Fromm Institute for Lifelong Learning
The Fromm Institute for Lifelong Learning at the University of San Francisco offers noncredit courses with no assignments or grades for adults age 50 and over with no other objective than the love of learning. Organized in 1976 with support from Hanna and Alfred Fromm, the Institute’s program served as a model for the Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes that have been established at over 120 universities and colleges in the United States; the Fromm Institute was founded by Hanna Fromm and her husband Alfred Fromm, who had arrived in the United States as refugees from Germany in 1936. Born Hanna Gruenbaum to a prominent Jewish family in Nuremberg, she studied choreography and worked in the Paris fashion industry. Alfred Fromm, born in Kitzingen, was a fourth-generation winemaker. Hanna and Alfred married in 1936 and fled the Nazis, first to New York and to California, where Alfred formed a partnership to distribute Christian Brothers wine and brandy. Alfred took over the Paul Masson vineyards in the 1950s, began a commitment to philanthropy.
Hanna became ardently committed to an active intellectual life for retirees, helping launch the Lifelong Learning program at USF with financial support and by serving as its volunteer executive director until the last months of her life. In 1979 the Fromms were awarded honorary doctorates of public service by USF; the Fromm Institute offers some 75 courses annually, spread over fall and spring terms. The program is strong on courses in the humanities and sciences. Courses meet once a week for eight weeks. Faculty are emeriti professors from universities and colleges in the San Francisco Bay Area; the program has grown from 300 students members in 1976 to 1250 student members today. Student membership fees cover half the program costs, with the balance coming from gifts and endowment earnings; the Fromms established a sister program at Hebrew University in Jerusalem in 1979. After Hanna Fromm’s death in 2003, former program director Robert Fordham was named executive director; the Institute publishes a monthly newsletter, From the Rooftop, during the academic year.
The Fromm program caught the attention of another San Francisco philanthropist, Bernard Osher, inspired to spread the model to over 120 Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes that his foundation has funded at universities and colleges across the United States since 2001. Fromm Hall a Jesuit faculty residence known as Xavier Hall, was renamed for Alfred and Hanna Fromm on October 24, 2003; the building was remodeled following a $10 million capital campaign by Friends of the Fromm Institute, with a lead gift from Hanna Fromm. In addition to the Fromm Institute’s administrative offices and four large classrooms, Fromm Hall contains USF’s only all-female residence, housing 175 freshman and sophomore women, facilities for the fine arts program, a women’s institute, the parish offices of St. Ignatius Church. "Old Enough to Know Better" is a documentary film directed by Ron Levaco on the Fromm Institute and its students. It was released in 2001 by Icarus Films. Official website
A sect is a subgroup of a religious, political, or philosophical belief system an offshoot of a larger group. Although the term was a classification for religious separated groups, it can now refer to any organization that breaks away from a larger one to follow a different set of rules and principles. In an Indian context, sect refers to an organized tradition; the word sect comes from the Latin noun secta, meaning "a way, road", figuratively a way, mode, or manner, hence metonymously, a discipline or school of thought as defined by a set of methods and doctrines. The present gamut of meanings of sect has been influenced by confusion with the homonymous Latin word secta. There are descriptions for the term. Among the first to define them were Max Weber and Ernst Troeltsch. In the church-sect typology they are described as newly formed religious groups that form to protest elements of their parent religion, their motivation tends to be situated in accusations of apostasy or heresy in the parent denomination.
The American sociologists Rodney Stark and William Sims Bainbridge assert that "sects claim to be authentic purged, refurbished version of the faith from which they split". They further assert that sects have, in contrast to churches, a high degree of tension with the surrounding society. Other sociologists of religion such as Fred Kniss have asserted that sectarianism is best described with regard to what a sect is in tension with; some religious groups exist in tension only with co-religious groups of different ethnicities, or exist in tension with the whole of society rather than the church which the sect originated from. Sectarianism is sometimes defined in the sociology of religion as a worldview that emphasizes the unique legitimacy of believers' creed and practices and that heightens tension with the larger society by engaging in boundary-maintaining practices; the English sociologist Roy Wallis argues that a sect is characterized by "epistemological authoritarianism": sects possess some authoritative locus for the legitimate attribution of heresy.
