A sugar refinery is a refinery which processes raw sugar into white refined sugar or that processes sugar beet to refined sugar. Many cane sugar mills produce raw sugar, sugar that still contains molasses, giving it more colour than the white sugar, consumed in households and used as an ingredient in soft drinks and foods. While cane sugar does not need refining to be palatable, sugar from sugar beet is always refined to remove the strong always unwanted, taste of beets from it; the refined sugar produced is more than 99 percent pure sucrose. Whereas many sugar mills only operate during a limited time of the year during the cane harvesting period, many cane sugar refineries work the whole year round. Sugar beet refineries tend to have shorter periods when they process beet but may store intermediate product and process that in the off-season. Raw sugar is either processed into white refined sugar in local refineries, sold to the local industry and consumers, or it is exported and refined in the country of destination.
Sugar refineries are located in heavy sugar-consuming regions such as North America and Japan. Since the 1990s many state-of-the art sugar refineries have been built in the Middle East and North Africa region, e.g. in Dubai, Saudi Arabia and Algeria. The world´s largest sugar refinery company is American Sugar Refining with facilities in North America and Europe; the raw sugar is stored in large warehouses and transported into the sugar refinery by means of transport belts. In the traditional refining process, the raw sugar is first mixed with heavy syrup and centrifuged to wash away the outer coating of the raw sugar crystals, less pure than the crystal interior. Many sugar refineries today buy high pol sugar and can do without the affination process; the remaining sugar is dissolved to make a syrup, clarified by the addition of phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide that combine to precipitate calcium phosphate. The calcium phosphate particles entrap some impurities and absorb others, float to the top of the tank, where they are skimmed off.
After any remaining solids are filtered out, the clarified syrup is decolorized by filtration through the use of bone char, made from the bones of cattle, a bed of activated carbon or, in more modern plants, ion-exchange resin. The purified syrup is concentrated to supersaturation and crystallized under vacuum to produce white refined sugar; as in a sugar mill, the sugar crystals are separated from the mother liquor by centrifuging. To produce granulated sugar, in which the individual sugar grains do not clump together, sugar must be dried. Drying is accomplished first by drying the sugar in a hot rotary dryer, by blowing cool air through Centrifugal Blower/fan it for several days in so-called conditioning silos; the finished product is stored in large concrete or steel silos. It is shipped in bulk, big bags or 25 – 50 kg bags to industrial customers or packed in consumer-size packages to retailers; the dried sugar must be handled with caution, as sugar dust explosions are possible. For example, a sugar dust explosion which led to 13 fatalities was the 2008 Georgia sugar refinery explosion in Port Wentworth, GA.
Molasses Bagasse Press Mud As in many other industries factory automation has been promoted in sugar refineries in recent decades. The production process is controlled by a central process control system, which directly controls most of the machines and components. Only for certain special machines such as the centrifuges in the sugar house decentralized PLCs are used for security reasons. Onses, Richard. Continuous dissolution process for sugar, in Alimentacion Equipos y Tecnologio, Editorial Alcion, May 1987. Barcelona. Sugar related online glossary. Sugar refining. Centrifugal control and the quality of white sugar by Barbara Rogé et. al. retrieved on 27 June, 2010
Winston Rodney OD, better known by the stage name Burning Spear, is a Jamaican roots reggae vocalist and musician. Burning Spear is a Rastafarian and one of the most influential and long-standing roots artists to emerge from the 1970s. Winston Rodney was born in Saint Ann's Bay, Saint Ann, Jamaica; as a young man he listened to the R&B, soul and jazz music transmitted by the US radio stations whose broadcasts reached Jamaica. Curtis Mayfield is cited by Rodney as a major US musical influence along with James Brown. Rodney was influenced as a young man by the views of the political activist Marcus Garvey with regard to the exploration of the themes of Pan-Africanism and self-determination. In 1969, Bob Marley, from Saint Ann, advised Rodney to approach Coxsone Dodd's Studio One label after Rodney sought his advice during a casual conversation. Burning Spear was Rodney's group, named after a military award given by Jomo Kenyatta, the first President of an independent Kenya, included bass singer Rupert Willington.
