The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States. The seat of the eponymous county, it is on Lake Michigan's western shore. Ranked by its estimated 2014 population, Milwaukee was the 31st largest city in the United States; the city's estimated population in 2017 was 595,351. Milwaukee is the main cultural and economic center of the Milwaukee metropolitan area which had a population of 2,043,904 in the 2014 census estimate, it is the second-most densely populated metropolitan area in the Midwest, surpassed only by Chicago. Milwaukee is considered a Gamma global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network with a regional GDP of over $105 billion; the first Europeans to pass through the area were French Catholic Jesuit missionaries, who were ministering to Native Americans, fur traders. In 1818, the French Canadian explorer Solomon Juneau settled in the area, in 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring towns to incorporate as the city of Milwaukee.
Large numbers of German immigrants arrived during the late 1840s, after the German revolutions, with Poles and other eastern European immigrants arriving in the following decades. Milwaukee is known for its brewing traditions, begun with the German immigrants. Beginning in the early 21st century, the city has been undergoing its largest construction boom since the 1960s. Major new additions to the city in the past two decades include the Milwaukee Riverwalk, the Wisconsin Center, Miller Park, the Milwaukee Streetcar, an expansion to the Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Pier Wisconsin, as well as major renovations to the UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena; the Fiserv Forum opened in late 2018. The name "Milwaukee" comes from an Algonquian word millioke, meaning "good", "beautiful" and "pleasant land" or "gathering place "; the name has a less pleasant connotation in the Menominee language, where it is called Māēnāēwah, "some misfortune happens". Indigenous cultures lived along the waterways for thousands of years.
The first recorded inhabitants of the Milwaukee area are the historic Menominee, Mascouten, Sauk and Ojibwe. Many of these people had lived around Green Bay before migrating to the Milwaukee area around the time of European contact. In the second half of the 18th century, the Native Americans living near Milwaukee played a role in all the major European wars on the American continent. During the French and Indian War, a group of "Ojibwas and Pottawattamies from the far Michigan" joined the French-Canadian Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu at the Battle of the Monongahela. In the American Revolutionary War, the Native Americans around Milwaukee were some of the few groups to ally with the rebel Continentals. After the Revolutionary War, the Native Americans fought the United States in the Northwest Indian War as part of the Council of Three Fires. During the War of 1812, they held a council in Milwaukee in June 1812, which resulted in their decision to attack Chicago in retaliation against American expansion.
This resulted in the Battle of Fort Dearborn on August 15, 1812, the only known armed conflict in the Chicago area. This battle convinced the American government that the Native Americans had to be removed from their land. After being attacked in the Black Hawk War in 1832, the Native Americans in Milwaukee signed the Treaty of Chicago with the United States in 1833. In exchange for their ceding their lands in the area, they were to receive monetary payments and lands west of the Mississippi in Indian Territory. Europeans had arrived in the Milwaukee area prior to the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. French missionaries and traders first passed through the area in the late 18th centuries. Alexis Laframboise, in 1785, coming from Michilimackinac settled a trading post. Early explorers called the Milwaukee River and surrounding lands various names: Melleorki, Mahn-a-waukie and Milwaucki, in efforts to transliterate the native terms. For many years, printed records gave the name as "Milwaukie". One story of Milwaukee's name says, ne day during the thirties of the last century a newspaper calmly changed the name to Milwaukee, Milwaukee it has remained until this day.
The spelling "Milwaukie" lives on in Milwaukie, named after the Wisconsin city in 1847, before the current spelling was universally accepted. Milwaukee has three "founding fathers": Solomon Juneau, Byron Kilbourn, George H. Walker. Solomon Juneau was the first of the three to come to the area, in 1818, he founded. In competition with Juneau, Byron Kilbourn established Kilbourntown west of the Milwaukee River, he ensured. This accounts for the large number of angled bridges. Further, Kilbourn distributed maps of the area which only showed Kilbourntown, implying Juneautown did not exist or the river's east side was uninhabited and thus undesirable; the third prominent developer was George H. Walker, he claimed land to the south of the Milwaukee River, along with Juneautown, where he built a log house in 1834. This area became known as Walker's Point; the first large wave of settlement to the areas that would become Milwaukee County and the City of Milwaukee began in 1835, following removal of the tribes in the Co
West Bend, Wisconsin
West Bend is the county seat of Washington County, United States, in southeastern Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 31,078. Before the arrival of European settlers in southeastern Wisconsin, the Potawatomi and Menominee Indians inhabited the land now occupied by the city of West Bend. In 1845, the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature authorized the building of a road to connect Fond du Lac and Milwaukee. Byron Kilbourn, one of the highway commissioners, Jasper Vliet, a surveyor, were put in charge of determining the route the road would take and of identifying a good halfway point for travelers; the path they chose is now U. S. Route 45 and the rest stop is present-day West Bend; because many people used the resting place, it evolved into a popular area. The Milwaukee River running through the town played a major role in the city's history, it was because of the western bend in the river. The river produced enough energy to power saw mills and gristmills. Early buildings included Holy Angels Catholic Church, built in 1852 at the corner of Hickory and 7th.
In 1866 this building was converted into a school, a new church was built at Elm and 7th under the direction of Reverend Johann Baptist Reindl. The railroad arrived in 1873. At this time, West Bend saw a growth spurt, in 1885 the city became an incorporated Wisconsin community. In 1845 early settler Barton Salisbury, while on a surveying trip up the Milwaukee River, found a rapids that he believed would be a good source of power for a sawmill, he built a log hut on the west side of the river and the village of Barton was born. On November 1, 1961, the city of West Bend annexed the Village of Barton; the West Bend tornado on April 4, 1981 struck the city killing three people, injuring over 100 more. There is a monument at a park near Green Tree Elementary School. In 2009, a controversy arose after a local couple complained to the West Bend Community Memorial Library about the presence of "sexually explicit books" and "books for youth on homosexuality" in the young adult section of the library. A petition called on the library to label the identified books as explicit, move them to the adult section of the library, install Internet content filters on the library's computers, "adopt a policy to attain balance in the viewpoints of selections that the libraries carry in issues sufficiently controversial within the West Bend community.
We request faith-based and/or ex-gay books affirming traditional heterosexual perspectives be added to the library." The West Bend Common Council refused to reappoint four library trustees. One councilman complained that the library board was stonewalling the complaint, while another asserted that the library trustees were not serving the interests of the community “with their ideology.” The council's actions were criticized, local citizens unsuccessfully sought to have the vote rescinded. After a public hearing on the petition in June 2009, the library board voted to reject any restrictions on young adults' access to books in the library. Four Wisconsin men belonging to the Christian Civil Liberties Union filed a claim against the West Bend library, asking for $30,000 apiece for "emotional distress," and that Francesca Lia Block's book Baby Be-Bop be "burned or destroyed." The Washington County Historical Society operates four distinct museums located in West Bend. Buildings and sites that have been deemed historic by official bodies include: Old Courthouse Museum Old Sheriff’s Residence and Jail West Bend Company/Regal Ware Museum Father Rehrl’s Rectory at St. Agnes Historic Site St. Peter's ChurchDowntown West Bend has a movie theater which opened in 1929.
The theater was last renovated in 1992 to house a total of three movie screens. The theater was closed and listed for sale in January 2012, with a purchase occurring in May 2012; the theater has not been re-opened for any purpose. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.72 square miles, of which, 14.57 square miles is land and 0.15 square miles is water. West Bend is in the Kettle Moraine region, its topography is varied; the glacial activity has formed many hills throughout the region. The average temperature in West Bend ranges from a high of 81 °F to a low average temperature of 11 °F. Record high and low temperatures are 107 °F and -30 °F, respectively; the average annual rainfall is 31.4 inches. The average annual snow measures 45.6 inches. As of the census of 2010, there were 31,078 people, 12,769 households, 8,250 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,133.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,546 housing units at an average density of 929.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 94.8% White, 1.0% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 1.4% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.9% of the population. There were 12,769 households of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.1% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.4% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the city was 37 years. 24.7% of residents were under the age of 18.
Kewaskum (town), Wisconsin
Kewaskum is a town in Washington County, United States. The population was 1,119 at the 2000 census; the incorporated community of Village of Kewaskum is surrounded geographically by the Town of Kewaskum. The unincorporated community of Saint Michaels is located in the town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.8 square miles, of which, 22.8 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,119 people, 394 households, 327 families residing in the town; the population density was 49.2 people per square mile. There were 404 housing units at an average density of 17.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 0.27 % Native American, 0.18 % from other races. 0.18% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 394 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 76.1% were married couples living together, 4.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 17.0% were non-families.
14.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average family size was 3.14. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 26.2% from 45 to 64, 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $59,500, the median income for a family was $65,060. Males had a median income of $39,833 versus $26,121 for females; the per capita income for the town was $22,802. About 3.5% of families and 4.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.3% of those under age 18 and 4.8% of those age 65 or over. Town of Kewaskum
Administrative divisions of Wisconsin
The administrative divisions of Wisconsin include counties, cities and towns. In Wisconsin, all of these are units of general-purpose local government. There are a number of special-purpose districts formed to handle regional concerns, such as school districts. Whether a municipality is a city, village or town is not dependent on the community's population or area, but on the form of government selected by the residents and approved by the Wisconsin State Legislature. Cities and villages can overlap county boundaries; the county is the primary political subdivision of Wisconsin. Every county has a county seat a populous or centrally located city or village, where the government offices for the county are located. Within each county are cities and towns; as of 2016, Wisconsin had 72 counties. A Board of Supervisors is the main legislative entity of the county. Supervisors are elected in nonpartisan elections for two-year terms. In May 2013, the Wisconsin Legislature passed a bill that will reduce the terms of office from four years to two years for the Milwaukee County Board of Supervisors.
The type of executive official in each county varies: 11 counties have a County Executive elected in a nonpartisan election for a four-year term. Other officials include sheriffs, district attorneys, treasurers, surveyors, registers of deeds, clerks of circuit court. In most counties, elected coroners have been replaced by appointed medical examiners. State law permits counties to appoint a registered land surveyor in place of electing a surveyor. Counties are responsible for social services, such as child welfare, job training, care of the elderly. Law enforcement and road maintenance are administered by the county, in conjunction with local municipalities; as of January 1, 2018, 66 of the state's 72 counties maintain their own sales tax separate from the state for items such as local county road maintenance averaging around.1-.5% in addition to the state 5% sales tax. In Wisconsin, a city is an autonomous incorporated area within one or more counties, it provides all services to its residents and has the highest degree of home rule and taxing jurisdiction of all municipalities.
Cities are more urbanized than towns. The city of Milwaukee, the only "first class city" in the state, has its own special rules apart from all other cities; as of 2015, Wisconsin had 190 cities. The home rule authority granted to cities allows them to make their own decision about their affairs and much of their public policy, subject to state law. Cities can choose to hire a city city manager, instead of electing a mayor. In cities that have city administrators, the head of the common council may be referred to as mayor. Cities are governed by Common or City Councils consisting of the mayor or city manager and elected aldermen or council members. City officers include mayor or city manager, clerk and health officials. Cities may by their discretion, have an engineer, assessors, street commissioner, a board of public works. Cities in Wisconsin are divided into four classes: First class: Cities with 150,000 or more residents Second class: Cities with 39,000 to 149,999 residents Third class: Cities with 10,000 to 38,999 residents Fourth class: Cities with 9,999 or fewer residentsThere are exceptions to these classes, however.
For these reasons, Madison is a second class city though it exceeds the 150,000 resident threshold, several cities with a population of over 10,000 are fourth class cities. In order to incorporate as a city, a community must have at least 1,000 citizens if it is in a rural area or 5,000 if it is in an urban area. Cities are able to expand their area by annexing land from towns when land owners request local service. In Wisconsin, a village is an autonomous incorporated area within one or more counties, it provides various services to its residents and has a degree of home rule and taxing jurisdiction over them. As of 2015, Wisconsin had 407 villages. In order to incorporate as a village, a community must have at least 150 citizens if it is in a rural area or 2,500 if it is in an urban area; the home rule authority granted to villages allows them to make their own decisions about their affairs and much of their public policy, subject to state law. Villages are governed by a Board of Trustees. Village officers include a president, clerk and assessor.
Villages may elect to hire a village manager to oversee day-to-day operations instead of an elected village president. An additional 77 villages in Wisconsin employ village administrators. In Wisconsin, a town is an unincorporated jurisdiction within a county. All residents of Wisconsin who do not live in a city or village live in a town. Towns provide a limited number of services to their residents; the U. S. Census Bureau considers Wisconsin towns to be minor civil divisions; as of 2015, Wisconsin had 1,255 towns. Towns have the same names as adjacen
Hubertus is an unincorporated community in the village of Richfield and the town of Erin in Washington County, United States. The community was named after the previous parish St. Hubert's. Crown of Life Lutheran School is a 3K-8 grade school of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod in Hubertus. Holy Hill Shrine is located in the area. Kettle Moraine Scenic Drive Hubertus, Dictionary of Wisconsin History
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t