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Saint Jerome in His Study (Ghirlandaio)

Saint Jerome in His Study is a fresco by the Italian Renaissance painter Domenico Ghirlandaio, executed in 1480 and located in the church of Ognissanti, Florence. The work was commissioned by the Vespucci family together with a Saint Augustine in His Study by Sandro Botticelli. Both depicted two Doctors of the Church in their studies, with a number of objects which should mark their role as precursors of humanism, they decorated the area next to the choir, demolished in the 18th century. In that occasion the two frescoes were placed in the nave. Part of the annexed frame and the inscriptions were lost. While Botticelli adopted a more expressive composition in his Saint Augustine, Ghirlandaio created a more serene and conventional figure, concentrating instead on the still life of the objects exposed on the writing desk and the shelves behind Jerome. In this, he was inspired by northern European models, such as Jan van Eyck's Saint Jerome in His Study, in the collections of Lorenzo de' Medici.

Jerome is portrayed with his head resting while writing with the other. This was the same posture chosen by Jan van Eyck; the open books and the cartouches, with Greek and Hebrew letters, correspond to his activity as translator of the Bible. On the writing desk is the date, as well as a sealed letter, two inkwells, scissors and a candle holder; the desk is covered by an oriental carpet, a luxurious object depicted by Ghirlandaio, also inspired by Netherlandish painters. The objects on the shelves include a cardinal hat, two pharmacist vases, a cylindrical case, a necklace, a purse, some fruit, two transparent glass bottles and an hourglass; the light comes from the upper right corner, producing a well defined shadow of the saint on the drapery behind him. Micheletti, Emma. "Ghirlandaio". Pittori del Rinascimento. Florence: Scala

Robert Gaupp

Robert Eugen Gaupp was a German psychiatrist and neurologist, a native of Neuenbürg, Württemberg. Gaupp was an assistant to Carl Wernicke and Karl Bonhoeffer at Breslau, afterwards worked with Emil Kraepelin at the Universities of Heidelberg and Munich. From 1908 to 1936 he was a professor of psychiatry at the University of Tübingen. One of his assistants was Ernst Kretschmer. Following World War II, he was departmental head of welfare for the city of Stuttgart. Gaupp performed numerous investigations of psychological disorders, is remembered for his case studies of mass-murderer Ernst August Wagner, he was interested in correlations between personality and psychosis, was an advocate of "pastoral psychology". For a period of time, he was editor of the Zentralblatt für Nervenheilkunde und Psychiatrie. Sometime shortly after the passage by decree, on 15 September 1935, of the "Nuremberg Laws", Gaupp came to the support of a local physician, Albrecht Schroeder, a collegiate fraternity brother in a non-fighting order, die Igel, to which Gaupp belonged.

With the passage of the Nuremberg Laws and the preemption of organizational authority to permit Jewish membership in non-dueling fraternal orders, Schroeder's status was made precarious because he was married to a Jew, née Felicia Rosenstein of Bad Cannstatt, an outer district of Stuttgart. At a meeting convened of the general membership to decide upon Schroeder's suitability for membership given Schroeder's marital status and his "Mischling" children, otherwise unaffiliated with Schroeder, declared before those assembled: "Wenn der Schroeder raus muss, dann geh ich auch." Schroeder withdrew his petition sometime before final disposition by the fraternity towards his case, Gaupp himself left the organization voluntarily around the same time, as he had pledged doing on behalf of Schroeder. The two men remained close friends until Gaupp's death in 1953. American Journal of Psychiatry, Robert Gaupp Paranoid Modernism: Literary Experiment, etc. By David Trotter A Historical Dictionary of Psychiatry By Edward Shorter Works by or about Robert Gaupp at Internet Archive

Tubthumping

"Tubthumping" is a song released by British rock band Chumbawamba from their eighth studio album, Tubthumper. It is the band's most successful single, peaking at number two on the UK Singles Chart, it topped the charts in Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and hit number six on the US Billboard Hot 100. At the 1998 Brit Awards, "Tubthumping" was nominated for the Brit Award for Best British Single; as of April 2017, the song had sold 880,000 copies in the UK. The song was the group's lead single from their major-label debut, it was released in August 1997. Vocalist Dunstan Bruce retrospectively observed that, before the group wrote it, they "were in a mess: we had become directionless and disparate", he credited "Tubthumping" with changing that, telling the Guardian that "It’s not our most political or best song, but it brought us back together. The song is about us -- as a band; the beauty of it was we had no idea how big it would be." A Leeds pub called. Upon its release, the song became an international hit.