The duo auditioned for Dodd in 1969 which led to the release of their debut single "Door Peep". They were joined by tenor Delroy Hinds; the trio recorded several more singles for Dodd, two albums, before they moved on to work with Jack Ruby in 1975. Their first recording with Ruby, "Marcus Garvey", was intended as an exclusive track for Ruby's Ocho Rios–based Hi-Power sound system, but was released as a single, giving them an immediate hit, was followed by "Slavery Days"; these recordings featured the backing band The Black Disciples, which included Earl "Chinna" Smith, Valentine Chin, Robbie Shakespeare and Leroy Wallace. The group worked with Ruby on their third album, Marcus Garvey, successful and led to a deal with Island Records to give the album a wider release. Island remixed and altered the speed of some of the tracks, much to the annoyance of fans and the group, leading Rodney to set up his own Burning Music label for future releases where he would have full control, although further releases followed on Island including Garvey's Ghost, a dub album, the Man in the Hills album.
In late 1976, Rodney split from both Ruby and group members Willington and Hinds, from that point on used the name Burning Spear for himself alone. Dry and Heavy followed in 1977, self-produced but still on Island, with a sizeable following by now in the United Kingdom, he performed in London that year with members of Aswad acting as his backing band for a sold-out show at the Rainbow Theatre, recorded and released as the album Live!. Aswad provided backing on his next studio album, Social Living, which featured Sly Dunbar and Rico Rodriguez. A dub version of the album, Living Dub, was mixed by Sylvan Morris, his profile was raised further by an appearance in the film Rockers, performing "Jah no Dead". In 1980, Rodney left Island Records and set up the Burning Music Production Company, which he signed to EMI, debuting on the label with Hail H. I. M. co-produced by Aston Barrett. A Sylvan Morris dub version followed in the form of Living Dub Volume Two. In 1982, Rodney signed with Heartbeat Records with a series of well-received albums following, including the 1985 Grammy-nominated Resistance.
He returned to Island in the early 1990s. This arrangement in which Burning Music Productions delivered completed albums of music to EMI, Island and Heartbeat Records for worldwide distribution lasted for many years; when Heartbeat ceased releasing new material, Burning Music took matters into their own hands and began to release music through their own imprint. Albums released by Heartbeat through an agreement with Burning Music include: The World Should Know, Rasta Business, Appointment with His Majesty and the Grammy award winning Calling Rastafari, the last completed album to be pressed by an outside label. Burning Spear spent decades touring extensively, several live albums have been issued including Burning Spear Live, Live in Paris, Live in South Africa, Live in Vermont and Love Live, Live at Montreux Jazz Festival and live 1997. Touring the world time and time again, the band's live sound grew more sophisticated. While remaining rooted in reggae, accents of free jazz and psychedelic music were in evidence.
His 1999 album, Calling Rastafari brought his first Grammy Award in 2000, a feat which he repeated with Jah Is Real in 2009. In 2000 Home To My Roots Tour he performed in Cape Town, South Africa alongside other reggae icon Joseph Culture Hill. In 2002 he and his wife, Sonia Rodney who has produced a number of his albums, restarted Burning Music Records, giving him a greater degree of artistic control. Since the mid-1990s, he has been based in Queens in New York City. Burning Spear was awarded the Order of Distinction in the rank of Officer on 15 October 2007. Since establishing their own label and Sonia Rodney have released nearly forty singles, CDs, DVDs and vinyl albums on the Burning Music imprint. Many of these albums have been deluxe editions of albums available on other labels and include bonus tracks and DVD footage. In this way, Burning Music is able to assure the quality of the Burning Spear music available in the market and guarantee that music from all phases of Burning Spear's career is available for his listeners to hear.
Burning Spear has won two Grammy Awards for Best Reggae Album. He has been nominated for a total of 12 Grammy Awards. Nominations for Best Reggae Album: 1986 Res
James II of England
James II and VII was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The last Roman Catholic monarch of England and Ireland, his reign is now remembered for struggles over religious tolerance. However, it involved the principles of absolutism and divine right of kings and his deposition ended a century of political and civil strife by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown. James inherited the thrones of England and Scotland with widespread support in all three countries based on the principle of divine right or birth. Tolerance for his personal Catholicism did not apply to it in general and when the English and Scottish Parliaments refused to pass his measures, James attempted to impose them by decree. In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis; the second was the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for seditious libel. Anti-Catholic riots in England and Scotland now made it seem only his removal as monarch could prevent a civil war.
Representatives of the English political elite invited William to assume the English throne. In February 1689, Parliament held he had'vacated' the English throne and installed William and Mary as joint monarchs, establishing the principle that sovereignty derived from Parliament, not birth. James landed in Ireland on 14 March 1689 in an attempt to recover his kingdoms but despite a simultaneous rising in Scotland, in April a Scottish Convention followed their English colleagues by ruling James had'forfeited' the throne and offered it to William and Mary. After defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, James returned to France where he spent the rest of his life in exile at Saint-Germain, protected by Louis XIV. James, the second surviving son of King Charles I and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France, was born at St James's Palace in London on 14 October 1633; that same year, he was baptised by William Laud, the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury. He was educated by private tutors, along with his older brother, the future King Charles II, the two sons of the Duke of Buckingham and Francis Villiers.
