A crypt is a stone chamber beneath the floor of a church or other building. It contains coffins, sarcophagi, or religious relics. Crypts were found below the main apse of a church, such as at the Abbey of Saint-Germain en Auxerre, but were located beneath chancel and transepts as well. Churches were raised high to accommodate a crypt at the ground level, such as St Michael's Church in Hildesheim, Germany. "Crypt" developed as an alternative form of the Latin "vault" as it was carried over into Late Latin, came to refer to the ritual rooms found underneath church buildings. It served as a vault for storing important and/or sacred items. "Crypta", however, is the female form of crypto "hidden". The earliest known origin of both is in the Ancient Greek κρύπτω, the first person singular indicative of the verb "to conceal, to hide". First known in the early Christian period, in particular North Africa at Chlef and Djemila in Algeria, Byzantium at Saint John Studio in Constantinople. Where Christian churches have been built over mithraea, the mithraeum has been adapted to serve as a crypt.
The famous crypt at Old St. Peter's Basilica, developed about the year 600, as a means of affording pilgrims a view of Saint Peter's tomb, which lay, according to the Roman fashion, directly below the high altar; the tomb was made accessible through an underground passageway beneath the sanctuary, where pilgrims could enter at one stair, pass by the tomb and exit, without interrupting the clerical community's service at the altar directly above. Crypts were introduced into Frankish church building in the mid-8th century, as a feature of its Romanization, their popularity spread more in western Europe under Charlemagne. Examples from this period are most common in the early medieval West, for example in Burgundy at Dijon and Tournus. After the 10th century the early medieval requirements of a crypt faded, as church officials permitted relics to be held in the main level of the church. By the Gothic period crypts were built, however burial vaults continued to be constructed beneath churches and referred to as crypts.
In more modern terms, a crypt is most a stone chambered burial vault used to store the deceased. Crypts are found in cemeteries and under public religious buildings, such as churches or cathedrals, but are occasionally found beneath mausolea or chapels on personal estates. Wealthy or prestigious families will have a'family crypt' or'vault' in which all members of the family are interred. Many royal families, for example, have vast crypts containing the bodies of dozens of former royalty. In some localities an above ground crypt is more called a mausoleum, which refers to any elaborate building intended as a burial place, for one or any number of people. There was a trend in the 19th century of building crypts on medium to large size family estates subtly placed on the edge of the grounds or more incorporated into the cellar. After a change of owner these are blocked up and the house deeds will not allow this area to be re-developed. Catacomb Mausoleum Tumulus Ossuary Tomb Cemetery Media related to Crypt at Wikimedia Commons Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Crypt". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Vikings were Norse seafarers speaking the Old Norse language, who during the late 8th to late 11th centuries and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe, explored westwards to Iceland and Vinland. The term is commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to the inhabitants of Norse home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age; this period of Nordic military and demographic expansion constitutes an important element in the early medieval history of Scandinavia, the British Isles, Kievan Rus' and Sicily. Facilitated by advanced sailing and navigational skills, characterised by the longship, Viking activities at times extended into the Mediterranean littoral, North Africa, the Middle East. Following extended phases of exploration and settlement, Viking communities and governments were established in diverse areas of north-western Europe, Belarus and European Russia, the North Atlantic islands and as far as the north-eastern coast of North America.
This period of expansion witnessed the wider dissemination of Norse culture, while introducing strong foreign cultural influences into Scandinavia itself, with profound developmental implications in both directions. Popular, modern conceptions of the Vikings—the term applied casually to their modern descendants and the inhabitants of modern Scandinavia—often differ from the complex picture that emerges from archaeology and historical sources. A romanticised picture of Vikings as noble savages began to emerge in the 18th century. Perceived views of the Vikings as alternatively violent, piratical heathens or as intrepid adventurers owe much to conflicting varieties of the modern Viking myth that had taken shape by the early 20th century. Current popular representations of the Vikings are based on cultural clichés and stereotypes, complicating modern appreciation of the Viking legacy; these representations are not always accurate — for example, there is no evidence that they wore horned helmets.