On the UK Singles Chart, it debuted at number 2 on the chart dated 23 August 1997. The song spent a total of 11 consecutive weeks in the top 10, 20 consecutive weeks on the top 100. On the chart dated 24 January 1998, three weeks after its last week on the chart, the song re-entered the singles chart at number 88. In the United States, the song debuted on the Billboard Hot 100 dated 13 September 1997, at number 79; the following week, it rose 16 places to number 63 on the chart, attaining the week's biggest gain in airplay. Two weeks on the chart dated 4 October 1997, the song was again the biggest airplay gainer of the week, entering the top 40 in its rise from 47 to 35. In its twelfth week on the chart, on the chart dated 29 November 1997, the song reached its peak of number 6, where it spent two weeks. In total, it spent 31 weeks on the Billboard Hot 100; the single was present on many year-end singles charts for 1997. In the United Kingdom, it was ranked as the year's seventh most-popular single, while it placed at number 3 on Australia's top 100 songs of the year.

The single placed within the top 20 of the year-end chart in Sweden and placed within the top 100 of 1997 in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United States. In the United States, the song placed at number 35 on the Billboard Hot 100's year-end ranking for 1998. "Tubthumping" was placed at number 12 in Rolling Stone's list of the 20 Most Annoying Songs. Conversely, "Tubthumping" was voted as the second-best single of 1997 on The Village Voice's Pazz & Jop annual critics' poll. "Tubthumping" was released in 2003 as a promotional CD by Chumbawamba on their MUTT Records label. The remixed version of the song was done by The Flaming Lips and Dave Fridmann, it is a slower version of the song, with a more minor key feeling to the music. The other two songs on the CD were taken from the album Readymades and Then Some. 12-inch promo Side A "Tubthumping" – 5:10 "Tubthumping" – 3:33Side B "Tubthumping" – 4:57 "Tubthumping" – 5:17CD Single "Tubthumping" – 3:33 "Farewell to the Crown" – 2:57 "Football Song" – 2:26 "Tubthumping" – 5:23 "Tubthumping" – 5:38CD Maxi-single "Tubthumping" – 3:34 "Tubthumping" – 5:24 "Tubthumping" – 5:38 "Tubthumping" – 5:11 "Tubthumping" – 4:59 "Tubthumping" – 5:20Tubthumping "Tubthumping" – 5:20 "Salt Fare, North Sea" – 4:28 "Jacob's Ladder" – 2:52 List of number-one singles in Australia during the 1990s List of RPM number-one alternative rock singles List of number-one singles of 1997 List of number-one singles from the 1990s List of Billboard Mainstream Top 40 number-one songs of the 1990s List of Adult Top 40 number-one songs of the 1990s Song Review at AllMusic They Might Be Giants cover "Tubthumping" for A.

V. Club Undercover Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Third National Government of New Zealand

The Third National Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1975 to 1984. It was an economically and conservative government, which aimed to preserve the Keynesian economic system established by the First Labour government while being conservative. Throughout its three terms it was led by Robert Muldoon, a populist but antagonistic politician, sometimes described as his party's best asset and worst liability. By 1975, New Zealand had a generous welfare system, which included unemployment and sickness benefits, a benefit for single parents and a means tested old-age pension from the normal retirement age of 60 plus a Universal pension from 65 years; the third National government scrapped Labour's contributory scheme and introduced National Superannuation, a non-means tested pension available to all New Zealand citizens over the age of 60, linked to the average wage. This was enormously expensive, costing NZ$2.5 billion per annum by 1984, but far more popular than Labour's alternative of a Singaporean Central Provident Fund-style set of individualised compulsory savings.