At the age of three, James was appointed Lord High Admiral. He was designated Duke of York at birth, invested with the Order of the Garter in 1642, formally created Duke of York in January 1644; the King's disputes with the English Parliament grew into the English Civil War. James accompanied his father at the Battle of Edgehill, where he narrowly escaped capture by the Parliamentary army, he subsequently stayed in Oxford, the chief Royalist stronghold, where he was made a M. A. by the University on 1 November 1642 and served as colonel of a volunteer regiment of foot. When the city surrendered after the siege of Oxford in 1646, Parliamentary leaders ordered the Duke of York to be confined in St James's Palace. Disguised as a woman, he escaped from the Palace in 1648 with the help of Joseph Bampfield, crossed the North Sea to The Hague; when Charles I was executed by the rebels in 1649, monarchists proclaimed James's older brother king as Charles II of England. Charles II was recognised as king by the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of Ireland, was crowned King of Scotland at Scone in 1651.
Although he was proclaimed King in Jersey, Charles was unable to secure the crown of England and fled to France and exile. Like his brother, James sought refuge in France, serving in the French army under Turenne against the Fronde, against their Spanish allies. In the French army James had his first true experience of battle where, according to one observer, he "ventures himself and chargeth gallantly where anything is to be done". Turenne's favour led to James being given command of a captured Irish regiment in December 1652, being appointed Lieutenant-General in 1654. In the meantime, Charles was attempting to reclaim his throne, but France, although hosting the exiles, had allied itself with Oliver Cromwell. In 1656, Charles turned instead to Spain – an enemy of France – for support, an alliance was made. In consequence, James was forced to leave Turenne's army. James quarrelled with his brother over the diplomatic choice of Spain over France. Exiled and poor, there was little that either Charles or James could do about the wider political situation, James travelled to Bruges and joined the Spanish army under Louis, Prince of Condé in Flanders, where he was given command as Captain-General of six regiments of British volunteers and fought against his former French comrades at the Battle of the Dunes.
During his service in the Spanish army, James became friendly with two Irish Catholic brothers in the Royalist entourage and Richard Talbot, became somewhat estranged from his brother's Anglican advisers. In 1659, the French and Spanish made peace. James, doubtful of his brother's chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a Spanish offer to be an admiral in their navy, he declined the position.
Ocho Rios is a town in the parish of Saint Ann on the north coast of Jamaica. Just outside the city and residents can visit Columbus Park, where Columbus first came on land, see maritime artifacts and Spanish colonial buildings, it now caters to tourists. It is a port of call for cruise ships as well as for cargo ships loading sugar, in the past, bauxite. Scuba diving and other water sports are offered in the town's vicinity; the name "Ocho Rios" is a misnomer, as there are not eight rivers in the area. It could be a British corruption of the original Spanish name "Las Chorreras", a name given to the village because of the nearby Dunn's River Falls; the North Coast Highway from the international airport at Montego Bay to Ocho Rios has been improved since 2007 and the journey is now an hour and forty five minutes drive. On 26 August 2011, the Jamaican government announced a $21 million revitalization plan for the resort area. Since March 2016, with the opening of the North-South portion of Highway 2000, driving and commute times into the nation's capital, has gone from over 2 hours to a little under an hour.
