du Petit-Village, every 2 autumns; the Fête Nationale du Québec, la St-Jean, brings many activities, such as shows and performances on stage in L'île Lebel.
Many outdoor shows and movie projections List of cities in Quebec Municipal reorganization in Quebec North Shore Église Notre-Dame-des-Champs de Repentigny Official website
Society of the Priests of Saint Sulpice
The Society of the Priests of Saint-Sulpice is a society of apostolic life of the Catholic Church named for the Church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, in turn named for Sulpitius the Pious, where they were founded. Priests become members of the Society of the Priests of St. Sulpice only after ordination and some years of pastoral work; the purpose of the society is the education of priests and to some extent parish work. As their main role is the education of those preparing to become members of the presbyterate, Sulpicians place great emphasis on the academic and spiritual formation of their own members, who commit themselves to undergoing lifelong development in these areas; the Society is divided into three provinces, operating in various countries: the Province of France and the United States. The Society of the Priests of Saint Sulpice was founded in France in 1641 by Father Jean-Jacques Olier, an exemplar of the French School of Spirituality. A disciple of Vincent de Paul and Charles de Condren, Olier took part in "missions" organized by them.
The French priesthood at that time suffered from academic deficits and other problems. Envisioning a new approach to priestly preparation, Olier gathered a few priests and seminarians around him in Vaugirard, a suburb of Paris, in the final months of 1641. Shortly thereafter, he moved his operation to the parish of Saint-Sulpice in Paris, hence the name of the new Society. After several adjustments, he built a seminary next to the current church of Saint-Sulpice; the Séminaire de Saint-Sulpice thereby became the first Sulpician seminary. There the first seminarians got their spiritual formation, while taking most theology courses at the Sorbonne; the spirit of this new seminary and its founder caught the attention of many leaders in the French Church. Sulpician priests contributed to the parish community during the day, but at night they would return to their institutions. Jean-Jacques Olier attempted to control diverse social groups by having laymen of the community give reports on family life and disorder.
The Sulpicians were strict in regards to woman and sexuality to the extent that they were banned from the seminary unless it was for short visits in the external area with appropriate attire. The Sulpicians accepted aspirants to the company as long as they were priests and had permission from their bishop; the Sulpicians would thus recruit wealthy individuals. They were free to dispose their wealth; the Sulpicians soon came to be known for the revival of the parish life, reform of seminary life, the revitalization of spirituality. In the 18th century they attracted the sons of the nobility, as well as candidates from the common class, produced a large number of the French hierarchy; the Séminaire de Saint-Sulpice was closed during the French Revolution, its teachers and students scattered to avoid persecution. That Revolution led to the secularization of the University of Paris; when France stabilized, theology courses were offered in seminaries, the Sulpicians resumed their educational mission.
Sulpician seminaries earned and maintained reputations for solid academic teaching and high moral tone. The Society spread from France to Canada, the United States and to several other foreign countries, including to Vietnam and French Africa, where French Sulpician seminaries are found today; the Sulpicians played a major role in the founding of the Canadian city of Montreal, where they engaged in missionary activities, trained priests and constructed the Saint-Sulpice Seminary. The Société Notre-Dame de Montréal, of which Jean-Jacques Olier was an active founder, was granted the land of Montreal from the Company of One Hundred Associates, which owned New France, in the goals of converting Indians and to provide schools and hospitals for both colonists and the indigenous population; the Jesuits served as missionaries for the small colony until 1657 when Jean-Jacques Olier sent four priests from the Saint-Sulpice seminary in Paris to form the first parish. In 1663, France decided to take royal administration over New France, taking it away from the Company of One Hundred Associates, in the same year the Société Notre-Dame de Montréal ceded its possessions to the Seminaire de Saint-Sulpice.
Just as in Paris, the Montreal Sulpicians had important civil responsibilities. Most notably, they acted as seigneurs for Montreal as part of the Seigneurial system of New France. In 1668, several Sulpicians went away to evangelize the Native People: the Iroquois in the Bay of Quinte, north of Lake Ontario, the Mi'kmaq in Acadia, the Iroquois on the present site of Ogdensburg in the State of New York and the Algonquins in Abitibi and Témiscamingue. Dollier de Casson and Brehan de Gallinée explored the region of the Great Lakes, of which they made a map. In 1676 the mission of the Mountain was opened on the site of the present seminary, where M. Belmont built a fort; the brandy traffic necessitated the removal of this fixed mission and in 1720 it was transferred to Lac-des-Deux-Montagnes. The Sulpicians served as missionaries, explorers, social workers, supervisors of convents, canal builders, urban planners, colonization agents, entrepreneurs. Despite their large role in society and their influencing in shaping early Montreal, each night they would all return to the Saint-Sulpice Seminary.
The administration of the seminary in Montreal was modeled on that of Paris
Saint-Charles-Borromée, Quebec is a municipality in southwest-central Quebec, Canada on the Rivière l'Assomption. It is in Joliette Regional County Municipality, it is home to the heritage house "Maison Antoine-Lacombe", which holds many expositions through the year. It is home to the "Centre Saint-Jean-Bosco" which annually hosts the "Mémoires et Racines" festival for folk music from various countries and from Quebec; the town takes its name from its original Roman Catholic parish, Saint-Charles-Borromée. The parish's name, in turn, derives from the French name of an Italian Roman Catholic prelate, Charles Borromeo, the archbishop of Milan, who founded Roman Catholic order of the Oblates, became a canonised saint, in the Roman Catholic calendar. In 1832, Barthelemy Joliette built a sawmill and a flour mill on the banks of the l'Assomption river, he was soon followed by pioneers from Saint-Ambroise-de Kildare, Saint-Paul, Sainte-Melanie, who began to clear the area. There has, since 1840, the founding of the parish of Saint-Charles-Borromee, whose canonical occurred in 1843.