One etymology derives víking from the feminine vík, meaning "creek, small bay". Various theories have been offered that the word viking may be derived from the name of the historical Norwegian district of Viken, meaning "a person from Viken". According to this theory, the word described persons from this area, it is only in the last few centuries that it has taken on the broader sense of early medieval Scandinavians in general. However, there are a few major problems with this theory. People from the Viken area were not called'Viking' in Old Norse manuscripts, but are referred to as víkverir,'Vík dwellers'. In addition, that explanation could explain only the masculine and ignore the feminine, a serious problem because the masculine is derived from the feminine but hardly vice versa; the form occurs as a personal name on some Swedish runestones. The stone of Tóki víking was raised in memory of a local man named Tóki who got the name Tóki víking because of his activities as a viking; the Gårdstånga Stone uses the phrase "ÞeR drængaR waRu wiða unesiR i wikingu", referring to the stone's dedicatees as vikings.
The Västra Strö 1 Runestone has an inscription in memory of a Björn, killed when "i viking". In Sweden there is a locality known since the middle ages as Vikingstad; the Bro Stone was risen in memory of Assur, said to have protected the land from vikings. There is little indication of any negative connotation in the term before the end of the Viking Age. Another etymology, one that gained support in the early twenty-first century, derives Viking from the same root as Old Norse vika, f.'sea mile', originally'the distance between two shifts of rowers', from the root *weik or *wîk, as in the Proto-Germanic verb *wîkan,'to recede'. This is found in the Proto-Nordic verb *wikan,'to turn', similar to Old Icelandic víkja'to move, to turn', with well-attested nautical usages. Linguistically, this theory is better attested, the term most predates the use of the sail by the Germanic peoples of North-Western Europe, because the Old Frisian spelling shows that the word was pronounced with a palatal k and thus in all probability existed in North-Western Germanic before that palatalisation happened, that is, in the 5th century or before.
In that case, the idea behind it seems to be that the tired rower moves aside for the rested rower on the thwart when he relieves him. The Old Norse feminine víking may have been a sea journey characterised by the shifting of rowers, i.e. a long-distance sea journey, because in the pre-sail era, the shifting of rowers would distinguish long-distance sea journeys. A víkingr would originally have been a participant on a sea journey characterised by the shifting of rowers. In that case, the word Viking was not connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas. In Old English, the word wicing appears first in the Anglo-Saxon poem, which dates from the 9th century. In Old English, in the history of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen written by Adam of Bremen in about 1070, the term referred to Scandi
Aachen known as Bad Aachen, in French and traditional English as Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen developed from a Roman settlement and spa, subsequently becoming the preferred medieval Imperial residence of Charlemagne, from 936 to 1531, the place where 31 Holy Roman Emperors were crowned Kings of the Germans. Aachen is the westernmost city in Germany, located near the borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, 61 km west south west of Cologne in a former coal-mining area. One of Germany's leading institutes of higher education in technology, the RWTH Aachen University is located in the city. Aachen's industries include science and information technology. In 2009, Aachen was ranked eighth among cities in Germany for innovation; the name Aachen is a modern descendant, like southern German Ach, German: Aach, meaning "river" or "stream", from Old High German ahha, meaning "water" or "stream", which directly translates Latin Aquae, referring to the springs.
The location has been inhabited by humans since the Neolithic era, about 5,000 years ago, attracted to its warm mineral springs. Latin Aquae figures in Aachen's Roman name Aquae granni, which meant "waters of Grannus", referring to the Celtic god of healing, worshipped at the springs; this word became Åxhe in Walloon and Aix in French, subsequently Aix-la-Chapelle after Charlemagne had his palatine chapel built there in the late 8th century and made the city his empire's capital. Aachen's name in French and German evolved in parallel; the city is known by a variety of different names in other languages: Aachen is at the western end of the Benrath line that divides High German to the south from the rest of the West Germanic speech area to the north. Aachen's local dialect belongs to the Ripuarian language. Flint quarries on the Lousberg, Königshügel, first used during Neolithic times, attest to the long occupation of the site of Aachen, as do recent finds under the modern city's Elisengarten pointing to a former settlement from the same period.
Bronze Age settlement is evidenced by the remains of barrows found, on the Klausberg. During the Iron Age, the area was settled by Celtic peoples who were drawn by the marshy Aachen basin's hot sulphur springs where they worshipped Grannus, god of light and healing; the 25-hectare Roman spa resort town of Aquae Granni was, according to legend, founded by Grenus, under Hadrian, around 124 AD. Instead, the fictitious founder refers to the Celtic god, it seems it was the Roman 6th Legion at the start of the 1st century AD that first channelled the hot springs into a spa at Büchel, adding at the end of the same century the Münstertherme spa, two water pipelines, a probable sanctuary dedicated to Grannus. A kind of forum, surrounded by colonnades, connected the two spa complexes. There was an extensive residential area, part of it inhabited by a flourishing Jewish community; the Romans built bathhouses near Burtscheid. A temple precinct called. Today, remains have been found of three bathhouses, including two fountains in the Elisenbrunnen and the Burtscheid bathhouse.
