In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Benedict of Nursia
Benedict of Nursia, a Christian saint, is venerated in the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion and Old Catholic Churches. He is a patron saint of Europe. Benedict founded twelve communities for monks at Subiaco, Italy, before moving to Monte Cassino in the mountains of southern Italy; the Order of Saint Benedict is of origin and, not an "order" as understood but a confederation of autonomous congregations. Benedict's main achievement, his "Rule of Saint Benedict", contains a set of rules for his monks to follow. Influenced by the writings of John Cassian, it shows strong affinity with the Rule of the Master, but it has a unique spirit of balance and reasonableness, this persuaded most Christian religious communities founded throughout the Middle Ages to adopt it. As a result, his Rule became one of the most influential religious rules in Western Christendom. For this reason, Benedict is called the founder of Western Christian monasticism.
Apart from a short poem attributed to Mark of Monte Cassino, the only ancient account of Benedict is found in the second volume of Pope Gregory I's four-book Dialogues, thought to have been written in 593, although the authenticity of this work has been disputed. Gregory's account of this saint's life is not, however, a biography in the modern sense of the word, it provides instead a spiritual portrait of the gentle, disciplined abbot. In a letter to Bishop Maximilian of Syracuse, Gregory states his intention for his Dialogues, saying they are a kind of floretum of the most striking miracles of Italian holy men. Gregory did not set out to write a chronological anchored story of Saint Benedict, but he did base his anecdotes on direct testimony. To establish his authority, Gregory explains that his information came from what he considered the best sources: a handful of Benedict's disciples who lived with the saint and witnessed his various miracles; these followers, are Constantinus, who succeeded Benedict as Abbot of Monte Cassino.
In Gregory's day, history was not recognised as an independent field of study. Gregory's Dialogues Book Two an authentic medieval hagiography cast as a conversation between the Pope and his deacon Peter, is designed to teach spiritual lessons, he was the son of a Roman noble of the modern Norcia, in Umbria. A tradition which Bede accepts makes him a twin with his sister Scholastica. If 480 is accepted as the year of his birth, the year of his abandonment of his studies and leaving home would be about 500. Saint Gregory's narrative makes it impossible to suppose him younger than 20 at the time, he was old enough to be in the midst of his literary studies, to understand the real meaning and worth of the dissolute and licentious lives of his companions, to have been affected by the love of a woman. He was at the beginning of life, he had at his disposal the means to a career as a Roman noble. Benedict was disappointed by the life he found there, he does not seem to have left Rome for the purpose of becoming a hermit, but only to find some place away from the life of the great city.
He took his old nurse with him as a servant and they settled down to live in Enfide. Enfide, which the tradition of Subiaco identifies with the modern Affile, is in the Simbruini mountains, about forty miles from Rome and two from Subiaco. A short distance from Enfide is the entrance to a narrow, gloomy valley, penetrating the mountains and leading directly to Subiaco; the path continues to ascend, the side of the ravine, on which it runs, becomes steeper, until a cave is reached above which the mountain now rises perpendicularly. The cave is about ten feet deep. On his way from Enfide, Benedict met a monk, Romanus of Subiaco, whose monastery was on the mountain above the cliff overhanging the cave. Romanus had discussed with Benedict the purpose which had brought him to Subiaco, had given him the monk's habit. By his advice Benedict became a hermit and for three years, unknown to men, lived in this cave above the lake. Gregory tells us little of these years, he now speaks of Benedict no longer as a man of God.
Romanus, served the saint in every way he could. The monk visited him and on fixed days brought him food. During these three years of solitude, broken only by occasional communications with the outer world and by the visits of Romanus, Benedict matured both in mind and character, in knowledge of himself and of his fellow-man, at the same time he became not known to, but secured the respect of, those about him. Benedict was acquainted with the life and discipline of the monastery, knew that "their manners were diverse from his and therefore that they would never agree together: yet, at length, overcome with their entreaty, he gav
The Uta Codex Quattuor Evangelia is a "gospel lectionary" or evangeliary. It contains those portions of the gospels. "Unlike most Gospel lectionaries, the individual readings in the Uta Codex are not arranged in calendrical order, but are instead grouped together after their respective Gospel authors." It was commissioned around 1025 by Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany. It is a spectacular Ottonian manuscript, is famous for its gem-encrusted gold case, with a relief of Christ in Majesty, as well as for the eight full-page miniatures. German art historian George Swarzenski described the Uta Codex as "the wonderful gospel book, the most significant work of Western illumination of its time." The manuscript consists 382 × 274 mm. Four full-page frontispieces illustrate 1) the Hand of God, 2) Abbess Uta dedicating the codex to the Virgin and Child, 3) the Crucifixion, 4) Saint Erhard, patron saint of the convent, celebrating Mass. A portrait of each the four Evangelists accompanies the readings from their Gospel.