The government continued the interventionist economic policies of previous governments in New Zealand. Although there was some pressure on Prime Minister and Finance Minister Robert Muldoon to take steps towards liberalising the economy, he was reluctant to do so as he felt that such moves would hurt ordinary New Zealanders; such steps towards liberalisation made during this government's term were the initiatives of other politicians. In 1980, the government launched the Think Big programme of large-scale industrial projects based around energy projects, to reduce New Zealand's dependence on foreign energy; this was a response to the oil shocks of the 1970s, which raised the price of oil. Cabinet Minister Derek Quigley publicly criticised the Think Big policy and was demoted from Cabinet; the control of inflation was an important goal for Muldoon, who always aimed to uphold the living standards of working and middle class New Zealanders. There was a high level of inflation worldwide in the 1970s and 1980s, leading Muldoon to intervene more and more in the economy.

This interventionist policy culminated in the wage and price freeze of the early 1980s, Muldoon's refusal to devalue the New Zealand dollar in 1984, which led to the New Zealand constitutional crisis. The government pursued a limited number of liberalisation policies. In 1982 the land transport sector was deregulated, which allowed the restructuring of the New Zealand Railways Corporation in the decade; the Closer Economic Relations free trade agreement with Australia was signed in 1983. 1976 saw the phasing out of entitlement to the Additional Benefit. In 1976, the administration of many benefits, such as unemployment and the Domestic Purposes Benefit, was tightened up. Income exemptions, which the Third Labour Government had abolished and replaced with tax rebates, were reintroduced. In 1977, the family assistance tax rebate was extended; as note by Brian Easton, the tax relief for a young family "could be up to $13 a week more than for a married man without children, on the same income." In addition, full relief was available to families whose head "was on up to ten per cent above average earnings."

The top income limit of the now $9 full rebate was increased to $150 a week, a further $4 a week tax rebate for all single-income families with a child under the age of ten was introduced. As noted by Brian Easton, there was now a tiering of family assistance, with families with children under the age of five "receiving up to $13 a week, those with a youngest child between five and ten receiving up to $4 a week."The Disabled Person's Community Welfare Act was further implemented in 1978, including a non-taxable $8 a week allowance for parents supporting physically or mentally handicapped children. The basic family assistance tax structure was maintained in the 1978 budget, with the eligibility age of the youngest children increased to 11 years, the single-income family rebate raised to $5 per week, the young-family rebate raised to $9 per week. A new income-tax scale was introduced, with the main aim being switching income from low-income recipients to main earners. A new income-tax scale was introduced in 1978, which transferred income to main earners, such as mothers who worked part-time.

The purpose of this change was to increase the income of one-earner families relative to one-and-a-bit earner families. In 1979, the period of absence from New Zealand during which eligibility for National Superannuation was retained was lowered to 3 months. Eligibility for the Additional benefit was extended to national superannuitants. Equal eligibility for the unemployment benefit was introduced for married women. In the 1979 budget, the level of the national superannuation benefit for a married couple was lowered from a before-tax 80% of the before-tax average earnings to an after-tax 80% of the after-tax average earnings. Due to the progressive tax structure, this lowered the effective level of the benefit from 87% of after-tax average earnings to 80.% The 1979 budget reduced the effective levels of National Superannuation, the unemployment benefits for childless persons, the additional benefit. However, social security spending increased by more than the expected rate of inflation, the family benefit was doubled, supplements to beneficiaries with children were increa

Crab Moon

Crab Moon is a children's picture book by Ruth Horowitz and illustrated by Kate Kiesler. It was selected by the National Science Teachers Association as an Outstanding Science Trade Books for Children in 2001. A young child, follows his mother to the summer rental and is amazed at horseshoe crabs that emerge to lay their eggs; the next morning, he finds an upside down crab and he places her right-side up. A Kirkus Reviews review says, "Along with books such as Saviour Pirotta's Turtle Bay, this conveys a respectful attitude toward sea- and shore-dwelling wildlife in an unpreachy way. Young children whose interest is piqued by David's brief encounter with such ancient, alien-looking creatures will welcome the concluding page of general horseshoe crab facts". A review in The New York Times says, "In Ms. Kiesler's inviting pictures, you can smell the salt air. Publishers Weekly in their review said that "Horowitz's poetic descriptions are buried throughout the text as smooth as sea glass; the reader sees how "the fat, round face of the full moon wavered on the surface of the water" and "curly black seaweed was strewn on the sand, like streamers left over from a party."