According to Wallis, "sects lay a claim to possess unique and privileged access to the truth or salvation" and "their committed adherents regard all those outside the confines of the collectivity as'in error'". He contrasts this with a cult that he described as characterized by "epistemological individualism" by which he means that "the cult has no clear locus of final authority beyond the individual member." The corresponding words for "sect" in European languages other than English – Sekte, secta, sectă, sekta, sekte, szekta, секта, σέχτα – refer to a harmful religious sect and translate into English as "cult". In France, since the 1970s, secte has a specific meaning, different from the English word; the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Religion distinguishes three types of classification of Buddhism, separated into "Movements", "Nikāyas" and "Doctrinal schools": Schools: Theravada in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Mahāyāna in East Asia. Vajrayāna in Tibet, Nepal, India and the Russian republic of Kalmykia.
Nikāyas, or monastic fraternities, three of which survive at the present day: Theravāda, in Southeast Asia and South Asia Dharmaguptaka, in China and Vietnam Mūlasarvāstivāda, in the Tibetan tradition While the historical usage of the term "sect" in Christendom has had pejorative connotations, referring to a group or movement with heretical beliefs or practices that deviate from those of groups considered orthodox, its primary meaning is to indicate a community which has separated itself in some way from the larger body from which its members came and to which they may or may not still adhere. The term remains valid for this purpose. There are many groups outside the Roman Catholic Church which regard themselves as Catholic, such as the Community of the Lady of All Nations, the Palmarian Catholic Church, the Philippine Independent Church, the Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church, the Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God, Most Holy Family Monastery, others; the Indologist Axel Michaels writes in his book about Hinduism that in an Indian context the word "sect does not denote a split or excluded community, but rather an organized tradition established by founder with ascetic practices."
According to Michaels, "Indian sects do not focus on heresy, since the lack of a center or a compulsory center makes this impossible – instead, the focus is on adherents and followers." The ancient schools of fiqh or sharia in Islam are known as "madhhabs." In the beginning Islam was classically divided into three major sects. These political divisions are well known as Shia Islam and Khariji Islam; each sect developed several distinct jurisprudence systems reflecting their own understanding of the Islamic law during the course of the history of Islam. For instance, Sunnis are separated into five sub-sects, Hanafi, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Ẓāhirī; the Shia, on the other hand, first developed Kaysanism, which in turn divided into three major groupings known as Fivers and Twelvers. The Zaydis separated first; the non-Zaydis are c
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages; the intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, politics and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto.
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man"; the Renaissance began in the 14th century in Italy. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici, the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan and Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation; the art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance": It is no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization – historians of economic and social developments and religious situations, most natural science – but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly by historians of Art. Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, while social and economic historians of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties".
The word Renaissance meaning "Rebirth", first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France; the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, art, politics, science and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, searched for realism and human emotion in art. Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West.
It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. In the revival of neo-Platonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity; this new engagement with Greek Christian works, the return to the original Greek of the Ne
A church building or church house simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities for Christian worship services. The term is used by Christians to refer to the physical buildings where they worship, but it is sometimes used to refer to buildings of other religions. In traditional Christian architecture, the church is arranged in the shape of a Christian cross; when viewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented by the aisle and the junction of the cross is located at the altar area. Towers or domes are added with the intention of directing the eye of the viewer towards the heavens and inspiring visitors. Modern church buildings have a variety of architectural layouts; the earliest identified Christian church building was a house church founded between 233 and 256. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches were erected across Western Europe. A cathedral is a church building Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, or Oriental Orthodox, housing a cathedra, the formal name for the seat or throne of a presiding bishop.