Ottonian art Niedermünster, Regensburg Cohen, Adam S. The Uta Codex: Art and Reform in Eleventh-Century Germany, Penn State Press, 2000. Swarzenski, Georg. Die Regensburger buchmalerei des X. und XI. jahrhunderts, Verlag von Karl W. Hiersemann, 1901. Uta Codex at Munich Digital Library The Hand of God.
Regalia is Latin plurale tantum for the privileges and the insignia characteristic of a sovereign. The word stems from the Latin substantivation of the adjective regalis, "regal", itself from rex, "king", it is sometimes used in regale. The term can refer to rights and privileges enjoyed by any sovereign regardless of title An example is the right to mint coins with one's own effigy. In many cases in feudal societies and weak states, such rights have in time been eroded by grants to or usurpations by lesser vassals; some emblems, symbols, or paraphernalia possessed by rulers are a visual representation of imperial, royal or sovereign status. Some are shared with divinities, either to symbolize a god's role as, king of the Pantheon or to allow mortal royalty to resemble, identify with, or link to a divinity; the term crown jewels is used for regalia items designed to lend luster to occasions such as coronations. They feature some combination of precious materials, artistic merit, symbolic or historical value.
Crown jewels may have been designated at the start of a dynasty, accumulated through many years of tradition, or sent as tangible recognition of legitimacy by some leader such as the pope to an emperor or caliph. Each culture each monarchy and dynasty within one culture, may have its own historical traditions, some have a specific name for its regalia, or at least for an important subset, such as: The Honours of Scotland The Nigerian Royal Regalia The Three Sacred Treasures of the Emperor of Japan The Imperial Regalia of the emperors and kings of the Holy Roman EmpireBut some elements occur in many traditions. Crowns and variations Cap of Maintenance Armills—bracelets coronation mantle Gloves Barmi or barmas, a detachable silk collar with medallions of precious material sewn to it, as used in Moscovy Rings, symbolizing the monarch's "marriage" to the state. Seals, such as the Heirloom Seal of the Realm, represented imperial authority under the Mandate of Heaven in China. Regalia can stand for other attributes or virtues, i.e. what is expected from the holder.
Thus the Imperial Regalia of Japan known as the Three Sacred Treasures of Japan as follows: The sword, Kusanagi represents valor The jewel or necklace of jewels, Yasakani no magatama, represents benevolence The mirror, Yata no kagami, located in the Ise Shrine in Mie Prefecture, represents wisdomSince 690, the presentation of these items to the emperor by the priests at the shrine are a central part of the imperial enthronement ceremony. As this ceremony is not public, the regalia are by tradition only seen by the emperor and certain priests, no known photographs or drawings exist; some regalia objects are used in the formal ceremony of enthronement/coronation. They can be associated with an office or court sinecure that enjoys the privilege to carry, present and/or use it at the august occasion, sometimes on other formal occasions, such as a royal funeral; such objects, with or without intrinsic symbolism, can include Anointing utensils: Sacred ampulla containing the ointment. Spoon for the same ointment.
Alternatively, the monarchies of Norway and Sweden have an anointment horn. A Bible used for swearing in the monarch as the new sovereign. Cage with a bird for wren hunting in Celtic ceremonies. Coronation stone e.g. Stone of Scone or Lia Fáil. Apart from the sovereign himself, attributes can be used for close relatives who are allowed to share in the pomp. For example, in Norway the queen consort and the crown prince are the only other members of the royal family to possess these attributes and share in the sovereign's royal symbolism. In the Roman Empire the colour Tyrian purple, produced with an expensive Mediterranean mollusk extract, was in principle reserved for the Imperial Court; the use of this dye was extended to various dignitaries, such as members of the Roman senate who wore stripes of Tyrian purple on their white togas, for whom the term purpuratus was coined as a high aulic distinction. In late Imperial China, the colour yellow was reserved for the emperor, as it had a multitude of meanings.