The opening of this highway has reduced traffic on the old route between Jamaica's two cities immensely. The town has restaurants, in Margaritaville and Dolphin Cove nightclubs where tourists swim and interact with dolphins. Another major point of interest is Fern Gully. Fern Gully is the result of a 1907 earthquake. Fern Gully stretches about 3 miles of great rocky gorge where travellers can see over 540 variety of ferns. In 1907, the British government paved over the destroyed river bed to create what is known as The Fern Gully Highway; the town was a shooting location during the filming Dr. No, the first James Bond film, released in 1962; the Sans Souci hotel was used as the exterior of the Blue Mountain cottage, the home of Bond villain Miss Taro. A decade the town was used again in a Bond film, this time 1973's Live and Let Die. James Cameron's first film, 1982's Piranha II: The Spawning, was filmed at the Mallards Beach-Hyatt Hotel in Ocho Rios, which doubled for the film's Club Elysium. Beaches Resorts – Ocho Rios Couples Resorts – Tower Isle and Sans Souci Locations Rooms Resorts RIU Hotels & Resorts Jewel Dunn's River Resort Moon Palace Jamaica Ocho Rios travel guide from Wikivoyage Jamaica Tourist Board Ocho Rios page
Montego Bay is the capital of the parish of St. James and is Jamaica's only other incorporated city, referred to as The Second City or more known as MoBay in local lingo and sometimes Bay by the locals; the city is however the fourth largest urban area by population after Kingston, Spanish Town and Portmore, all of which form the Greater Kingston Metropolitan Area, home to over half a million people. As a result, Montego Bay is the second-largest Anglophone city in the Caribbean, after primate city, Kingston. Montego Bay is a popular tourist destination featuring duty-free shopping, a cruise line terminal and several beaches and resorts; the city is served by the Donald Sangster International Airport, the busiest airport in the Anglophone Caribbean, located within the official city limits. The city is enclosed in a watershed, drained by several rivers such as the Montego River; when Christopher Columbus for the first time visited the island in 1494, he named the bay Golfo de Buen Tiempo. The name "Montego Bay" is believed to have originated as a corruption of the Spanish word manteca because during the Spanish period it was the port where lard and beef were exported.
Jamaica was a colony of Spain from 1511 until 1655, when Oliver Cromwell's Caribbean expedition, the Western Design, drove the Spanish from the island. During the epoch of slavery, from the mid-17th century until 1834, well into the 20th century, the town functioned as a sugarcane port; the island's last major slave revolt, the Christmas Rebellion or Baptist War took place in the area around Montego Bay. In 1975, Sharpe was proclaimed a national hero of Jamaica, the main square of the town was renamed in his honor. Montego Bay's city status prior to British rule was debated, however, it had its city status revoked during Jamaica's British colonial period. In 1980, it was re-proclaimed a city by act of parliament, but this has not meant that it has acquired any form of autonomy as it continues to be an integral part of the parish of St. James. Today, Montego Bay is known for its large regional hospital, port facilities, second homes for numerous upper class Jamaicans from Kingston as well as North Americans and Europeans, fine restaurants, shopping opportunities.
The coastland near Montego Bay is occupied by numerous tourist resorts, most newly built, some occupying the grounds of old sugarcane plantations with some of the original buildings and mill-works still standing. The most famous is the White Witch's Rose Hall; the infrastructure of the city is going through a series of explosive modernizations which once completed, aims to keep Montego Bay as a top destination in the region. The Montego Bay Convention Centre, built on a large site near to the Rose Hall estate, was opened by Jamaican Prime Minister Bruce Golding on 7 January 2011; the majority of the city's population is of African descent. The city is home to sizeable minority ethnic groups such as the East Indians and Chinese, who came to the country as indentured servants in the mid-to-late 19th century; the Chinese occupy important roles in the city's economy in retail where Downtown Montego Bay is home to many shops and supermarkets owned by Chinese immigrants. The city's East Indian population play a key role as they operate many gift and jewelry shops in the city which are geared to tourists.
There is a minority of Europeans, some descending from immigrants from Germany and Great Britain. The city is home to many immigrants from Hispanic countries such as Mexico and Spain as well as many French and Italians. Due to the heavy influence of Tourism and BPO, the city is home to many Americans and Canadians, who either work in Tourism or BPO. There are a wide variety of Christian churches in the city. Most are a legacy of British colonisation of the island; the chief denominations are Church of God, Anglican, Roman Catholic, Seventh-day Adventist and Pentecostal. Afro-Christian syncretic religions such as the Rastafari movement have a significant following; the city has a unit of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The city has communities of Buddhists and Muslims. Montego Bay is pivotal to Jamaica's economy; the city holds most of the weight of the country's tourism sector. Most of the country's visitors depart from Montego Bay's Airport or Port. Many international companies have resorts in the city including Hyatt, Hilton Hotels, Holiday Inn, RIU Hotels and Iberostar.
