Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale is an American politician and lawyer who served as the 42nd vice president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A United States senator from Minnesota, he was the Democratic Party's nominee in the United States presidential election of 1984, but lost to Ronald Reagan in an Electoral College landslide. Reagan won 49 states while Mondale carried his home state of District of Columbia, he became the oldest-living former U. S. vice president after the death of George H. W. Bush in 2018. Mondale was born in Ceylon and graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1951 after attending Macalester College, he served in the U. S. Army during the Korean War before earning a law degree in 1956, he married Joan Adams in 1955. Working as a lawyer in Minneapolis, Mondale was appointed to the position of attorney general in 1960 by Governor Orville Freeman and was elected to a full term as attorney general in 1962 with 60 percent of votes cast, he was appointed to the U. S. Senate by Governor Karl Rolvaag upon the resignation of Senator Hubert Humphrey following Humphrey's election as vice president in 1964.
Mondale was subsequently elected to a full Senate term in 1966 and again in 1972, resigning that post in 1976 as he prepared to succeed to the vice presidency in 1977. While in the Senate, he supported consumer protection, fair housing, tax reform, the desegregation of schools, he served as a member of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. In 1976, Jimmy Carter, the Democratic presidential nominee, chose Mondale as his vice presidential running mate; the Carter/Mondale ticket defeated incumbent president Gerald Ford and his vice presidential running mate, Bob Dole in the first televised vice presidential debate. Carter and Mondale's time in office was marred by a worsening economy and, although both were renominated by the Democratic Party, they lost the 1980 election to Republicans Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush. In 1984, Mondale won the Democratic presidential nomination and campaigned for a nuclear freeze, the Equal Rights Amendment, an increase in taxes, a reduction of U.
S. public debt. His vice presidential nominee was Geraldine Ferraro, a congresswoman from New York, the first female vice presidential nominee of any major party. Mondale and Ferraro lost the election to incumbent president Ronald Reagan, winning only Minnesota and the District of Columbia. After his defeat by Reagan, Mondale joined the Minnesota-based law firm of Dorsey & Whitney and the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. President Bill Clinton appointed Mondale United States Ambassador to Japan in 1993. In 2002, Mondale ran for his old Senate seat, agreeing to be the last-minute replacement for Democratic Senator Paul Wellstone, killed in a plane crash during the final two weeks of his re-election campaign. However, Mondale narrowly lost that race to Saint Paul mayor Norm Coleman, he returned to working at Dorsey & Whitney and remained active in the Democratic Party. Mondale took up a part-time teaching position at the University of Minnesota's Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs.
Mondale was born in Ceylon, the son of Claribel Hope, a part-time music teacher, Theodore Sigvaard Mondale, a Methodist minister. Walter's half-brother Lester Mondale became a Unitarian minister. Mondale has two brothers, known as Pete and William, known as Mort, his paternal grandparents were Norwegian immigrants, his mother, the daughter of an immigrant from Ontario, was of Scottish and English descent. The surname "Mondale" comes from a valley and town in the Fjærland region of Norway. Mondale attended public schools and Macalester College in St. Paul before transferring to the University of Minnesota, where he earned a B. A. in political science in 1951. As Mondale did not have enough money to attend law school, he enlisted in the U. S. Army and served for two years at Fort Knox during the Korean War, he married Joan Adams in 1955. Through the support of the G. I. Bill, he graduated from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1956. While at law school, he served on the Minnesota Law Review and as a law clerk in the Minnesota Supreme Court under Justice Thomas F. Gallagher.
He practiced law in Minneapolis, continued to do so for four years before entering the political arena. Mondale became involved in national politics in the 1940s. At the age of 20, he was visible in Minnesota politics by helping organize Hubert Humphrey's successful Senate campaign in 1948. Humphrey's campaign assigned Mondale to cover the staunchly Republican 2nd district. Mondale, raised in the region, was able to win the district for Humphrey by a comfortable margin. After working with Humphrey, Mondale went on to work on several campaigns for Orville Freeman. Mondale worked on Freeman's unsuccessful 1952 campaign for governor as well as his successful campaign in 1954 and his re-election campaign in 1958. In 1960, Governor Freeman appointed Mondale as Minnesota Attorney General following the resignation of Miles Lord. At the time he was appointed, Mondale was only 32 years old and had been practicing law for four years, he won re-election to the post in his own right in the 1962 election. During his tenure as Minnesota Attorney General, the case Gideon v. Wainwright was being heard by the U.