Yellow was a symbol of gold, thus wealth and power, since it was the colour that symbolized the center in Chinese cosmology, it was the perfect way to refer to the emperor, always in the middle of the universe. Peasants and noblemen alike were forbidden to wear robes made out of yellow, although they were allowed to use the colour sparingly. Umbrella / canopy Fan Standard Mace Music, such as A fanfare or other specific piece of music Reserved instruments, such as silver trumpets, or in India the Nakkara drum The ceremonial Nobat orchestra is a formal requirement for a valid Malaysian coronation. Academic dress is a traditional form of clothing for academic settings tertiary (and sometimes second
Gorze Abbey was a Benedictine monastery in Gorze in the present arrondissement of Metz, near Metz in Lorraine. It was prominent as the source of a monastic reform movement in the 930s. Gorze Abbey was founded in 749 by Bishop Chrodegang of Metz, who obtained for it from Rome the relics of Saint Gorgonius; the new community at first followed his Rule, but decline set in. The placed Frankish lord Bivin of Gorze, married to a daughter of Boso the Elder, functioned as lay abbot of Gorze. In 933 the premises, by semi-derelict, were given by Adalbero, Bishop of Metz, to John of Gorze and Einald of Toul so that they could restore observance of the Rule of St. Benedict, they did so successfully and the customary of Gorze soon spread to many other monasteries, at first local, such as St. Maximin's Abbey, St. Evre's Abbey, in more distant places, such as Bavaria, through the mediation of Wolfgang of Regensburg; the Gorze Reform was similar to the Cluniac Reform in that it aimed at a re-establishment of the Rule of St. Benedict, but quite different in several major areas.
In particular, whereas Cluny created a centralised system of authority in which the religious houses adopting its reforms became subordinate to Cluny itself, the Gorze reforms preserved the independence of the participating monasteries, resulted instead in a network of loosely connected affiliations based on several centres, such as Fulda, Einsiedeln and St. Emmeram's Abbey in Regensburg. Gorze was the home of the "chant messin", an early form of Gregorian chant or plainsong, as a part of the liturgy, of sacred drama in connection with the Easter rituals. From the 12th century Gorze ceased to occupy the central spiritual position previously. In material terms it continued to prosper, in the 12th and 13th centuries undertook substantial building works, including the lay church, which alone of the abbey buildings still survives, as the present parish church of Saint Stephen; the extensive territory which the abbey accumulated became known as the "Terre de Gorze". The abbey was dissolved in 1572 as a consequence of the Reformation.
An attempt at a re-foundation in 1580 came to nothing, the buildings, apart from St. Stephen's church, were demolished; the "Terre de Gorze" continued however as a territorial unit, with an abbot as its overlord in the absence of a monastic community. In the 1660s these lands passed from the Holy Roman Empire to France. In the 1690s, the Prince-Abbot Eberhard von Löwenstein built an appropriately splendid residence, which still stands. At the time of the French Revolution the building was confiscated and sold off and was used for a variety of military and local government purposes as a workhouse for the poor; the palace has now been restored and is in use as a museum, old people's home and for several other purposes. The gardens and chapel are all of architectural and artistic interest; the abbey is the property of the commune. It has been listed since 1886 as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture. List of Carolingian monasteries Carolingian architecture Carolingian art Lawrence, C.
H. 2001. Medieval Monasticism. Longman Abbot's Palace, Gorze Ministry of Culture listing for Gorze Abbey Tholey Historical Society: Article about Gorze Abbey
Wolfgang of Regensburg
Saint Wolfgang of Regensburg was bishop of Regensburg in Bavaria from Christmas 972 until his death. He is a saint of the Roman Eastern Orthodox churches, he is regarded as one of the three great German saints of the 10th century, the other two being Saint Ulrich and Saint Conrad of Constance. Wolfgang was descended from the family of the Swabian Counts of Pfullingen; when seven years old, he had an ecclesiastic as tutor at home. Here he formed a strong friendship with Henry of Babenberg, brother of Bishop Poppo of Würzburg, whom he followed to Würzburg in order to attend the lectures of the noted Italian grammarian, Stephen of Novara, at the cathedral school. After Henry was made Archbishop of Trier in 956, he summoned Wolfgang, who became a teacher in the cathedral school of Trier, laboured for the reform of the archdiocese, despite the hostility with which his efforts were met. Wolfgang's residence at Trier influenced his monastic and ascetic tendencies, as here he came into contact with the great reform monastery of the 10th century, St. Maximin's Abbey, where he made the acquaintance of Saint Romuald, the teacher of Saint Adalbert of Prague.
