King County Library System
The King County Library System is a library system serving the residents of King County, United States. Headquartered in Issaquah, Washington, KCLS is the busiest library in the United States, circulating 22.4 million items in 2010. It consists of 50 libraries, a Traveling Library Center, a mobile TechLab, the ABC Express children’s library van. KCLS offers a collection of more than 4.1 million items, including books, newspapers and videotapes, films, CDs, DVDs and extensive online resources. All KCLS libraries offer free Wi-Fi connections. People can hold up to 50 items; the library system began in 1942 when voters in King County established the King County Rural Library District in order to provide library services to people in "rural" areas with no easy access to city libraries. Funding for the library system was provided from the property tax bases of unincorporated areas, from contracts with cities and towns for the provision of library services. Funding measures for the system passed in 1966, 1977, 1980, 1988, 2002, 2004, 2010.
Property taxes account for 94% of revenue today. The KCLS budget for 2017 was $120 million; the name of the organization was changed from the King County Rural Library District to the present-day King County Library System in 1978, although the old words "Rural Library District" is still part of the organization's legal name. KCLS extends access privileges to residents of its service area, which includes all unincorporated areas of King County as well as residents of every city in the county except Hunts Point, Yarrow Point. Residents of Seattle – which maintains its own library system – are allowed access to KCLS collections under reciprocal borrowing agreements between KCLS and Seattle's libraries. KCLS extends reciprocal borrowing privileges to residents of many other library systems in Western and North Central Washington; the cities of Hunts Point and Yarrow Point do not have library service at all. Under a $172 million capital bond passed in 2004, the King County Library system is rebuilding and expanding most of its existing libraries, as well as building new libraries.
KCLS has annexed the city of Renton's public library system, the result of a vote by the city's residents in February 2010. This library system includes a 22,500-square-foot library branch built over the Cedar River. In 2011, KCLS won the Gale/Library Journal "Library of the Year" award. KCLS consists of 50 branches, Traveling Library Center, ABC Express Vans, mobile TechLab, a service center located in Issaquah that houses the library's administrative offices. A program to build 17 new libraries and renovate or expand 26 other libraries was completed in 2019 with the opening of the Panther Lake Library in Kent. Official website
Acer macrophyllum, the bigleaf maple or Oregon maple, is a large deciduous tree in the genus Acer. It can grow up to 157.80 feet tall, but more reaches 15–20 m tall. It is native to western North America near the Pacific coast, from southernmost Alaska to southern California; some stands are found inland in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains of central California, a tiny population occurs in central Idaho. It has the largest leaves of any maple 15–30 cm across, with five incised palmate lobes, with the largest running to 61 centimetres. In the fall, the leaves turn to gold and yellow to spectacular effect against the backdrop of evergreen conifers; the flowers are produced in spring in pendulous racemes 10–15 cm long, greenish-yellow with inconspicuous petals. The fruit is a paired winged samara, each seed 1–1.5 centimetres in diameter with a 4–5-centimetre wing. In the more humid parts of its range, as in the Olympic National Park, its bark is covered with epiphytic moss and fern species.
Bigleaf maple can form pure stands on moist soils in proximity to streams, but are found within riparian hardwood forests or dispersed open canopies of conifers, mixed evergreens, or oaks In cool and moist temperate mixed woods they are one of the dominant species. It is rare north of Vancouver Island though cultivated in Prince Rupert, near Ketchikan and in Juneau. Bigleaf maple has been used for creating syrup but it is not common; this is. Syrup production has become a localized industry in bigleaf maple groves where weather conditions are suitable, such as near sea-level in British Columbia and at higher elevations along the West Coast from Washington through Northern California. Bigleaf maple is the only commercially important maple of the Pacific Coast region; the wood is used for applications as diverse as furniture, piano frames and salad bowls. Figured wood is not uncommon and is used for veneer, stringed instruments, guitar bodies, gun stocks; the wood is used in veneer production for furniture, but is used in musical instrument production, interior paneling, other hardwood products.
Lakwungen First Nations people of Vancouver Island call it the paddle tree and used it to make paddles and spindle wheels. In California, land managers do not value bigleaf maple, it is intentionally knocked over and left un-harvested during harvest of Douglas fir and redwood stands. Maple syrup has been made from the sap of bigleaf maple trees. While the sugar concentration is about the same as in Acer saccharum, the flavor is somewhat different. Interest in commercially producing syrup from bigleaf maple sap has been limited. Although not traditionally used for syrup production, it takes about 40 volumes of sap to produce 1 volume of maple syrup, it is used as browse by black-tailed deer, mule deer, horses during the sapling stage. A western Oregon study found that 60 percent of bigleaf maple seedlings over 10 inches tall had been browsed by deer, most several times; the current national champion bigleaf maple is located in Oregon. It has a circumference of 38.6 feet —or an average diameter at breast height of about 12.3 feet —and is 119 feet tall with a crown spread of 91 feet.