S. Supreme Court; when those opposed to the right to counsel organized a Friend of the Court brief representing several state attorneys general for that position, Mondale organized a cou
St. Croix County, Wisconsin
St. Croix County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 84,345, its county seat is Hudson. The county was created in 1840 and organized in 1849. St. Croix County is part of the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Between 2000 and 2010, it was the fastest-growing county in Wisconsin. St. Croix County was created on August 1840 by the legislature of the Wisconsin Territory, it was named after the river on its western border. Sources vary on the origin of the name. Another account credits Father Hennepin with giving this region the French name Ste Croix because of the burial markers located at the mouth of the river. La Pointe County was created from the northern portions of Wisconsin Territory's St. Croix County on February 19, 1845; when Wisconsin was admitted into the union as a state on May 29, 1848, the territorial St. Croix County was further divided, with the territory from the Mississippi River to the current border of Minnesota continuing as de facto Wisconsin Territory until on March 3, 1849, it and unorganized federal territory lying north of Iowa were used in the creation of the Minnesota Territory.
Itasca, Washington and Benton Counties were created by the Minnesota Territory on October 27, 1849 from the de facto Wisconsin Territory, separated from the Wisconsin Territory's La Pointe County. The part of St. Croix County allocated to Wisconsin became the parental county to Pierce and Polk Counties, formed significant portions of Dunn, Barron and Burnett Counties. On June 12, 1899, a deadly F5 tornado struck New Richmond; the tornado's damage path was 46 miles long. The tornado formed on the banks of the St. Croix River, south of Hudson. Moving to the northeast across St. Croix County, the tornado passed through the villages of Burkhardt and Boardman before striking New Richmond head on leveling the entire business district and half the town's residences; the storm continued on towards the northeast, narrowly missing the town of Deer Park before crossing into Polk County, where it again narrowly missed the towns of Clear Lake and Clayton. Once the tornado passed into Barron County, it struck the village of Arland before breaking up southwest of Barron.
The tornado killed 117 people, including at least 20 people who died from their injuries in the days after the storm. In thanks to state aid and donations, most of the town was rebuilt by the following winter. Today, the tornado stands as the deadliest recorded in Wisconsin and the 9th deadliest tornado in U. S. history. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 736 square miles, of which 722 square miles is land and 13 square miles is water. New Richmond Regional Airport serves surrounding communities. Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway Polk County - north Barron County - northeast Dunn County - east Pierce County - south Washington County, Minnesota - west As of the census of 2000, there were 63,155 people, 23,410 households, 16,948 families residing in the county; the population density was 88 people per square mile. There were 24,265 housing units at an average density of 34 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.85% White, 0.28% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.62% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 0.76% from two or more races.
0.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 34.4 % were of 8.2 % Irish and 5.4 % Swedish ancestry. There were 23,410 households out of which 38.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.60% were married couples living together, 7.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.60% were non-families. 21.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.12. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 32.20% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 9.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 100.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.50 males. Glenwood City Hudson New Richmond River Falls Emerald Houlton National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Croix County, Wisconsin Johnson, Helen Sophia.
Early History of St. Croix County, Wisconsin. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1921. St. Croix County government website St. Croix County map at the Wisconsin Department of Transportation
Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance. Cross-country skiing is practiced as a sport and recreational activity. Variants of cross-country skiing are adapted to a range of terrain which spans unimproved, sometimes mountainous terrain to groomed courses that are designed for the sport. Modern cross-country skiing is similar to the original form of skiing, from which all skiing disciplines evolved, including alpine skiing, ski jumping and Telemark skiing. Skiers propel themselves either by striding forward or side-to-side in a skating motion, aided by arms pushing on ski poles against the snow, it is practised in regions with snow-covered landscapes, including Northern Europe, Canada and regions in the United States. Competitive cross-country skiing is one of the Nordic skiing sports. Cross-country skiing and rifle marksmanship are the two components of biathlon, ski-orienteering is a form of cross-country skiing, which includes map navigation along snow trails and tracks.