Roman civil administration in Aachen broke down between the end of the 4th and beginning of the 5th centuries. Rome withdrew its troops from the area. By 470, the town came to be ruled by the Ripuarian Franks and subordinated to their capital, Cologne. After Roman times, Pepin the Short had a castle residence built in the town, due to the proximity of the hot springs and for strategic reasons as it is located between the Rhineland and northern France. Einhard mentions that in 765–6 Pepin spent both Christmas and Easter at Aquis villa, which must have been sufficiently equipped to support the royal household for several months. In the year of his coronation as king of the Franks, 768, Charlemagne came to spend Christmas at Aachen for the first time, he remained there in a mansion which he may have extended, although there is no source attesting to any significant building activity at Aachen in his time, apart from the building of the Palatine Chapel and the Palace. Charlemagne spent most winters in Aachen between 792 and his death in 814.
Aachen became the political centre of his empire. After his death, the king was buried in the church. In 936, Otto I was crowned king of East Francia in the collegiate church built by Charlemagne. During the reign of Otto II, the nobles revolted and the West Franks, under Lothair, raided Aachen in the ensuing confusion. Aachen was attacked again by Odo of Champagne, who attacked the imperial palace while Conrad II was absent. Odo relinquished it and was killed soon afterwards; the palace and town of Aachen had fortifying walls built by order of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa between 1172 and 1176. Over the next 500 years, most kings of Germany destined to reign over the Holy Roman Empire were crowned in Aachen; the original audience hall built by Charlemagne was torn down and replaced by the current city hall in 1330. The last king to be crowned here was Ferdinand I in 1531. During the Middle Ages, Aachen remained a city o
Pope Leo IV
Pope Leo IV was pope from 10 April 847 to his death in 855. He is remembered for repairing Roman churches, damaged during Arab raids on Rome, for building the Leonine Wall around Vatican Hill. Pope Leo organized a league of Italian cities who fought the sea Battle of Ostia against the Saracens. A Roman by birth, Leo received his early education at Rome in the monastery of St. Martin, near St. Peter's, he attracted the notice of Pope Gregory IV. In April 847, Leo was unanimously chosen to succeed Sergius II; as the attack of the Saracens on Rome in 846 caused the people to fear for the safety of the city, he was consecrated on 10 April, 847 without waiting for the consent of the emperor. He began to repair the damage done to various churches of the city by the Saracens during the reign of his predecessor, he embellished the damaged Basilica di San Paolo fuori le Mura and St. Peter's; the latter's altar again received its gold covering, which weighed 206 lb. and was studded with precious gems. Following the restoration of St. Peter's, Leo appealed to the Christian kingdoms to confront the Arab raiders.
Leo took precautions against further raids. He put the walls of the city into a thorough state of repair rebuilding fifteen of the great towers, he was the first to enclose the Vatican hill by a wall. Leo ordered a new line of walls encompassing the suburb on the right bank of the Tiber to be built, including St. Peter's Basilica, undefended until this time; the district enclosed by the walls is still known as the Leonine City, corresponds to the rione of Borgo. To do this, he received money from the emperor, help from all the cities and agricultural colonies of the Duchy of Rome; the work took him four years to accomplish, the newly fortified portion was called the Leonine City, after him. In 849, when a Saracen fleet from Sardinia approached Portus, the Pope summoned the Repubbliche Marinare – Naples and Amalfi – to form a league; the command of the unified fleet was given to son of Duke Sergius I of Naples. Aided by a fierce storm, the Saracen fleet was destroyed off Ostia; the Battle of Ostia was one of the most famous in history of the Papacy of the Middle Ages and is celebrated in a famous fresco by Raphael and his pupils in his rooms of the Vatican Palace in the Vatican City.
