Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
Kowloon Bay is a bay and a town in Hong Kong. The bay is located at north of Hong Kong Island, it is the eastern portion of Victoria Harbour, between Lei Yue Mun. The bay was divided into half when the runway of the former Kai Tak International Airport was constructed in the middle of the bay; the reclamation of north-eastern Kowloon Bay near Ngau Tau Kok is named Kowloon Bay. It was known as Ngau Tau Kok Industrial Area. After the construction of MTR Kowloon Bay Station, the area is referred as Kowloon Bay; the area near the MTR station is residential. The area is traditionally an extension of Ngau Tau Kok, thus facilities such as Ngau Tau Kok Police Station are located there. Administratively, the reclamation of Kowloon Bay and water east of the runway except the airport area is part of Kwun Tong District; the airport and the waters of the district, on the other hand, belong to Kowloon City District. The bay has undergone massive reclamation over the past century. San Po Kong, now far from the coast, was reclaimed from the bay in the early days.
The western part of the bay is now protected from the sea by a breakwater, forms the To Kwa Wan typhoon shelter. A small barrel rock, the Kowloon Rock, is in the typhoon shelter. Other barrel rocks, the Channel Rock and the Hoi Sham Island, are now connected to land at the former Kai Tak International Airport runway and at To Kwa Wan by land reclamation; the former Kai Tak International Airport was built on reclaimed land in Kowloon Bay and its one and only runway, which juts out into the bay, is surrounded by water on three sides. Kowloon Bay Depot, the first MTR depot is located in the area. Amoy Gardens Electrical and Mechanical Services Department Headquarters Enterprise Square Five, a complex comprising MegaBox shopping mall and two office buildings Hong Kong Pacific Tower, a grade-A commercial building Kai Yip Estate, a public housing estate Kowloonbay International Trade & Exhibition Centre, an exhibition and convention centre which hosts many concerts. Richland Gardens, a Private Sector Participation Scheme estate Skyline Tower 2, an office tower Telford Garden, a private housing estate built on top of MTR's Kowloon Bay Station depot.
In the 1990s, there were plans to convert the bay and the former airport site into an in-city new town which would house 240 to 340 thousand residents and a sports stadium. The reduction in demand for land, environmental issues, public outcry led to a revision of the project; the scheme would not comply with the Protection of the Harbour Ordinance. Hence, the Kai Tak Development plans do not include any land reclamation; the reclamation is serviced by MTR Kowloon Bay Station on the Kwun Tong Line, beside Telford Plaza, along with many bus routes along Kwun Tong Road. Schools and institutions are scarce in this district; the most famous ones include the SPACE of the University of Hong Kong, Town Center of City University of Hong Kong and YCH Law Chan Chor Si College. Public housing estates in Ngau Tau Kok and Kowloon Bay List of bays in Hong Kong List of places in Hong Kong
Honoratus of Amiens
Saint Honoratus of Amiens was the seventh bishop of Amiens. His feast day is May 16, he was born in Port-le-Grand near Amiens to a noble family. He was said to be virtuous from birth, he was taught by his predecessor in the bishopric of Amiens, Saint Beatus. He resisted being elected bishop of Amiens. According to hagiographic tradition, a ray of light of divine origin descended upon his head upon his election as bishop. There appeared holy oil of unknown origin on his forehead. According to a legend, when it was known in his hometown that he had been proclaimed bishop, his nursemaid, baking bread for the family, refused to believe that Honoratus had been elevated to such a position, she remarked that she would believe the news only if the peel she had been using to bake bread put down roots and turned itself into a tree. When the peel was placed into the ground, it was transformed into a mulberry tree that gave flowers and fruit; this miraculous tree was still being shown in the sixteenth century.