The word ski comes from the Old Norse word skíð. Skiing started as a technique for traveling cross-country over snow on skis, starting five millennia ago with beginnings in Scandinavia, it may have been practised as early as 600 BCE in Daxing ` anling, in. Early historical evidence includes Procopius's description of Sami people as skrithiphinoi translated as "ski running samis". Birkely argues that the Sami people have practiced skiing for more than 6000 years, evidenced by the old Sami word čuoigat for skiing. Egil Skallagrimsson's 950 CE saga describes King Haakon the Good's practice of sending his tax collectors out on skis; the Gulating law stated that "No moose shall be disturbed by skiers on private land." Cross-country skiing evolved from a utilitarian means of transportation to being a worldwide recreational activity and sport, which branched out into other forms of skiing starting in the mid-1800s. Early skiers used one long pole or spear in addition to the skis; the first depiction of a skier with two ski poles dates to 1741.
Traditional skis, used for snow travel in Norway and elsewhere into the 1800s comprised one short ski with a natural fur traction surface, the andor, one long for gliding, the langski—one being up to 100 cm longer than the other—allowing skiers to propel themselves with a scooter motion. This combination has a long history among the Sami people. Skis up to 280 cm have been produced in Finland, the longest recorded ski in Norway is 373 cm. Ski warfare, the use of ski-equipped troops in war, is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century; these troops were able to cover distances comparable to that of light cavalry. The garrison in Trondheim used skis at least from 1675, the Danish-Norwegian army included specialized skiing battalions from 1747—details of military ski exercises from 1767 are on record. Skis were used in military exercises in 1747. In 1799 French traveller Jacques de la Tocnaye recorded his visit to Norway in his travel diary: Norwegian immigrants used skis in the US midwest from around 1836.
Norwegian immigrant "Snowshoe Thompson" transported mail by skiing across the Sierra Nevada between California and Nevada from 1856. In 1888 Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen and his team crossed the Greenland icecap on skis. Norwegian workers on the Buenos Aires - Valparaiso railway line introduced skiing in South America around 1890. In 1910 Roald Amundsen used skis on his South Pole Expedition. In 1902 the Norwegian consul in Kobe imported ski equipment and introduced skiing to the Japanese, motivated by the death of Japanese soldiers during a snow storm. Norwegian skiing regiments organized military skiing contests in the 18th century, divided in four classes: shooting at a target while skiing at "top speed", downhill racing among trees, downhill racing on large slopes without falling, "long racing" on "flat ground". An early record of a public ski competition occurred in Tromsø, 1843. In Norwegian, langrenn refers to "competitive skiing where the goal is to complete a specific distance in groomed tracks in the shortest possible time".
In Norway, ski touring competitions are long-distance cross-country competitions open to the public, competition is within age intervals. A new technique, skate skiing, was experimented with early in the 20th Century, but was not adopted until the 1980s. Johan Grøttumsbråten used the skating technique at the 1931 World Championship in Oberhof, one of the earliest recorded use of skating in competitive cross-country skiing; this technique was used in ski orienteering in the 1960s on roads and other firm surfaces. It became widespread during the 1980s after the success of Bill Koch in 1982 Cross-country Skiing Championships drew more attention to the skating style. Norwegian skier Ove Aunli started using the technique in 1984, when he found it to be much faster than classic style. Finnish skier, Pauli Siitonen, developed a one-sided variant of the style in the 1970s, leaving one ski in the track while skating to the side with the other one during endurance events. While the noun ski originates from the Norwegian language, unlike the English skiing there is no corresponding verb in Norwegian.