In Greek, the adjective kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón means "belonging, or pertaining, to a Kyrios", the usage was adopted by early Christians of the Eastern Mediterranean with regard to anything pertaining to the Lord Jesus Christ: hence "Kyriakós oíkos", "Kyriakē", or "Kyriakē proseukhē". In standard Greek usage, the older word "ecclesia" was retained to signify both a specific edifice of Christian worship, the overall community of the faithful; this usage was retained in Latin and the languages derived from Latin, as well as in the Celtic languages and in Turkish. In the Germanic and some Slavic languages, the word kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón was adopted instead and derivatives formed thereof. In Old English the sequence of derivation started as "cirice" Middle English "churche", "church" in its current pronunciation. German Kirche, Scots kirk, Russian церковь, etc. are all derived. According to the New Testament, the earliest Christians did not build church buildings. Instead, they synagogues; the earliest archeologically identified Christian church is a house church, the Dura-Europos church, founded between 233 and 256.
In the second half of the 3rd century AD, the first purpose-built halls for Christian worship began to be constructed. Although many of these were destroyed early in the next century during the Diocletianic Persecution larger and more elaborate church buildings began to appear during the reign of the Emperor Constantine the Great. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches occurred across Western Europe. In addition to being a place of worship, the cathedral or the parish church was used by the community in other ways, it could serve as a hall for banquets. Mystery plays were sometimes performed in cathedrals, cathedrals might be used for fairs; the church could be used as a place to store grain. Between 1000 and 1200 the romanesque style became popular across Europe. While the name of the romanesque era refers to the tradition of Roman architecture, it was a West- and Central European trend. Romanesque buildings appear rather compact.
Typical features are circular arches, octagonal towers and cushion capitals on the pillars. In the early romanesque era, coffering on the ceiling was fashionable, while in the same era, groined vault was more popular; the rooms became the motivs of sculptures became more epic. The Gothic style emerged around 1140 in spread through all of Europe; the gothic buildings were less compact than they had been in the romanesque era and contained symbolic and allegoric features. For the first time, pointed arches, rib vaults and buttresses were used, with the result that massive walls were not longer needed to stabilise the building. Due to that advantage, the area of the windows became bigger, which resulted in a brighter and more friendly atmosphere inside the church; the nave so did the pillars and the church steeple. The amibition to test out the limits of the architectural possibilities resulted in the collapse of several towers. In Germany and the Netherlands, but in Spain, it became popular to build hall churches, in which every vault has the same height.
Cathedrals were built in a lavish way, as in the romanesque era. Examples for that are the Notre-Dame de Paris and the Notre-Dame de Reims in France, but the San Francesco d’Assisi in Palermo, the Salisbury Cathedral and the Wool Church in Lavenham, England. Many gothic churches contain features from the romanesque era; some of the most well-known gothic churches stayed unfinished for hundreds of years, after the gothic style was not popular anymore. About half of the Cologne Cathedral was for example build in the 19th century. In the 15th and 16th century, the change in e
University of San Francisco
The University of San Francisco is a Jesuit university in San Francisco, California. The school's main campus is located on a 55-acre setting between the Golden Gate Bridge and Golden Gate Park; the main campus is nicknamed "The Hilltop", part of the main campus is located on Lone Mountain, one of San Francisco's major geographical features. Its close historical ties with the City and County of San Francisco are reflected in the University's traditional motto, Pro Urbe et Universitate; the University of San Francisco offers more than 230 undergraduate, graduate and certificate programs on its main Hilltop Campus. USF offers programs at several additional campuses; the USF Downtown San Francisco Campus, which began in 2012 in the historic Folger Building at 101 Howard Street, offers the MBA and the Executive MBA, MBA Dual Degree programs, master's degrees in Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Financial Analysis, Global Entrepreneurial Management, Nonprofit Administration, Organization Development, Public Administration.