After the death of Archbishop Henry of Trier in 964, Wolfgang entered the Benedictine order in the Abbey of Maria Einsiedeln and was ordained priest by Saint Ulrich in 968. After their defeat in the Battle of the Lechfeld, the heathen Hungarians settled in ancient Pannonia; as long as they were not converted to Christianity they remained a constant menace to the empire. At the request of Ulrich, who saw the danger, at the desire of the Emperor Otto the Great, according to the abbey annals, was "sent to the Hungarians" as the most suitable man to evangelize them, he was followed by other missionaries sent by Piligrim, Bishop of Passau, under whose jurisdiction the new missionary region came. After the death of Bishop Michael of Regensburg Bishop Piligrim obtained from the emperor the appointment of Wolfgang as the new bishop. Wolfgang's services in this new position were of the highest importance, not only for the diocese, but for the cause of civilization; as Bishop of Regensburg, Wolfgang became the tutor of Emperor Saint Henry II, who learned from him the principles which governed his saintly and energetic life.
Poppe, son of Margrave Luitpold, Archbishop of Trier, Tagino, Archbishop of Magdeburg had him as their teacher. Wolfgang deserves credit for his disciplinary labours in his diocese, his main work in this respect was connected with the ancient and celebrated St. Emmeram's Abbey, which he reformed by granting it once more abbots of its own, thus withdrawing it from the control of the bishops of Regensburg, who for many years had been abbots in commendam, a condition of affairs, far from beneficial to the abbey and monastic life. In the Benedictine monk Romuald, whom Saint Wolfgang called from Saint Maximin at Trier, Saint Emmeram received a capable abbot; the saint reformed the convents of Obermünster and Niedermünster at Regensburg, chiefly by giving them as an example the convent of St. Paul, Mittelmünster, at Regensburg, which he had founded in 983, he co-operated in the reform of the ancient and celebrated Benedictine Abbey of Niederaltaich, founded by the Agilolfinger dynasty, which from that time took on new life.
He showed genuine episcopal generosity in the liberal manner with which he met the views of the Emperor Otto II regarding the intended reduction in size of his diocese for the benefit of the new Diocese of Prague, to which Saint Adalbert was appointed first bishop. As prince of the empire he performed his duties towards the emperor and the empire with the utmost scrupulousness and, like Saint Ulrich, was one of the mainstays of the Ottonian policies, he took part in the various imperial diets, and, in the autumn of 978, accompanied the Emperor Otto II on his campaign to Paris, took part in the Diet of Verona in June 983. He was succeeded by Gebhard I. Towards the end of his life Saint Wolfgang withdrew as a hermit to a solitary spot, now the Wolfgangsee in the Salzkammergut region of Upper Austria on account of a political dispute, but in the course of a journey of inspection to Mondsee Abbey, under the direction of the bishops of Regensburg, he was brought back to Regensburg. While travelling on the Danube to Pöchlarn in Lower Austria, he fell ill at the village of Pupping, between Eferding and the market town of Aschach near Linz, at his request was carried into the chapel of Saint Othmar at Pupping, where he died.
His body was taken up the Danube by his friends Count Aribo of Andechs and Archbishop Hartwich of Salzburg to Regensburg, was solemnly buried in the crypt of Saint Emmeram. Many miracles were performed at his grave. Soon after Wolfgang's death many churches chose him as their patron saint, various towns were named after him. In Christian art he has been honoured by the great medieval Tyrolean painter, Michael Pacher, who created an imperishable memorial to him, the high altar of St. Wolfgang. In the panel pictures which are now exhibited in the Old Pinakothek at Munich are depicted in an artistic manner the chief events in the saint's life; the oldest portrait of Saint Wolfgang is a miniature, painted about the year 1100 in the celebrated Evangeliary of Saint Emmeram, now in the library of the castle cathedral at Kraków. A fine modern picture by Schwind is in the Schack Gallery at Munich. Thi
German mediatisation was the major territorial restructuring that took place between 1802 and 1814 in Germany and the surrounding region by means of the mass mediatisation and secularisation of a large number of Imperial Estates. Most ecclesiastical principalities, free imperial cities, secular principalities, other minor self-ruling entities of the Holy Roman Empire lost their independent status and were absorbed into the remaining states. By the end of the mediatisation process, the number of German states had been reduced from 300 to just 39. In the strict sense of the word, mediatisation consists in the subsumption of an immediate state into another state, thus becoming mediate, while leaving the dispossessed ruler with his private estates and a number of privileges and feudal rights, such as low justice. For convenience, historians use the term mediatisation for the entire restructuring process that took place at the time, whether the mediatized states survived in some form or lost all individuality.