Fridtjov Nansen, for instance, describes the crossing of Greenland as På ski over Grønland "On skis across Greenland", while the English edition of the report was titled, The first crossing of Greenland. Nansen referred to the activity o
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Washington County, Minnesota
Washington County is a county located in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 238,136, making it the fifth-most populous county in Minnesota, its county seat is Stillwater. The largest city in the county is Woodbury; the county was established in 1849. Washington County is included in the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Washington County was one of the nine original counties created when the Minnesota Territory was organized in 1849; the county was established October 27, 1849, named after George Washington. Early development in the area was on the St. Croix River, which now forms the boundary with Wisconsin on the county's eastern side; the river not only provided a means of transportation to move people upstream, but move logs downstream. The area was forested and the early economy was dependent on the logging and lumber industries; the first settlement and seat was named Dacotah, was located as early as 1838 in what is now northern Stillwater, where Brown's Creek flows into the St. Croix River.
The creek's name is from the founder of Joseph Renshaw Brown. However, a sawmill was built at Marine-on-St.-Croix in 1839, another was built in the current location of downtown Stillwater in 1844. The success of these soon attracted the settlers from Dacotah, Stillwater became the county seat in 1846. During this early period, the region was part of the Wisconsin Territory, but Wisconsin became a state in 1848. Brown and other leaders called together settlers in this now-ungoverned territory to what has become known as the "Stillwater Convention" on August 26, 1848. Held in John McKusick’s store, the settlers drafted a Memorial to Congress that a new territory be created with the name “Minnesota,” and elected Henry Hastings Sibley to deliver this citizen’s petition to the U. S. Congress; because of this convention, Stillwater calls itself the “Birthplace of Minnesota.” After becoming a territory, growth continued, with the first Sheriff of Washington County appointed by Governor Alexander Ramsey in 1849, the county's school district founded in 1850.
After the forests were depleted, the economy of Washington County became agricultural. With the growth of neighboring Ramsey County and St. Paul, some of Washington County developed based on tourism and recreation, as with Mahtomedi and Landfall. Late in the 20th century, the population increased with the suburban expansion of St. Paul. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 423 square miles, of which 384 square miles is land and 38 square miles is water, it is the fourth-smallest county in Minnesota by land fifth-smallest by total area. Chisago County Polk County, Wisconsin St. Croix County, Wisconsin Pierce County, Wisconsin Dakota County Ramsey County Anoka County Mississippi National River and Recreation Area Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway The ethnic makeup of the country, according to the 2010 U. S. Census, was the following: 87.77% White 3.60% Black 0.49% Native American 5.07% Asian >0.01% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 2.10% Two or more races 0.97% Other races 3.41% Hispanic or Latino As of the census of 2010, there were 238,136 people, 87,446 households, 64,299 families residing in the county.
The population density was 607 people per square mile. There were 87,446 housing units at an average density of 223 per square mile. 39.4% were of German, 14.4% Irish, 13.0% Norwegian, 9.9% Swedish ancestry. There were 87,446 households out of which 38.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.6% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.5% were non-families. 21.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.14. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 32.90% from 25 to 44, 28.7% from 45 to 64, 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 98.02 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.03 males. The median income for a household in the county was $79,735, the median income for a family was $92,497.
The per capita income for the county was $36,786. About 5.2% of the population was below the poverty line. According to the 2007-2011 American Community Survey, of the county's population 25 years and over, 1.4% had less than 9th grade education, 2.8% held 9th to 12th grade with no diploma, 23.6% had High school graduate or equivalent, 22.2% held Some college with no degree, 27.0% had bachelor's degree, 13.0% earned Graduate or professional degree. As of the 2000 census, there were 201,130 people, 71,462 households, 54,668 families residing in the county; the population density was 514 people per square mile. There were 73,635 housing units at an average density of 188 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.63% White, 1.83% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 2.14% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.60% from other races, 1.37% from two or more races. There were 71,462 households out of which 41.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.80% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.50% were non-families.
18.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the
St. Croix River (Wisconsin–Minnesota)
The St. Croix River is a tributary of the Mississippi River 169 miles long, in the U. S. states of Minnesota. The lower 125 miles of the river form the border between Minnesota; the river is a National Scenic Riverway under the protection of the National Park Service. A hydroelectric plant at St. Croix Falls supplies power to the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area; the St. Croix River rises in the northwestern corner of Wisconsin, out of Upper St. Croix Lake in Douglas County, near Solon Springs 20 miles south of Lake Superior, it flows south to Gordon southwest. It is joined by the Namekagon River in northern Burnett County, where it becomes wider. A few miles downstream the St. Croix meets the boundary between Minnesota and Wisconsin, which it demarcates for another 130 miles until its confluence with the Mississippi River. Other major tributaries include the Kettle River, Snake River, Sunrise River joining from the west, the Apple River, Willow River, Kinnickinnic River joining from the east.