The Orange County Campus, founded in the City of Orange in 1983, offers the Master's in Sport Management and the Master's in Nursing for Non-Nurses. The Pleasanton Campus, which began in 1986 in San Ramon, moved to Pleasanton in 2012, offers a Bachelor's in Management, the Master's in Nursing for the Registered Nurse, the Master's in Teaching with the Single or Multiple Subject Teaching Credential; the Presidio Campus, established at the San Francisco Presidio in 2003, offers the Master in Behavior Health, the Master of Public Health, the Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology. The Sacramento Campus, founded in 1975, offers the Bachelor of Science in Nursing, the Master of Public Health, the Master's in Counseling with an Emphasis in Marriage and Family Therapy, the Master's in Teaching with the Single or Multiple Subject Teaching Credential; the San Jose Campus, established in 1980, offers the Master's in Information Systems, the Master's in Teaching with the Single or Multiple Subject Teaching Credential, the Master's in Counseling with an Emphasis in Marriage and Family Therapy, the RN to MSN Nursing/Clinical Nurse Leader.
The Santa Rosa Campus, founded in 1989, offers the Master's in Counseling with an Emphasis in Marriage and Family Therapy, the Master's in Teaching with the Single or Multiple Subject Teaching Credential. Founded by the Jesuits in 1855 as St. Ignatius Academy, USF started as a one-room schoolhouse along Market Street in what became downtown San Francisco. Under its founding president, Anthony Maraschi, S. J. St. Ignatius Academy received its charter to issue college degrees on April 30, 1859, from the State of California, signed by governor John B. Weller. In that year, the school changed its name to St. Ignatius College; the original curriculum included Greek, Latin, French, algebra, history, geography and bookkeeping. Father Maraschi was the college's first president, a professor, the college's treasurer, the first pastor of St. Ignatius Church. A new building was constructed in 1862 to replace the first frame building. In June 1863, the university awarded its first Bachelor of Arts degree. In 1880, the college moved from Market Street to a new site on the corner of Hayes Street and Van Ness Avenue.
The third St. Ignatius College received moderate damage in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, but was destroyed in the ensuing fire; the campus moved west, to the corner of Hayes and Shrader Streets, close to Golden Gate Park, where it occupied a hastily constructed structure known as The Shirt Factory for the next 21 years. The college moved to its present site on Fulton Street in 1927, on the site of a former Masonic Cemetery. To celebrate its diamond jubilee in 1930, St. Ignatius College changed its name to the University of San Francisco; the change from college to university was sought by many alumni groups and by long-time San Francisco Mayor James Rolph Jr. A male-only school for most of its history, USF became coeducational in 1964, though women started attending the evening programs in business and law as early as 1927. In 1969, the high school division wholly separate from the university, moved to the western part of San Francisco and became St. Ignatius College Preparatory. In 1978, the university acquired Lone Mountain College.
October 15, 2005, marked the 150th anniversary of the university's founding. In the fall of 2017, USF enrolled 11,080 undergraduate and graduate students in all of its programs housed in four schools and one college. Saint Ignatius Church Kalmanovitz Hall School of Education Building Lone Mountain Gleeson Library and the Geschke Learning Resource Center Toler Hall War Memorial Gymnasium Ulrich Field Fromm Hall The Koret Law Center: Kendrick Hall and Dorraine Zief Law Library Lone Mountain North Gillson Hall Harney Science Center Hayes-Healy Hall University Center Cowell Hall Negoesco Stadium USF Koret Health and Recreation Center Loyola House 281 Masonic Pedro Arrupe Hall Loyola Village Malloy Hall John Lo Schiavo, S. J. Center for Science and Innovation Sobrato Center The University of San Francisco is chartered as a non-profit organization and is governed by a appointed board of trustees, along with the university president, the university chancellor, the university provost and vice-presidents
Swig Program in Jewish Studies and Social Justice
The Swig Program in Jewish Studies and Social Justice is a Jewish studies program at the University of San Francisco in San Francisco, California. Founded in August 2008, it is the only program in the world to formally link the fields of Social justice and Jewish studies, it offers a minor in Jewish Studies and Social Justice, an annual Social Justice Lecture, an annual Human Rights Lecture, an annual Social Justice Passover Seder, intermittent films and workshops, a study-abroad course, Ulpan San Francisco. Melvin Swig was a San Francisco real estate developer and philanthropist who endowed a multitude of charities and programs in the San Francisco Bay Area. In the mid-1970s Swig met Rabbi David Davis who, in conjunction with the Reverend John H. Elliott, a Lutheran minister and USF Theology & Religious studies professor, had begun to teach a class called “Jesus the Jew” at the University of San Francisco. Swig, Jewish, was intrigued with the idea of a Jewish perspective being taught at a Catholic university, he suggested that Rabbi Davis introduce him to Father John Lo Schiavo, the president of the university.