Two years it's the foundation of Saint-Charles-Borromee-du-Village-d'Industrie, parish municipality at the origin of Joliette which decided to separate itself from the rest of the town in 1864 and was firstly named L'Industrie. It is territory became part of the Berthier county; the parish municipality of Saint-Charles-Borromee will be created in 1855. In 1864 when Joliette was erected, Saint-Charles-Borromee was amputated of an important part of his town but still covered a large area. In 1870 the parish of Saint-Alphonse-de-Liguori took a small part of the western part of the town. In 1915, Joliette decided to explain is territory within Saint-Charles-Borromee at north and at the south. In 1956 The eastern part of the l'Assomption river decided to separate itself from Saint-Charles-Borromee and became Nortre-Dame-des-Prairies and in 1957, The southern part of Saint-Charles-Borromee decided to separate itself and became the parish municipality of Saint-Charles-Borromée-Sud, which merged with Joliette and became known with the name of "Quartier Base-de-Roc" and "Carrefour du Vieux-Moulin".
This section included the present location of the "Galleries Joliette". The last part of Saint-Charles-Borromée known as "La Cité de Joliette" merge with Joliette in 1963; the town became the municipality of Saint-Charles-Borromée in 1986. The choice for this name came from Barthelemy Joliette whose wife, Marie-Charlotte Tarieu Taillant de Lanaudière, has been implied with the construction of the local church; the town was supposed to be named after her but there was no Sainte-Charlotte so they decided to masculinize the name, the one of Saint-Charles-Borromee The CTJM deserve the area with public buses from 6:20 to 22:10 every week days and from 7:50 to 18:35 every week end days. There is 51 bus stop covering the city, including 7 bus shelter. All of them are connecting with Joliette's terminus on rue Fabre; this terminus will soon be moved to a safer area: rue Saint-Louis, Joliette, in front of the courthouse. The town most northern bus stop is situated on the corner of rue de la Visitation and rue du Curé-M.-Neyron The Health and Social Services centre of Northern Lanaudiere known as the CHRDL, is the regional hospital deserving the northern part of Lanaudiere.
It is situated in the south part of Saint-Charles-Borromee. Commission scolaire des Samares operates francophone public schools. École secondaire de l'Espace-Jeunesse Saint-Charles-Borromée is the home of two francophone elementary schools: École Lorenzo-Gauthier— Rose-des-Vents, situated on rue Deschênes and École de l'Espace-Jeunesse, situated on boulevard Sainte-Anne. The first one serves the western part of the town; the second one serves the eastern part. The Sir Wilfrid Laurier School Board operates anglophone public schools, including: Joliette Elementary SchoolOn February 24, 2010, it was decided to transfer Joliette Elementary School from Saint-Paul to Saint-Charles-Borromée in a piece of land on the boulevard l'Assomption Ouest, at the corner of rue Pierre-de-Coubertin; this will be the only one in the county. Joliette High School in Joliette Mirianne Brûlé, actress List of municipalities in Quebec Town of Saint-Charles-Borromée Festival Mémoires et Racines
Quebec Route 138
Route 138 is a major highway in the Canadian province of Quebec, following the entire north shore of the Saint Lawrence River past Montreal to the temporary eastern terminus in Kegashka on the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The western terminus is at the border with New York State south-west of Montreal. Part of this highway is known as the Chemin du Roy, or King's Highway, one of the oldest highways in Canada, it passes through the Montérégie, Lanaudière, Capitale-Nationale and Côte-Nord regions of Quebec. In Montreal, Highway 138 runs via Sherbrooke Street, crosses the Pierre Le Gardeur Bridge to Charlemagne and remains a four-lane road until exiting Repentigny; this highway takes a more scenic route than the more direct Autoroute 40 between Montreal and Quebec City. It crosses the Saguenay River via a ferry which travels between Tadoussac; until the mid-1990s, the highway's eastern terminus was Havre-Saint-Pierre, but in 1996 the extension to Natashquan was completed. A 40 km section between Natashquan and Kegashka opened on September 26, 2013, with the inauguration of a bridge across the Natashquan River.
A second segment of about 17 km extends from Tête-à-la-Baleine's airport, east through Tête-à-la-Baleine, Quebec, to the ferry terminal southeast of Tête-à-la-Baleine. There is a 10.7 km roadway, la route Mecatina, from Mutton Bay to a ferry terminal in La Tabatière and continuing beyond. A third segment of Route 138 extends from Old Fort to the Newfoundland and Labrador border, near Blanc-Sablon on the eastern end of the Côte-Nord. A gap remains between Kegashka and Old Fort, through isolated communities accessible only by coastal ferry. On August 25, 2006, the Quebec government announced a 10-year project to connect the two segments by building 425 km of highway along the Lower North Shore. In 2011, the Quebec government announced an additional $122 million investment for the project over five years as part of the Plan Nord. However, by 2013 difficulties ensued between the Quebec Ministry of Transport and the Pakatan Corporation, responsible for managing the funding for this project, leading to the termination of agreement between the two.
By this time only 12 km of this road had been built, plus some additional engineering work and deforestation. The construction of two segments of the highway is set to begin in 2019. A total of $232 million will be contributed to this project. Quebec Route 2 and Chemin du Roy List of Quebec provincial highways Provincial Route Map Overview Google map for QC 138 from Montreal border to Natashquan Overview Google map for QC 138 from Montreal to New York border Overview Google map for QC 138 from dead end to Newfoundland and Labrador border
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000