A separate incident in Leo's life celebrated by Raphael's Incendio di Borgo, the fire in the pilgrims' district of Rome, according to legend, was stopped by Leo making the sign of the cross. Leo IV held three synods, the one in 850 distinguished by the presence of Holy Roman Emperor Louis II, but the other two of little importance. In 863, he travelled to Ravenna to settle a dispute with the archbishop; as the archbishop was a good terms with Emperor Lothair I, the pope had little success. The history of the papal struggle with Hincmar of Reims, which began during Leo's pontificate, belongs properly to that of Nicholas I. Leo IV died on 17 July 855 and succeeded by Benedict III. Leo IV was buried in his own monument in St. Peter's Basilica, however some years after his death, his remains were put into a tomb that contained the first four Pope Leos. In the 18th century, the relics of Leo the Great were separated from the other Leos and given their own chapel. Leo IV had the figure of a rooster placed on the Old St. Peter's Basilica or old Constantinian basilica which has served as a religious icon and reminder of Peter's denial of Christ since that time, with some churches still having the cockerel on the steeple today.
It is reputed that Pope Gregory I had said that the cock "was the most suitable emblem of Christianity", being "the emblem of St Peter". After Leo IV, Pope Nicholas I, made a deacon by Leo IV, decreed that the figure of the cock should be placed on every church. List of Catholic saints List of popes Papal Navy This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope St. Leo IV". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Cheetham, Keepers of the Keys, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1983. ISBN 0-684-17863-X Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Latina with analytical indexes Colonnade Statue in St Peter's Square
Ronse is a Belgian city and a municipality in the Flemish province of East Flanders. The municipality has only the city of Ronse proper; the hills around Ronse show clues of human activity in the Paleolithic period. In the Neolithic, the area was populated with settled cattle breeders. Assorted fragments of building structures attest of settlements in the area during Roman times. Ronse's urban center took shape in the 7th century, when Saint Amand – or one of his successors – built a church and monastery in honour of Saint Peter and Saint Paul. In the 9th century and its monastery were given to the Inde Monastery by Louis the Pious, it is around that time. During those troubled times, Viking raids forced the monks to flee the town more than once, the monastery was burnt by the Normans in 880; the relics were recovered in 940 and housed in a Romanesque-style crypt in 1083. The church of Saint Hermes, built on top of the crypt, was consecrated in 1129. A pilgrimage in honour of the Saint, who had by be known to cure mental illnesses, sustained the local economy.
There is still a French saying today which translates as "Saint Hermes cures the area's madmen but keeps the Ronse dwellers as they are". The Lord of Ronse, Gerard de Wautripont, in charge of the Inde Monastery at that time, gave the town all the privileges of a city in 1240. A few years the economy was flourishing and the Inde Monastery sold all its Ronse-based possessions; until the French Revolution, the Ronse seigneury – a barony as of 1549 – included an enclave, the Ronse Franchise, administered by the Chapter of Saint Hermes with complete juridical and fiscal independence and its own justice system. On March 26, 1478, French troops burned the city, it recovered, thanks to its booming economy based on the fabrication and preparation of linen. Around the middle of the 16th century, the city became an important Calvinist center in the Spanish Netherlands; the religious troubles of that century the terrible repression of the Duke of Alba, forced a large number of the city's weavers and fullers to find permanent refuge in Holland and Germany.
The fire of July 21, 1559 ruined the city. At the beginning of the 17th century, Ronse took advantage of the relative peaceful period under the archdukes Ferdinand and Isabella to get back on its feet, it is during that period that one of the most beautiful castles of the Southern Netherlands was built for Count Jean de Nassau-Siegen, baron of Ronse since 1629. The plague in 1635–1636 nearly emptied the city. Despite opposition by the King of Spain, Ronse was annexed to France from 1680 to 1700. During the following Austrian period, on March 31, 1719, a gigantic fire again turned most of the city to ashes. Thanks to the perseverance of its inhabitants, Ronse could again rank as a city, with its commerce and businesses still based on the textile industry; the Fleurus Victory, on June 26, 1794, allowed France to annex the country. Ronse faced the city soon found itself in financial difficulty. In 1796, the old city administration was disbanded and a municipality was created. French legislation was applied from this point on, until Belgium merged with the Netherlands in 1815.
In 1798, the so-called "farmers' war", a reaction to the military conscription imposed by France, cost many lives. In 1799, Ronse counted about 10,000 inhabitants but a third of the population lived in poverty. In 1840, within the newly created Kingdom of Belgium, more than 55% of the city's inhabitants derived a living from the textile industry. A few years however, increased mechanisation gave rise to a deep economic crisis. Many left Ronse to join the textile plants in Northern France or to take on agricultural work in the Somme or the Oise... From the 1870s, Ronse's textile industry prospered despite a temporary slow down during World War I; the decline of this industry started after World War II but was acute during the 1960s. Today, Ronse is a commercial center and a touristic destination; the church of Saint Hermes, famous for its 13th-century Romanesque crypt. A folklore museum and a textile museum; the city's one of the oldest in Europe. An Art Nouveau house built by Victor Horta: the Villa Carpentier.