During his bishopric, he discovered the relics of Victoricus and Gentian, which had remained hidden for 300 years. His devotion was widespread in France following reports of numerous miracles when his body was exhumed in 1060. After his death, his relics were invoked against drought. Bishop Guy, son of the Count of Amiens, ordered that a procession be held, in which an urn holding Honoratus' relics were carried around the walls of the city. Rain is said to have fallen soon after. In 1240, during construction of the cathedral of Amiens, the relics of Honoratus were carried through the surrounding countryside in a quest for funds. In 1202, a baker named Renold Theriens donated to the city of Paris some land to build a chapel in honor of the saint; the chapel became one of the richest in Paris, gave its name to Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré. In 1400, the bakers of Paris established their guild in the church of Saint Honoratus, celebrating his feast on 16 May and spreading his cult, he is the patron of a Carthusian establishment at Abbeville, founded in 1306.
In 1659, Louis XIV ordered that every baker observe the feast of Saint Honoratus, give donations in honor of the saint and for the benefit of the community. He is the namesake of the St. Honoré Cake. A statue of Honoratus stands in the portal of Amiens Cathedral. ^ Sometimes 653 is given as his date of death due to confusion with Saint Honorius, Archbishop of Canterbury. Orthodox England Saint of the Day, May 16: Honoratus of Amiens Patron Saints: Honorius of Amiens San Honorato Saint Honore, patron des boulangers Ὁ Ἅγιος Ὀνωράτος Ἐπίσκοπος Ἀμιένης. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ
Hong Kong Stock Exchange
The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited, abb. SEHK, is Asia's third-largest stock exchange in terms of market capitalization behind the Tokyo Stock Exchange and Shanghai Stock Exchange, the fourth single largest stock market in the world; as of 31 October 2016, SEHK had 1,955 listed companies, 989 of which are from mainland China, 856 from Hong Kong and 110 from other countries and region Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing owns SEHK and is itself listed on SEHK. It is the fastest growing stock exchange in Asia; the physical trading floor at Exchange Square closed in 2017, due to the shift towards electronic trading. By 2014, it accounted for less than 1% of trade volume; the Hong Kong securities market can be traced back to 1866, but the stock market was formally set up in 1891, when the Association of Stockbrokers in Hong Kong was established. It was renamed The Hong Kong Stock Exchange in 1914. By 1972, Hong Kong had four stock exchanges in operation. There were subsequently calls for the formation of a unified stock exchange.
The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited was incorporated in 1980 and trading on the Exchange commenced on 2 April 1986. Since 1986, a number of major developments have taken place; the 1987 market crash revealed flaws in the market and led to calls for a complete reform of the Hong Kong securities industry. This led to infrastructural developments; as a result, the Securities and Futures Commission was set up in 1989 as the single statutory securities market regulator. The market infrastructure was much improved with the introduction by the Exchange of the Central Clearing and Settlement System in June 1992 and the Automatic Order Matching and Execution System in November 1993. Since the framework of market rules and regulations, both Exchange-administered or otherwise, have been undergoing continuing review and revision to meet changing market needs while ensuring effective market regulation; the Exchange Listing Rules have been made more comprehensive, other existing regulations have been improved or new regulations introduced to enhance market development and investor protection.
Enhancements were made to the system infrastructure, including the launch of off-floor trading terminals in brokers’ offices in January 1996. The third generation of the trading system, AMS/3, will be launched in 2000, it will provide a platform for a straight-through transaction process. In respect of market and product development, there are the listing of the first derivative warrant in February 1988, the listing of the first China-incorporated enterprise in July 1993. Furthermore, the Exchange introduced the Growth Enterprise Market in November 1999 to provide fund raising opportunities for growth companies of all sizes from all industries, to promote the development of technology industries in the region. According to the reform plan announced in March 1999, the Exchange, the Hong Kong Futures Exchange and their clearing houses merged into a new holding company, the Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited. On 2 April 1986: a new trading hall is opened. At that time, a total of 249 companies were listed on the Exchange, total market capitalisation was HK$245 billion 6 October 1986: Stock Exchange grand opening October 1987: The Stock Exchange is closed for four days in an attempt to stop losses during Black Monday global equities market crash May 1988: The Ian Hay Davison Report, commissioned to investigate practices on the exchange in the lead-up to its closure, is released, resulting in significant market reforms - although many took years to implement On 24 June 1992, the Central Clearing and Settlement System is introduced On 15 July 1993, in the Tsingtao Brewery became the first Chinese enterprise to list its H shares on the exchange.