The previous national champion is located in Marion and has a circumference of 25.4 feet —or an average diameter at breast height of about 8.1 feet —and is 88 feet tall with a crown spread of 104 feet. Media related to Acer macrophyllum at Wikimedia Commons Calflora photo of herbarium specimen at Missouri Botanical Garden, collected in Yolo County, California, in 1903
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
McMenamins is a family-owned chain of brewpubs, music venues, historic hotels, theater pubs in the Pacific Northwest. Many of their locations are in rehabilitated historical properties. According to the Brewers Association, McMenamins is one of the top 50 largest craft breweries in the United States. McMenamins was founded by brothers Mike and Brian McMenamin, who grew up in northeast Portland, Oregon, they trace the beginning of McMenamins to the 1974 opening of Produce Row Café. In 1985, McMenamins opened Oregon’s first brewpub in the Southwest Portland neighborhood of Hillsdale, their first theater pub, the first in Oregon, was the Mission Theater & Pub. The company entered the broader hospitality business starting in 1990, when they converted a 74-acre site into McMenamins Edgefield. By 1997, food accounted for over half of McMenamins' total sales; the company opened its 55th location in April 2018. Crystal Hotel in Portland Edgefield in Troutdale Gearhart Hotel in Gearhart Grand Lodge in Forest Grove Hotel Oregon in McMinnville Kennedy School in Portland Old St. Francis School in Bend White Eagle Saloon & Hotel in Portland Anderson School in Bothell Olympic Club in Centralia Elks Lodge in Tacoma Kalama Harbor Lodge in Kalama 23rd Avenue Bottle Shop in Portland Backstage Pub in Portland Bagdad Theater & Pub in Portland Barley Mill Pub in Portland Blue Moon Tavern & Grill in Portland Boon's Treasury in Salem Broadway Pub in Portland Cedar Hills in Beaverton Chapel Pub in Portland Cornelius Pass Roadhouse in Hillsboro East 19th Street Cafe in Eugene Fulton Pub & Brewery in Portland Greater Trumps in Portland Greenway Pub in Tigard High Street Brewery & Cafe in Eugene Highland Pub & Brewery in Gresham Hillsdale Brewery & Public House in Portland John Barleycorns in Tigard Lighthouse Brewpub in Lincoln City Mall 205 in Portland Market Street Pub in Portland McMenamins Corvallis in Corvallis Mission Theater in Portland Monroe in Corvallis Murray & Allen in Beaverton North Bank in Eugene Oak Hills Brewpub in Portland Oregon City in Oregon City Raleigh Hills Pub in Portland Ram's Head Inn in Portland Roseburg Station Pub & Brewery in Roseburg Sherwood in Sherwood St. Johns Theater and Pub in Portland Sunnyside in Clackamas Tavern & Pool in Portland Thompson Brewery & Public House in Salem West Linn in West Linn Wilsonville Old Church & Pub in Wilsonville East Vancouver in Vancouver McMenamins on the Columbia in Vancouver Mill Creek in Mill Creek Queen Anne in Seattle Six Arms in Seattle Spar Cafe in Olympia Official website
Tsuga heterophylla, the western hemlock or western hemlock-spruce, is a species of hemlock native to the west coast of North America, with its northwestern limit on the Kenai Peninsula and its southeastern limit in northern Sonoma County, California. Tsuga heterophylla is an integral component of Pacific Northwest forests west of the Coast Ranges, where it is a climax species, it is an important timber tree throughout the region, along with many of its large coniferous associates. Western hemlock is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 165–230 ft tall, exceptionally 273.42 ft, with a trunk diameter of up to 9 ft. It is the largest species of hemlock, with the next largest reaching a maximum of 194 ft; the bark is brown and furrowed. The crown is a neat broad conic shape in young trees with a drooping lead shoot, becoming cylindric in older trees. At all ages, it is distinguished by the pendulous branchlet tips; the shoots are pale buff-brown white, with pale pubescence about 1 mm long.