The secularization of ecclesiastical states took place concurrently with the mediatisation of free imperial cities and other secular states. The mass mediatisation and secularisation of German states that took place at the time was not initiated by Germans, it came under diplomatic pressure from revolutionary France and Napoleon. It constituted the most extensive redistribution of property and territories in German history prior to 1945; the two highpoints of the process were the secularization/annexation of ecclesiastical territories and free imperial cities in 1802–03, the mediatisation of secular principalities and counties in 1806. Although most of its neighbors coalesced into centralized states before the 19th century, Germany did not follow that path. Instead, the Holy Roman Empire maintained its medieval political structure as a "polyglot congeries of hundreds of nearly sovereign states and territories ranging in size from considerable to minuscule". From a high of nearly 400 – 136 ecclesiastical and 173 secular lords plus 85 free imperial cities – on the eve of the Reformation, this number had only reduced to a little less than 300 by the late-18th century.
The traditional explanation for this fragmentation has focused on the gradual usurpation by the princes of the powers of the Holy Roman Emperor during the Staufen period, to the point that by the Peace of Westphalia, the Emperor had become a mere primus inter pares. In recent decades, many historians have maintained that the fragmentation of Germany – which started out as a large polity while its neighbors started small – can be traced back to the geographical extent of the Empire – the German part of the Empire being about twice the size of the realm controlled by the king of France in the second half of the 11th century – and to the vigor of local aristocratic and ecclesiastical rule from early on in the medieval era. In the 12th century, the secular and spiritual princes did not regard themselves as the Emperor's subordinates, still less his subjects, but as rulers in their own right - and they jealously defended their established sphere of predominance. At the time of Emperor Frederick II's death in 1250, it had been decided that the regnum teutonicum was "an aristocracy with a monarchical head".
Among those states and territories, the ecclesiastical principalities were unique to Germany. The Ottonian and early Salian Emperors, who appointed the bishops and abbots, used them as agents of the imperial crown - as they considered them more dependable than the dukes they appointed and who attempted to establish independent hereditary principalities; the emperors expanded the power of the Church, of the bishops, with land grants and numerous privileges of immunity and protection as well as extensive judicial rights, which coalesced into a distinctive temporal principality: the Hochstift. The German bishop became a "prince of the Empire" and direct vassal of the Emperor for his Hochstift, while continuing to exercise only pastoral authority over his larger diocese; the personal appointment of bishops by the Emperors had sparked the investiture controversy in the 11th century, in its aftermath the emperor‘s control over the bishops' selection and rule diminished considerably. The bishops, now elected by independent-minded cathedral chapters rather than chosen by the emperor or the pope, were confirmed as territorial lords equal to the secular princes.
Having to face with the territorial expansionism of the powerful secular princes, the position of the prince-bishops became more precarious with time. In the course of the Reformation, several of the bishoprics in the north and northeast were secularized to the benefit of Protestant princes. In the sixteenth century the Counter-Reformation attempted to reverse some of these secularizations, the question of the fates of secularized territories became an important one in the Thirty Years' War. In the end, the Peace of Westphalia confirmed the secularization of a score of prince-bishoprics, including the archbishoprics of Bremen and Magdeburg and six bishoprics with full political powers, which were assigned to Sweden and Mecklenburg. On the other hand and Paderborn – under Protestant administration for decades and given up for lost – were restored as prince-bishoprics. In addition, the Peace conclusively reaffirmed the imperial immediacy, therefore the de facto independence, of the prince-bishops and imperial abbots, free imperial cities, imperial counts, as well as the imperial knights.
According to one authority, the sixty-five ecclesiastical rulers cont