Kiesler's seascapes are skillfully rendered but static, trading the ethereal qualities of her Fishing for a Dream for realism. Glowing yet somber, they do little to engage readers' emotions in Daniel's mild adventure." Patricia Manning in here review for School Library Journal said that "Horowitz's quiet text reflects the moonlit awe of this ageless pattern, Kiesler's luminous oils capture freeze-frame moments in perfect step"

Turkish Constitution of 1921

The Constitution of 1921 was the fundamental law of Turkey for a brief period from 1921 to 1924. The first constitution of the modern Turkish state, it was ratified by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in January 1921, it was a simple document consisting of only 23 short articles. In October 1923 the constitution was amended to declare Turkey to be a republic. In April the following year the constitution was replaced by an new document, the Constitution of 1924, it was prepared by the Grand National Assembly, elected both as a Constitutional Convention and as an acting Parliament on April 23, 1920, following the de facto collapse of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of the First World War. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who would become the first president of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, was the major driving force behind the preparation of a Constitution that derived its sovereignty from the nation and not from the Sultan, the absolute monarch of the Ottoman Empire; the National Assembly convened with the purpose of writing a would prepare the ground for the proclamation of a Republic and consecrate the principle of national sovereignty.

This Constitution would serve as the legal basis for the Turkish War of Independence during 1919-1923, since it would refute the principles of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1918 signed by the Ottoman Empire, by which a great majority of the Empire's territory would have to be ceded to the Entente powers that had won the First World War. The National Assembly commenced the debates for a new constitution on November 19, 1920 and it was ratified during the session of January 20, 1921, it was the first Turkish Constitution. It was a short text consisting of twenty-three articles, the first nine articles laying out the principles upon which the state would be founded, it delegated the executive and legislative prerogatives to "the only true delegate of the sovereignty of the Nation", the National Assembly, to be elected by direct popular vote. After the proclamation of the Republic on October 29, 1923, the executive powers were to be exercised by the President and the Council of Ministers on behalf of the National Assembly.

Because of the larger geopolitical conjecture of the time and the lack of a formal declaration of a republic, it failed to mention anything about the role the Sultan might play under this new constitution. From a technical point of view, it could be argued that it left open the possibility that the Sultanate might not be abolished and that it could have been amended to make way for a constitutional monarchy, similar to one founded by the French Constitution of 1791. On hindsight, however, it is clear that this omission was on purpose awaiting the outcome of the Independence War and the cessation of hostilities before the proclamation of the Republic, it didn't include any references to the judicial system for similar reasons, nor did it define the rights and responsibilities of citizens. After having come into force on January 20, 1921, it stayed as the law of the land for three years until the adoption of the Constitution of 1924. During this time it witnessed many important and fundamental events in the history of the Republic of Turkey: The Turkish War of Independence was won by the Turkish forces The Ottoman Sultanate and all aristocratic titles were abolished on November 1, 1922 The Treaty of Lausanne that led to the international recognition of the new Republic was signed between Turkey and the Entente powers that had won the First World War on July 24, 1923 The Republic was proclaimed on October 29, 1923 with Atatürk as its first President The title of the Caliphate, held by the Ottoman Sultans since 1517 was abolished on March 3, 1924, along with all the remaining vestiges of Islamic Law.

Per the law of March 3, 1924, the last Ottoman Sultan, the last Caliph and all members of their imperial families had their citizenships revoked, were exiled forever from the new Republic and their descendants banned from setting foot in its territory. The same law nationalized all the properties of the Imperial Crown without compensation; the text of the first nine articles may be translated as follows: Article 1: Sovereignty is vested in the nation without condition. The governmental system is based on the principle of self-determination and government by the people. Article 2: Executive power and legislative responsibility is exercised by and concentrated in the hands of the Grand National Assembly, the sole and real representative of the nation. Article 3: The Turkish State is governed by the Grand National Assembly and its government is entitled'the Government of Grand National Assembly'. Article 4: The Grand National Assembly is composed of members who are elected by the people of the provinces.

Article 5: Elections to the Grand National Assembly are held every two years. The duration of membership is limited to two years but re-election of a member is possible; the former assembly remains in office. When holding a new election seems to be impossible the legislative period can be extended by only one year; each member of the Grand National Assembly is not only a representative of the province by which he is elected but of the whole nation. Article 6: The General Assembly of the Grand National Assembly convenes of its own accord on the first day of November. Article 7: The basic rights of the application of the ordinances of the sacred