The leaves are needle-like, 5–23 mm long and 1.5–2 mm broad flattened in cross-section, with a finely serrated margin and a bluntly acute apex. They are mid to dark green above, they are arranged spirally on the shoots but are twisted at the base to lie in two ranks on either side of the shoot. The cones are small, slender cylindrical, 14–30 mm long and 7–8 mm broad when closed, opening to 18–25 mm broad, they have 15 -- 25 flexible scales 7 -- 13 mm long. The immature cones are green; the seeds are brown, 2–3 mm long, with a slender, 7–9 mm long pale brown wing. Western hemlock is associated with temperate rain forests, most of its range is less than 100 km from the Pacific Ocean. There is however an inland population in the Columbia Mountains in southeast British Columbia, northern Idaho and western Montana, it grows at low altitudes, from sea level to 600 m, but up to 1,800 m in the interior part of its range in Idaho. It is a shade-tolerant tree. Young plants grow up under the canopy of other conifers such as Sitka spruce or Douglas-fir, where they can persist for decades waiting to exploit a gap in the canopy.
They replace these conifers, which are shade-intolerant, in climax forest. However and wildfires will create larger openings in the forest where these other species can regenerate. Initial growth is slow. Once established, saplings in full light may have an average growth rate of 50–120 cm annually until they are 20–30 m tall, in good conditions still 30–40 cm annually when 40–50 m tall; the tallest specimen, 82.83 m tall, is in California. It is long-lived, with trees over 1200 years old known. Western hemlock forms ectomycorrhizal associations with some well-known edible fungi such as chanterelles, it is capable of associating with wood-decay fungi in addition to soil fungi. Western hemlock is the state tree of Washington. Western hemlock is cultivated as an ornamental tree in gardens in its native habitats and along the U. S. Pacific Coast, where its best reliability is seen in wetter regions. In dry areas, as at Victoria, British Columbia, it is exacting about soil conditions, it needs a high level of organic matter, in a acidic soil.
It is cultivated in temperate regions worldwide. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit; when planted well upon the banks along a river, western hemlock can help to reduce erosion. Outside of its native range, western hemlock is of importance in forestry, for timber and paper production, it is used for making doors and furniture, it can be an ornamental tree in large gardens, in northwest Europe and southern New Zealand. It has naturalised in some parts of Great Britain and New Zealand, not so extensively as to be considered an invasive species, but an introduced species tree; the edible cambium can be collected by scraping slabs of removed bark. The resulting shavings can be eaten or can be dried and pressed into cakes for preservation; the bark serves as a source of tannin for tanning. Tender new growth needles can be chewed directly or made into a bitter tea, rich in vitamin C. Western hemlock boughs are used to collect herring eggs during the spring spawn in southeast Alaska.
The boughs provide an collectible surface for the eggs to attach to as well as providing a distinctive taste. This practice originates from traditional gathering methods used by Native Alaskans from southeast Alaska the Tlingit people
Land-use planning is the process of regulating the use of land in an effort to promote more desirable social and environmental outcomes as well as a more efficient use of resources. Goals of land-use planning may include environmental conservation, restraint of urban sprawl, minimization of transport costs, prevention of land-use conflicts, a reduction in exposure to pollutants. By and large, the uses of land determine the diverse socioeconomic activities that occur in a specific area, the patterns of human behavior they produce, their impact on the environment. In urban planning, land-use planning seeks to order and regulate land use in an efficient and ethical way, thus preventing land-use conflicts. Governments use land-use planning to manage the development of land within their jurisdictions. In doing so, the governmental unit can plan for the needs of the community while safeguarding natural resources. To this end, it is the systematic assessment of land and water potential, alternatives for land use, economic and social conditions in order to select and adopt the best land-use options.
One element of a comprehensive plan, a land-use plan provides a vision for the future possibilities of development in neighborhoods, cities, or any defined planning area. In the United States, the terms land-use planning, regional planning, urban planning, urban design are used interchangeably, will depend on the state, and/or project in question. Despite confusing nomenclature, the essential function of land-use planning remains the same whatever term is applied; the Canadian Institute of Planners offers a definition that land-use planning means the scientific and orderly disposition of land, resources and services with a view to securing the physical and social efficiency and well-being of urban and rural communities. The American Planning Association states that the goal of land-use planning is to further the welfare of people and their communities by creating convenient, healthful and attractive environments for present and future generations. Land-use planning leads to land-use regulation, which encompasses zoning.
Zoning regulates the types of activities that can be accommodated on a given piece of land, as well as the amount of space devoted to those activities, the ways that buildings may be situated and shaped. The ambiguous nature of the term “planning”, as it relates to land use, is tied to the practice of zoning. Zoning in the US came about in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to protect the interests of property owners; the practice was found to be constitutionally sound by the Supreme Court decision of Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co. in 1926. Soon after, the Standard State Zoning Enabling Act gave authority to the states to regulate land use. So, the practice remains controversial today; the “taking clause” of the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the government from taking private property for public use without just compensation. The case of Dolan v. City of Tigard demonstrated the criteria that determine the threshold of what is considered taking. One interpretation of the taking clause is that any restriction on the development potential of land through zoning regulation is a “taking”.
A deep-rooted anti-zoning sentiment exists in America, that no one has the right to tell another what he can or cannot do with his land. Although people are averse to being told how to develop their own land, they tend to expect the government to intervene when a proposed land use is undesirable. Conventional zoning has not regarded the manner in which buildings relate to one another or the public spaces around them, but rather has provided a pragmatic system for mapping jurisdictions according to permitted land use; this system, combined with the interstate highway system, widespread availability of mortgage loans, growth in the automobile industry, the over-all post-World War II economic expansion, destroyed most of the character that gave distinctiveness to American cities. The urban sprawl that most US cities began to experience in the mid-twentieth century was, in part, created by a flat approach to land-use regulations. Zoning without planning created unnecessarily exclusive zones. Thoughtless mapping of these zones over large areas was a big part of the recipe for suburban sprawl.
It was from the deficiencies of this practice that land-use planning developed, to envision the changes that development would cause and mitigate the negative effects of such change. As America grew and sprawl was rampant, the much-loved America of the older towns, cities, or streetcar suburbs became illegal through zoning. Unparalleled growth and unregulated development changed the look and feel of landscapes and communities, they strained commercial corridors and affected housing prices, causing citizens to fear a decline in the social and environmental attributes that defined their quality of life. Zoning regulations became politically contentious as developers and citizens struggled over altering zoning maps in a way, acceptable to all parties. Land use planning practices evolved as an attempt to overcome these challenges, it engages citizens and policy-makers to plan for development with more intention and community focus than had been used. Land use planning is defined as: the process by which optimum forms of land use and management are indicated, considering the biophysical, social and political conditions of a particular territory.
The objective of planning land use is to influence, control or direct changes in the use of land, so that it is dedicated to the most beneficial use, while maintaining t
A refectory is a dining room in monasteries, boarding schools, academic institutions. One of the places the term is most used today is in graduate seminaries, it derives from the Latin reficere "to remake or restore," via Late Latin refectorium, which means "a place one goes to be restored". Communal meals are the times. Diet and eating habits differ somewhat by monastic order, more by schedule; the Benedictine rule is illustrative. The Rule of St Benedict orders two meals. Dinner is provided year-round; the diet consisted of simple fare: two dishes, with fruit as a third course if available. The food was simple, with the meat of mammals forbidden to all but the sick. Moderation in all aspects of diet is the spirit of Benedict's law. Meals are eaten in silence, facilitated sometimes by hand signals. A single monk might read aloud from the writings of the saints during the meals. Refectories vary in size and dimension, based on wealth and size of the monastery, as well as when the room was built, they share certain design features.
Monks eat at long benches. A lavabo, or large basin for hand-washing stands outside the refectory. Tradition fixes other factors. In England, the refectory is built on an undercroft on the side of the cloister opposite the church. Benedictine models are traditionally laid out on an east–west axis, while Cistercian models lie north–south. Norman refectories could be as large as 160 feet long by 35 feet wide. Early refectories might have windows, but these became larger and more elaborate in the high medieval period; the refectory at Cluny Abbey was lit through thirty-six large glazed windows. The twelfth-century abbey at Mont Saint-Michel had six windows, five feet wide by twenty feet high. In Eastern Orthodox monasteries, the trapeza is considered a sacred place, in some cases is constructed as a full church with an altar and iconostasis; some services are intended to be performed in the trapeza. There is always at least one icon with a lampada kept burning in front of it; the service of the Lifting of the Panagia is performed at the end of meals.
During Bright Week, this service is replaced with the Lifting of the Artos. In some monasteries, the Ceremony of Forgiveness at the beginning of Great Lent is performed in the trapeza. All food served in the trapeza should be blessed, for that purpose, holy water is kept in the kitchen; as well as continued use of the historic monastic meaning, the word refectory is used in a modern context to refer to a café or cafeteria, open to the public—including non-worshipers such as tourists—attached to a cathedral or abbey. This usage is prevalent in Church of England buildings, which use the takings to supplement their income. Many universities in the UK call their student cafeteria or dining facilities the refectory; the term is rare at American colleges, although Brown University calls its main dining hall the Sharpe Refectory and the main dining hall at Rhodes College is known as the Catherine Burrow Refectory. Refectory table Adams, Mont Saint-Michel and Chartres. New York: Penguin, 1986. Fernie, E. C.
The Architecture of Norman England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Harvey, Barbara. Living and Dying in England, 1100-1450. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Singman, Jeffrey. Daily Life in Medieval Europe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999. Webb, Geoffrey. Architecture in Britain: the Middle Ages. Baltimore: Penguin, 1956. Refectory in Russian Orthodox Convent, Jerusalem