The surrounding hills, several of which offer good views of the city The "Bommels" fest, which takes place in January on the Saturday preceding the first Monday after Epiphany, is the first carnival of the year in Belgium. Its roots can be traced to the Middle Ages; the "Fiertel" dating from the Middle Ages, takes place on Trinity Sunday. On that occasion, the reliquary of Saint Hermes is carried around the city in a 32-km long procession, with thousands of walkers and cyclists cheering in; the GP Mario De Clercq is a BPost Bank Trophy cyclo-cross competition in October. Cipriano de Rore, Flemish composer and teacher Alphonse Francois Renard and petrographer Ovide Decroly and psychologist Princess Isabelle of Liechtenstein Rudy Demotte, socialist politician Roland Cardon and teacher Nicolas Provost, film maker Ann De Renais, Soprano Astrid Stockman, Soprano Stéphanie de Lannoy, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Luxembourg. Associated Weavers, a textile manufacturing company. Germany: Kleve United Kingdom: Sandwich, Kent France: Saint-Valery-sur-Somme Czech Republic: Jablonec nad Nisou Tunisia: Masakin Sanderus A. Flandria Illustr
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with 200–260 million members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods, although half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia; the church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Near East. Eastern Orthodox theology is based on the Nicene Creed; the church teaches that it is the One, Holy and Apostolic church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles. It maintains, its patriarchates, reminiscent of the pentarchy, autocephalous and autonomous churches reflect a variety of hierarchical organisation.
Of its innumerable sacred mysteries, it recognises seven major sacraments, of which the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in synaxis. The church teaches that through consecration invoked by a priest, the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ; the Virgin Mary is venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the God-bearer, honoured in devotions. The Eastern Orthodox Church shared communion with the Roman Catholic Church until the East–West Schism in 1054, triggered by disputes over doctrine the authority of the Pope. Before the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Oriental Orthodox churches shared in this communion, separating over differences in Christology; the majority of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Southeast and Eastern Europe, Cyprus and other communities in the Caucasus region, communities in Siberia reaching the Russian Far East. There are smaller communities in the former Byzantine regions of the Eastern Mediterranean, in the Middle East where it is decreasing due to persecution.
There are many in other parts of the world, formed through diaspora and missionary activity. In keeping with the church's teaching on universality and with the Nicene Creed, Orthodox authorities such as Saint Raphael of Brooklyn have insisted that the full name of the church has always included the term "Catholic", as in "Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church"; the official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the "Orthodox Catholic Church". It is the name by which the church refers to itself in its liturgical or canonical texts, in official publications, in official contexts or administrative documents. Orthodox teachers refer to the church as Catholic; this name and longer variants containing "Catholic" are recognised and referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Orthodox writers. The common name of the church, "Eastern Orthodox Church", is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use. From ancient times through the first millennium, Greek was the most prevalent shared language in the demographic regions where the Byzantine Empire flourished, Greek, being the language in which the New Testament was written, was the primary liturgical language of the church.
For this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as "Greek" before the Great Schism of 1054. After 1054, "Greek Orthodox" or "Greek Catholic" marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople, much as "Catholic" did for communion with Rome; this identification with Greek, became confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. In addition, struggles between Rome and Constantinople to control parts of Southeastern Europe resulted in the conversion of some churches to Rome, which also used "Greek Catholic" to indicate their continued use of the Byzantine rites. Today, many of those same churches remain, while a large number of Orthodox are not of Greek national origin, do not use Greek as the language of worship. "Eastern" indicates the geographical element in the Church's origin and development, while "Orthodox" indicates the faith, as well as communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
There are additional Christian churches in the east that are in communion with neither Rome nor Constantinople, who tend to be distinguished by the category named "Oriental Orthodox". While the church continues to call itself "Catholic", for reasons of universality, the common title of "Eastern Orthodox Church" avoids casual confusion with the Roman Catholic Church; the first known use of the phrase "the catholic Church" occurred in a letter written about 110 AD from one Greek church to another. The letter states: "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be as where Jesus may be, there is the universal Church." Thus from the beginning, Christians referred to the Church as the "One, Holy and Apostolic Church". The Eastern Orthodox Church claims that it is today the continuation and preservation of that same early Church. A number of other Christian churches make a similar claim: the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodox.