The city is the home to the headquarters of Sandals. The Government of Jamaica, through the Ministry of Tourism, has begun to focus on bolstering the city's entertainment and gastronomic offerings. Though the city's airport hosts a number international chains like Auntie Annie's, Nathan's, Dairy Queen to name a few, the city itself does not have access to these restaurants. By virtue of this new focus, the city has become home to a newly established Hard Rock Café and became home to Starbucks' first Jamaican location, at Doctor's Cave Beach, in November 2017; the city serves as the Head Office for Starbucks' operations in Jamaica. The city is home to a thriving BPO sector; the city has call centres which cater to many Fortune 500 companies such as Delta, Amazon and many others. In addition
Anne Hyde was Duchess of York and Albany as the first wife of the future King James II of England. Anne was the daughter of a commoner – Edward Hyde – and met her future husband when they were both living in exile in the Netherlands, she married James in 1660 and two months gave birth to the couple's first child, conceived out of wedlock. Some observers disapproved of the marriage, but James' brother, King Charles II, wanted the marriage to take place. Another cause of disapproval was the public affection James showed toward Anne, such as kissing and leaning against each other, considered improper behaviour from man to wife during the seventeenth century. James and Anne had eight children; the two who survived to adulthood were Mary II and Anne. James was a known philanderer who kept many mistresses, for which Anne reproached him, fathered many illegitimate children. An Anglican, Anne converted to Catholicism soon after her marriage to James, she had been exposed to Catholicism during visits to the Netherlands and France and was attracted thereto.
Due to Anne's influence, James also converted to Catholicism, which would lead to the Glorious Revolution. She died shortly after giving birth to her last child. In 1629, Edward Hyde married Anne Ayliffe of Grittenham. Six months into the marriage Anne caught smallpox and died. Three years Hyde married Frances Aylesbury. In 1637, the couple's eldest daughter, was born at Cranbourne Lodge in Windsor. Nothing except that she was named after Edward Hyde's first wife is known of her life before 1649, when her family fled to the Netherlands after the execution of the deposed King Charles I, they settled in Breda, where they were offered a home by Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, who had done the same with many English fugitives. The Princess appointed Anne a maid of honour against the wishes of her mother and late father. Anne became a general favourite with the people she met either at The Hague or at the Princess of Orange's country house at Teylingen, she was attractive and stylish, attracted many men.
One of the first men to fall in love with Anne was Spencer Compton, a son of the Earl of Northampton. However, Anne fell in love with Henry Jermyn, who returned her feelings. Anne dismissed Jermyn just as when she met James, Duke of York, the son of the deposed king. On 24 November 1659, two or three years after she first met him, James promised. Charles, James' brother, forced him reluctantly into this, saying that her strong character would be a positive influence on his weak-willed brother. Anne was visibly pregnant and the couple were obliged to marry, they held an official but private marriage ceremony in London on 3 September 1660, following the restoration of the monarchy. The wedding took place between 11 at night and 2 in the morning at Worcester House – her father's house in the Strand – and was solemnised by Dr. Joseph Crowther, James' chaplain; the French Ambassador described Anne as having "courage and energy worthy of a King's blood". The couple's first child, was born in October of that year, but died seven months later.
Seven children followed: Mary, Anne, Edgar and Catherine. All of their sons and two of their daughters died in infancy. Well after their marriage, some observers disapproved of the prince's decision, regardless of what he had promised beforehand. Samuel Pepys said of the marriage: "... that the Duke of York's marriage with her hath undone the kingdom, by making the Chancellor so great above reach, who otherwise would have been but an ordinary man, to have been dealt with by other people..." After Anne's death, the royal court tried to find a new wife for James, but this new wife was not, under any circumstances, to be of humble birth. As good a father as Pepys portrayed James to be, he strangely stated that Anne and James were unaffected by the death of their firstborn son. Pepys described Anne as "not only the proudest woman in the world, but the most expensefull." In the minds of Anne's nephew, William III of Orange, that of her husband's cousin, Sophia of Hanover, the stigma of the Hydes' lowly birth remained.
Anne experienced problems in her married life. She was not much liked at court and James philandered with younger mistresses such as Arabella Churchill, with whom he fathered many illegitimate children, including two born during Anne's lifetime. Anne was not oblivious to this: Pepys wrote that she was jealous and chided James, but he wrote that Anne and James were notorious for showing their affections publicly and leaning on each other. Pepys wrote that when James fell in love with Lady Chesterfield, Anne complained to King Charles so insistently that Lady Chesterfield had to retreat to the countryside, where she remained until she died. Anne became drawn to Catholicism, to which both she and James had been exposed during their time abroad and converted to it immediately after the Restoration. John Callow states that Anne "made the greatest single impact upon his thinking." James converted to Catholicism eight or nine years after Anne, but he still attended Anglican services until 1676. James preferred to associate himself with Protestant people, such as John Churchill, whose wife became a close friend of Anne's youngest surviving daughter Lady Anne.
King Charles at the time opposed Catholicis