Just below Stillwater, Minnesota the river widens into Lake St. Croix, joins the Mississippi River at Prescott, Wisconsin 20 miles southeast of St. Paul, Minnesota; the St. Croix River was one of the original eight rivers to have significant portions placed under protection by the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968; the upper reaches of the river in Wisconsin below the St. Croix Flowage, 15 miles downstream from its source, as well as the Namekagon River, are protected as the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway; the free-flowing nature of the river is interrupted only by a hydroelectric dam operated by the Northern States Power Company at St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin; the lower 27 miles below the dam, including both sides of the river along the Minnesota-Wisconsin border, were protected as part of the Lower St. Croix National Scenic Riverway; this area includes the Dalles of the St. Croix River, a scenic gorge located near Interstate Park, south of St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin. Although the addition of an interstate bridge connected to MN Highway 36 was objected to by residents, nearby communities, conservation groups, the National Park Service, construction of the bridge was authorized by amending the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968.
Light and noise pollution are concerns of those opposed to the bridge, who cites the original act that kept such activity to the south along the Interstate 94 corridor. The St. Croix Crossing bridge was completed in August 2017; the St. Croix River Association is a watershed-wide non-profit advocating for conservation throughout the watershed. Founded in 1911 as an all-volunteer citizens group, it has evolved into a staffed, mature nonprofit organization and official "friends group" of the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway, its mission is to protect and celebrate the St. Croix River and its watershed. Father Louis Hennepin wrote in 1683, from information provided by Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut: "There is another River which falls... into the Meschasipi... We named it The River of the Grave, or Mausoleum, because the Savages buried there one of their Men..., bitten by a Rattlesnake." In the original French, this is translated as "Rivière Tombeaux". Jean-Baptiste-Louis Franquelin's 1688 map recorded a "Fort St. Croix" on the upper reaches of the river.
The name "Rivière de Sainte-Croix" was applied to the river sometime in 1688 or 1689, this more auspicious name supplanted Father Hennepin's earlier designation. On Carte de la Louisiane et du Cours du Mississipi by Guillaume Delisle and on A Map of North America by John Blair, the St. Croix River—more what was known as the east branch of the St. Croix River —is shown as the Ouasisacadeba, a French representation of the Dakota name for the St. Croix River. On the 1778 Mitchell Map, the river is titled "Ouadeba", which represents the Dakota watpá meaning "river"; the upper portion of river—originally called the north branch of the St. Croix River—was known to the Ojibwa as Manoominikeshiinh-ziibi. Downstream of its confluence with the Namekagon, the Ojibwa renamed the river as Gichi-ziibi or Okijii-ziibi At the time of European settlement of the valley and Ojibwe were engaged in a long and deadly war with each other; the portion of the river below the confluence with Trade River is called Jiibayaatig-ziibi in the Ojibwe language, reinforcing the earlier "Rivière Tombeaux" name in their language.
On Map of the Territories of Michigan and Ouisconsin by John Farmer, the St. Croix River is shown as the "Chippewa River". However, by 1843, Joseph Nicollet's Hydrographical Basin of the Upper Mississippi River reinforced the name provided by Franquelin's 1688 map; the river is the result of geologic forces going back 1.1 billion years. At that time, the Mid-Continent Rift rendered the middle of North America apart, creating a volcanic zone; the lava spewed forth cooled into hard basalt. That basalt is. About 500 million years ago, a shallow sea covered the area, laying down layers of sand and minerals that make up much of the sandstone bluffs now seen along the river. In the last 20,000 years, glaciers have scraped the landscape and released torrents of meltwater, which carved the St. Croix River's course; the river has been home to people for thousands of years. A bison kill site in May Township, Washington County, Minnesota is believed to be about 4,000 years old. An Oneota village from about 1200 A.
D. has been studied
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t