In the Eastern Orthodox v
The Roman Rite is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church, as well as the most popular and widespread Rite in all of Christendom, is one of the Western/Latin rites used in the Western or Latin Church. The Roman Rite became the predominant rite used by the Western Church. Many local variants, not amounting to distinctive Rites, existed in the medieval manuscripts, but have been progressively reduced since the invention of printing, most notably since the reform of liturgical law in the 16th century at the behest of the Council of Trent and more following the Second Vatican Council; the Roman Rite has been adapted over the centuries and the history of its Eucharistic liturgy can be divided into three stages: the Pre-Tridentine Mass, Tridentine Mass and Mass of Paul VI. The Mass of Paul VI is the current form of the Mass in the Catholic Church, first promulgated in the 1969 edition of the Roman Missal, it is considered the ordinary form of the mass, intended for most contexts.
The Tridentine Mass, as promulgated in the 1962 Roman Missal, may be used as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite, according to norms set in the 2007 papal document Summorum Pontificum. The Roman Rite is noted for its sobriety of expression. In its Tridentine form, it was noted for its formality: the Tridentine Missal minutely prescribed every movement, to the extent of laying down that the priest should put his right arm into the right sleeve of the alb before putting his left arm into the left sleeve. Concentration on the exact moment of change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ has led, in the Roman Rite, to the consecrated Host and the chalice being shown to the people after the Words of Institution. If, as was once most common, the priest offers Mass while facing ad apsidem, ad orientem if the apse is at the east end of the church, he shows them to the people, who are behind him, by elevating them above his head; as each is shown, a bell is rung and, if incense is used, the host and chalice are incensed.
Sometimes the external bells of the church are rung as well. Other characteristics that distinguish the Roman Rite from the rites of the Eastern Catholic Churches are frequent genuflections, kneeling for long periods, keeping both hands joined together. In his 1912 book on the Roman Mass, Adrian Fortescue wrote: "Essentially the Missal of Pius V is the Gregorian Sacramentary. We find the prayers of our Canon in the treatise de Sacramentis and allusions to it in the 4th century. So our Mass goes back, without essential change, to the age when it first developed out of the oldest liturgy of all, it is still redolent of that liturgy, of the days when Caesar ruled the world and thought he could stamp out the faith of Christ, when our fathers met together before dawn and sang a hymn to Christ as to a God. The final result of our inquiry is that, in spite of unsolved problems, in spite of changes, there is not in Christendom another rite so venerable as ours." In a footnote he added: "The prejudice that imagines that everything Eastern must be old is a mistake.
Eastern rites have been modified too. No Eastern Rite now used is as archaic as the Roman Mass."In the same book, Fortescue acknowledged that the Roman Rite underwent profound changes in the course of its development. His ideas are summarized in the article on the "Liturgy of the Mass" that he wrote for the Catholic Encyclopedia in which he pointed out that the earliest form of the Roman Mass, as witnessed in Justin Martyr's 2nd-century account, is of Eastern type, while the Leonine and Gelasian Sacramentaries, of about the 6th century, "show us what is our present Roman Mass". In the interval, there was what Fortescue called "a radical change", he quoted the theory of A. Baumstark that the Hanc Igitur, Quam oblationem, Supra quæ and Supplices, the list of saints in the Nobis quoque were added to the Roman Canon of the Mass under "a mixed influence of Antioch and Alexandria", that "St. Leo I began to make these changes. During the same time the prayers of the faithful before the Offertory disappeared, the kiss of peace was transferred to after the Consecration, the Epiklesis was omitted or mutilated into our "Supplices" prayer.
Of the various theories suggested to account for this it seems reasonable to say with Rauschen: "Although the question is by no means decided there is so much in favour of Drews's theory that for the present it must be considered the right one. We must admit that between the years 400 and 500 a great transformation was made in the Roman Canon". In the same article Fortescue went on to speak of the many alterations that the Roman Rite of Mass underwent from the 7th century on, in particular through the infusion of Gallican elements, noticeable chiefly in the variations for the course of the year; this infusion Fortescue called the "last change since Gregory the Great". The Eucharistic Prayer used in the Byzantine Rite is attributed to Saint John Chrysostom, who died in 404 two centuries before Pope Gregory the Great; the East Syrian Eucharistic Prayer of Ad