On 1 November 1993, a new "Automatic Order Matching and Execution System", AMS/1, was introduced on the exchange. On 12 November 1999, the Tracker Fund of Hong Kong, created by government intervention during the 1997 Asian financial crisis, had its introduction on the exchange. 25 November 1999, two companies were jointly listed on the newly created Growth Enterprise Market On 6 March 2000, The Stock Exchange, Futures Exchange and the Hong Kong Securities Clearing Company all became wholly owned subsidiaries of HKEx, in turn listed on 27 June 2000. On 23 October 2000, AMS/3 was implemented on the exchange.source: HK Ex The trading day consists of: A pre-opening auction session from 9:00 am to 9:30 am. The opening price of a security is reported shortly after 9:20 am. A morning continuous trading session from 09:30 am to 12:00 pm. An extended morning session from 12:00 noon to 1:00 pm referred to as the lunch break. Continuous trading proceeds in specifically-designated securities. Trading in other securities is not possible.
However, previously-placed orders in any securities can be cancelled from 1:00 pm onwards. An afternoon continuous trading session from 1:00 pm to 4:00 pm; the closing price is reported as the median of five price snapshots taken from 3:59 to 4:00 pm every 15 seconds. In May 2008, the exchange implemented a closing auction session to run from 4:00 pm to 4:10 pm, with a similar pricing mechanism as the opening auction; the exchange proposed limiting price fluctuations in th
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group, the chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. In some organizations, the chairman position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president, the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator and convenor; the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is called the speaker. The term chair is sometimes used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist, it is used today, has been used as a substitute for chairman since the middle of the 17th century, with its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary dated 1658–1659, only four years after the first citation for chairman.
Major dictionaries state that the word derives from a person. A 1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as "chairman", to most presiding women as "chairperson" or as "chairwoman"; the Chronicle of Higher Education uses "chairman" for men and "chairperson" for women. An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times and chairwoman 68 times; the National Association of Parliamentarians adopted a resolution in 1975 discouraging the use of “chairperson” and rescinded it in 2017. The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and United Press International all use "chairwoman" or "chairman" when referring to women, forbid use of "chair" or of "chairperson" except in direct quotations. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called "Mr. Chairman" and female chairs are called "Madame Chair"; the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using "chair" or "chairperson", rather than "chairman".
The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the gender-neutral forms are gaining ground. It advocates using "chair" to refer both to women; the Telegraph style guide bans the use of both "Chair" and "Chairperson" on the basis that "Chairman" is correct English. The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and is referred to as "the chair". Parliamentary procedure requires that members address the "chair" as "Mr. Chairman" rather than using a name – one of many customs intended to maintain the presiding officer's impartiality and to ensure an objective and impersonal approach. In the United States, the presiding officer of the lower house of a legislative body, such as the House of Representatives, is titled the Speaker, while the upper house, such as the Senate, is chaired by a President. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U.
S. President George H. W. Bush used "chairman" for men and "chair" for women. In the British music hall tradition, the Chairman was the master of ceremonies who announced the performances and was responsible for controlling any rowdy elements in the audience; the role was popularised on British TV in the 1960s and 1970s by Leonard Sachs, the Chairman on the variety show The Good Old Days."Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership labels and stressed the collective control of soviets by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as "Chairman of the X Committee". Vladimir Lenin, for example functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president but in roles such as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR". Note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong: "Chairman Mao". In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairman has the duties of presiding over meetings.
Such duties at meetings include: Calling the meeting to order Determining if a quorum is present Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up Recognition of members to have the floor Enforcing the rules of the group Putting questions to a vote Adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the chairman should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group. In committees or small boards, the chairman votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the chairman should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the chairman only has one vote; the powers of the chairman vary across organizations. In some organizations the chairman has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the chairman only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the chairman has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the chairman depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself.
If the chairman exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform t