Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Kingarth is a historic village and parish on the Isle of Bute, off the coast of south-western Scotland. The village is within the parish of its own name, is situated at the junction of the A844 and B881. In the Early Middle Ages it was the site of a monastery and bishopric and the cult centre of Saints Cathan and Bláán. Located to the north of Kilchattan Bay, Kingarth was the central religious site for the Cenél Comgaill kindred of Dál Riata, just as Lismore was for the Cenél Loairn and Iona for the Cenél nGabráin, it is less than a kilometre from the early historic hill-fort of "Little Dunagoil", which may have been the chief secular site of the kindred. The centre for Saint Bláán's cult had moved to the mainland to Dunblane in Strathearn under the influence of Viking attacks in the 9th century like the movement of the relics of Saint Cuthbert to the bishopric of Lindisfarne and those of Saint Columba to the bishopric of Dunkeld. Despite this, it survived as a religious site to become one of only two parish churches on the island, the other being Rothesay.
Alan fitz Walter tried to grant the church to Paisley Abbey in 1204, but this grant does not appear to have been effective and it remained an independent parsonage until the 15th-century. In 1463 it became a prebend for the newly created chapter of the diocese of the Isles, but in 1501 it was annexed to the Chapel Royal at Stirling, becoming in 1509 a prebend for the chancellorship of the Chapel Royal, the latter arrangement surviving beyond the Scottish Reformation. List of known bishops of Cenn Garad Canmore - Bute, Kingarth Church site record Kingarth parish has a prominent and well maintained War Memorial that records the names of all those in the Parish who made the ultimate sacrifice during the First World War, the Second World War
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Strathblane is a village and parish in the registration county of Stirlingshire, situated in the southwestern part of the Stirling council area, in central Scotland. It lies at the foothills of the Campsie Fells and the Kilpatrick Hills on the Blane Water, 12 miles north of Glasgow, 14 miles east-southeast of Dumbarton, 20 miles southwest of Stirling. Strathblane is a dormitory village for Greater Glasgow, has a total resident population of 1,811. Strathblane was the name of a parish in Stirlingshire which comprised three villages: Edenkill and Mugdock. Mugdock was the ancient seat of the Earls of Lennox, to the east of Strathblane lies the town of Lennoxtown. Blanefield is a settlement contiguous with Strathblane's northwestern fringe. To the west is the volcanic plug Dumgoyne, Glengoyne Distillery and the Trossachs National Park; the West Highland Way—a long-distance trail—passes close to the village. The Gaelic name Srath Bhlàthain translates to English as "the valley of the Blane", with reference to the Blane Water, a watercourse.
The Blane Water has been referred to as Beul-abhainn meaning "mouth-river" after the numerous burns merging. One of its tributaries, the Ballagan Burn passes over the waterfall the Spout of Ballagan which shows 192 alternate strata of coloured shales and limestone; the Blane flows into the Endrick. Historian William Forbes Skene suggested Strathblane to have been the site of the battle between the Britons and Picts in the year 750, during which Talorgan son of Fergus, brother of Óengus I of the Picts, was slain; the Annales Cambriae and Annals of Ulster refer to the battlefield as "Mocetauc" or "Catohic" which Skene and others have suggested referred to Mugdock, a locality at the edge of Lennox, within the parish of Strathblane. A rise in population during the early 19th century was due in part to the development of a large calico printfield at Blanefield and two bleachfields at Dumbrock working 10–11 hours per day, 6 days a week. There is no sign of this industry in the village today which has a rural, picturesque aspect while the majority of parishioners now commute to work in neighbouring towns.
The principal local family were the Edmonstones of Duntreath who had ancient links to the Kings of Scotland. In 1374 Sir John Edmonstone was an ambassador to France for King Robert II, subsequently his son Sir Archibald Edmonstone settled the family at Duntreath. In 1425, Sir Archibald's son Sir William Edmondstone of Culloden married Mary Stewart, Princess of Scotland and they had a son whom they named Sir William Edmonstone of Duntreath; the family gained a house at Colzium when the Livingstones of Kilsyth lost the estate due to their Jacobite sympathies. More Edward VII's mistress Alice Keppel was the eighth daughter of the 4th Baronet, is the great-grandmother of Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay, the second wife of HRH The Prince Charles, Duke of Rothesay. Strathblane lies within the registration county and Lieutenancy of Stirlingshire, an administrative county until local government reorganisation in 1975. From 1975 to 1996 it was part of the Central region of Scotland. Since 1996, Strathblane has formed part of the Stirling council area.
For elections to Stirling Council, Strathblane is part of the Endrick ward. The ward returns three councillors under a system of proportional representation. At the 2007 elections one councillor each from the Conservative and Scottish National Parties. Strathblane community council represents the villages of Strathblane and Mugdock. Strathblane is situated at the southern foot of the Campsie Fells, on the Blane Water, 265 feet above sea level; the prevailing rock of Strathblane's hills is basalt, that of its lowlands Old Red Sandstone. The soil is sandy in the upper part of the strath, clayey in the lower; the village of Strathblane has a total resident population of 1,811, whilst the wider Strathblane Community Council Area, which covers 44 square kilometres, has a larger population of 2,396. The population of the Parish was 620 in 1795, the 1871 census reported 1,235 which had grown to 1,811 by the time of the 2001 census. Tourism plays a prominent economic role in Strathblane. Tourists visit the local scenery of the moors.