The three men explored the idea of creating a Jewish studies program at USF. As a result of their collaboration, in 1977 the Mae and Benjamin Swig Chair in Judaic Studies was established as an homage to Swig's parents; the program was the first Jewish Studies program at a Catholic university worldwide. Swig became the chairman of the University of San Francisco Board of Trustees. Rabbi Davis became the first Mae and Benjamin Swig Chair of the university's new program, called the Swig Judaic Studies Program. Davis recalls that Father Lo Schiavo called him a “one man ecumenical movement” because of his work in building bridges between the San Francisco Jewish and Christian communities. Indeed, the collaboration between Swig, a prominent leader in the San Francisco Jewish community, Lo Schiavo, an prominent member of the Jesuit community, would never have existed without Rabbi Davis' enthusiasm and encouragement; the new Swig Judaic Studies Program offered workshops and seminars, it cooperated with Jewish organizations in the Bay Area for additional educational programming.
Rabbi Davis brought world-renowned figures to USF, including Nobel prize recipients Saul Bellow and Elie Wiesel. In 1997 Andrew R. Heinze, a USF professor of American History who specialized in Jewish studies, was appointed as the new Swig chair. To solidify the program's academic standing, Heinze created a Jewish Studies Certificate program that expanded the curriculum beyond the Theology & Religious studies Department, he introduced courses in Hebrew, Jewish history, The Holocaust, Jewish American literature, Yiddish culture. Heinze introduced the Swig Annual Lecture Series: free public lectures delivered by distinguished scholars, which were published and distributed to universities, public libraries, individual scholars in the United States and abroad; this series included a ground-breaking symposium on new religious approaches to homosexuality, a symposium on Jewish-Catholic Relations that featured one of the Vatican's pre-eminent officials, Cardinal Edward Cassidy, president of the Pontifical Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews.
In 1998 Heinze created Ulpan San Francisco, a summer Israeli-style Hebrew immersion program for the general public, the first such program in Northern California, now the longest running intensive Hebrew language immersion program in the United States. In 2007 Aaron Hahn Tapper became the third person to hold the chair. Hahn Tapper, who had earned a BA from Johns Hopkins University, an MA from Harvard Divinity School, a Doctorate from the University of California, Santa Barbara, had focused on "conflict resolution and social relations between Jewish, Muslim and Palestinian communities." The University of San Francisco's dean of humanities, Jennifer Turpin welcomed Hahn Tapper's appointment to the Swig chair with the comment, "He's a person who welcomes people with many different points of view and backgrounds to the conversation. His commitment to transforming conflicts between different cultures and faiths is one that resonates with the university." In fact, in 2006, Hahn Tapper had been formally recognized by former President Bill Clinton for his conflict resolution work with teens and college students.
Hahn Tapper redesigned the program, in August 2008, drawing on his expertise in the fields of conflict resolution and social relations between Jewish, Muslim and Palestinian communities, he relaunched the program as the Swig Program in Jewish Studies and Social Justice. The new program is the only program in the world to formally link the fields of Social justice and Jewish studies; the program engages students in both theoretical and practical applications of social justice and activism rooted in the Jewish traditions. On campus the program offers a wide range of Jewish studies courses, a minor in Jewish Studies and Social Justice, an annual Social Justice Lecture, an annual Human Rights Lecture, an annual Social Justice Passover Seder, intermittent films and workshops, a study-abroad course, Ulpan San Francisco; the program offers a wide range of educational programs focusing on social justice issues, open to the USF community and beyond. The program’s ethos is built upon the following four ideas, all of which are integral to the Jewish community’s vast histories and identities: Activism – each of us has a role in the process of shaping the world as it is into the world it can be.
Intersectionality – all forms of marginalization and oppression are inter-li