There are local amenities in Strathblane, including post office, grocery shop, chemist, deli and hotel, to name a few. There was a bank in Strathblane; the parish was connected to Glasgow via Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway and the Blane Valley Railway, with stations at Campsie Glen, Blanefield and Killearn, which opened in 1867. However, the line became uncompetitive with the growth of road transport, closed to passengers in 1951 and to freight in 1959. Mugdock Castle was the stronghold of the Clan Graham from the middle of the 13th century, its ruins are located in Mugdock Country Park at Strathblane's southern extremity with Milngavie. The Stirling Observer dated 25 August 1921 reported the unveiling of "a monument erected in memory of those..... who fell in the Great War" by the Duke of Montrose and Sir Archibald Edmonstone, whose family seat was Duntreath Castle by Blanefield. The monument was constructed of Doddington stone, it consists of a square base, each side being panelle
Saint Comgall, an early Irish saint, was the founder and abbot of the great Irish monastery at Bangor in present-day Northern Ireland. Comgall was born sometime between 510 and 520 in Dál nAraidi, Ulster according to the Irish annals near the place now known as Magheramorne in present-day County Antrim. Comgall's father was a Pictish warrior. After serving as a soldier in his early life, he was educated under Fintan of Clonenagh and studied under Finnian of Movilla, Mobhí Clárainech at Glasnevin, Ciarán of Clonmacnoise, he was ordained priest by Bishop Lugidius, either at Clonmacnoise or Connor. He lived for a while in Ulster on an island on Lough Erne, accompanied by a few friends who followed a severe form of monastic life; the regime was so austere that seven companions died of hunger. Intending to go to Britain, Comgall was dissuaded by Lugidius, the bishop who ordained him, at whose advice he remained in Ireland to spread the monastic life throughout the country, he founded a monastery at Bangor, County Down on the southern shore of Belfast Lough, directly opposite Carrickfergus.
According to the Irish annals, Bangor was founded no than 552, though James Ussher and most of the writers on the subject assign the foundation to the year 555. Webb places it at 559, he is said to have governed in other houses over four thousand monks. Life in the monasteries was severe. Food was plain. Herbs and bread was customary. Milk was considered an indulgence. At Bangor only one meal was allowed, that not until evening. Confession was in public before the community. Severe acts of penance were frequent. Silence was observed at meals and at other times conversation being restricted to the minimum. Fasting was prolonged. According to Adamnan's Life of Columba, there was a close connection between Comgall and Columba, though there does not appear to be sufficient authority for stating that Comgall was the disciple of Columba in any strict sense. Comgall was a friend to Brendan, Saint Cormac, Cainnech of Aghaboe, Finnian of Movilla, it is believed that among the monks trained by Comgall at Bangor, were Columbanus of Luxeuil-les-Bains and Saint Moluag.
After a period of intense suffering, Comgall received the Eucharist from Saint Fiacre and died in the monastery at Bangor. The year of his death was either 602, according to Annals of Tigernach and Chronicon Scotorum, or 597, according to Annals of Inisfallen, his relics, which were kept at Bangor, were scattered during Viking raids in 822. Comgall belonged to; these flourished in the Irish Church during the sixth century. They were for the most part educated in Britain, or received their training from those who had grown up under the influence of the British Schools, they were the founders of the great Irish monastic schools, contributed much to the spread of monasticism in the Irish Church. In other words, did St. Congall give his monks at Bangor a strict monastic rule resembling the Rule of Saint Benedict? The Antiphonary of Bangor of the seventh century claimed that Comgall was'strict and constant'; the fact, that Columbanus, a disciple of Comgall and himself a monk of Bangor, drew up for his Continental monasteries a Regula Monachorum would lead us to believe that there had been a similar organisation in Bangor in his time.
This, however, is not conclusive, since Columbanus might have derived inspiration from the Benedictine Rule widely spread over the Iberian Peninsula. St. Comgall is mentioned in the "Life of Columbanus" by Jonas, as the superior of Bangor, under whom St. Columbanus had studied, he is mentioned under 10 May, his feast-day in the "Felire" of Óengus of Tallaght published by Whitley Stokes for the Henry Bradshaw Society, his name is commemorated in the Stowe Missal, in the Martyrology of Tallaght
A strath is a large valley a river valley, wide and shallow. An anglicisation of the Gaelic word srath, it is one of many that have been absorbed into the English language, it is used in rural Scotland to describe a wide valley by non-Gaelic speakers. It occurs in numerous place names within Scotland including Strathclyde. Internationally, many places with Scottish heritage use the prefix, including Strath-Taieri in New Zealand, it occurs in the names of five Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company liners, four of which, the Strathaird, the Strathnaver, the Stratheden and the Strathmore, carried thousands of migrants to Australia between the 1950s and the 1960s. The ships acted as troop carriers during the Second World War and the fifth ship, the Strathallan, sank in the Mediterranean in 1942 taking troops to the landings in North Africa; the word is related to Old Welsh Ystrad, as in Ystrad Clud, the Old Welsh name for the Kingdom of Strathclyde. In Keith there is a distillery producing the Strathisla whisky.
It is a single malt whisky, an ingredient to the blend Chivas Regal. Annandale and Galloway