Coliform bacteria are defined as rod-shaped Gram-negative non-spore forming and motile or non-motile bacteria which can ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35–37°C. They are a used indicator of sanitary quality of foods and water. Coliforms can be found in soil and on vegetation. While coliforms themselves are not causes of serious illness, they are easy to culture, their presence is used to indicate that other pathogenic organisms of fecal origin may be present; such pathogens include disease-causing bacteria, viruses, or protozoa and many multicellular parasites. Coliform procedures are performed in anaerobic conditions. Typical genera include: Citrobacter Enterobacter Hafnia Klebsiella EscherichiaEscherichia coli can be distinguished from most other coliforms by its ability to ferment lactose at 44°C in the fecal coliform test, by its growth and color reaction on certain types of culture media; when cultured on an eosin methylene blue plate, a positive result for E. coli is metallic green colonies on a dark purple media.
Escherichia coli have an incubation period of 12–72 hours with the optimal growth temperature being 30–37°C. Unlike the general coliform group, E. coli are exclusively of fecal origin and their presence is thus an effective confirmation of fecal contamination. Most strains of E. coli are harmless. Infection symptoms and signs include bloody diarrhea, stomach cramps and fever; the bacteria can cause pneumonia, other respiratory illnesses and urinary tract infections. An easy way to differentiate between different types of coliform bacteria is by using an eosin methylene blue agar plate; this plate is inhibitory to Gram bacteria, will produce a color change in the Gram bacterial colonies based on lactose fermentation abilities. Strong lactose fermenters will appear as dark blue/purple/black, E.coli colonies will be dark colored, but will appear to have a metallic green sheen. Other coliform bacteria will appear as thick, slimy colonies, with non-fermenters being colorless, weak fermenters being pink.
Bacteriological water analysis Coliform index Fecal coliform Indicator bacteria Pathogenic Escherichia coli
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. Infrastructure is composed of public and private physical improvements such as roads, tunnels, water supply, electrical grids, telecommunications. In general, it has been defined as "the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions". There are two general types of ways to view infrastructure, soft. Hard infrastructure refers to the physical networks necessary for the functioning of a modern industry; this includes roads, railways, etc. Soft infrastructure refers to all the institutions that maintain the economic, health and cultural standards of a country; this includes educational programs, official statistics and recreational facilities, law enforcement agencies, emergency services. The word infrastructure has been used in English since 1887 and in French since 1875 meaning "The installations that form the basis for any operation or system".
The word was imported from French, where it means subgrade, the native material underneath a constructed pavement or railway. The word is a combination of the Latin prefix "infra", meaning "below" and many of these constructions are underground, for example, tunnels and gas systems, railways; the army use of the term achieved currency in the United States after the formation of NATO in the 1940s, by 1970 was adopted by urban planners in its modern civilian sense. A 1987 US National Research Council panel adopted the term "public works infrastructure", referring to: "... both specific functional modes – highways, streets and bridges. A comprehension of infrastructure spans not only these public works facilities, but the operating procedures, management practices, development policies that interact together with societal demand and the physical world to facilitate the transport of people and goods, provision of water for drinking and a variety of other uses, safe disposal of society's waste products, provision of energy where it is needed, transmission of information within and between communities."
The American Society of Civil Engineers publish a "Infrastructure Report Card" which represents the organizations opinion on the condition of various infrastructure every 2–4 years. As of 2017 they grade 16 categories, namely Aviation, Dams, Drinking Water, Hazardous Waste, Inland Waterways, Parks & Recreation, Rail, Schools, Solid Waste and Wastewater. A way to embody personal infrastructure is to think of it in term of human capital. Human capital is defined by the Encyclopedia Britannica as “intangible collective resources possessed by individuals and groups within a given population"; the goal of personal infrastructure is to determine the quality of the economic agents’ values. This results in three major tasks: the task of economic proxies’ in the economic process. Institutional infrastructure branches from the term "economic constitution". According to Gianpiero Torrisi, Institutional infrastructure is the object of economic and legal policy, it compromises the grown and sets norms. It refers to the degree of actual equal treatment of equal economic data and determines the framework within which economic agents may formulate their own economic plans and carry them out in co-operation with others.
Material infrastructure is defined as “those immobile, non-circulating capital goods that contribute to the production of infrastructure goods and services needed to satisfy basic physical and social requirements of economic agents". There are two distinct qualities of material infrastructures: 1) Fulfillment of social needs and 2) Mass production; the first characteristic deals with the basic needs of human life. The second characteristic is the non-availability of infrastructure services. According to the business dictionary, economic infrastructure can be defined as "internal facilities of a country that make business activity possible, such as communication and distribution networks, financial institutions and markets, energy supply systems". Economic infrastructure support productive events; this includes roads, bridges, water distribution networks, sewer systems, irrigation plants, etc. Social infrastructure can be broadly defined as the construction and maintenance of facilities that support social services.
Social infrastructures are created to increase social act on economic activity. These being schools and playgrounds, structures for public safety, waste disposal plants, sports area, etc. Core assets have monopolistic characteristics. Investors seeking core infrastructure look for five different characteristics: Income, Low volatility of returns, Inflation Protection, Long-term liability matching. Core Infrastructure incorporates all the main types of infrastructure. For instance. Basic infrastructure refers to main railways, canals, harbors and
Saint John Harbour (electoral district)
Saint John Harbour is a provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick, Canada. It was represented from its creation for the 1995 election until October 13, 2005 by Elizabeth Weir, the leader of the New Democratic Party of New Brunswick from 1988 to September 25, 2005. Liberal Ed Doherty had taken the spot by winning a by-election on November 14, 2005 and was re-elected in the 2006 general election, it is represented by Liberal Ed Doherty, re-elected in the 2014 general election. Prior to the New Brunswick electoral redistribution of 1994, the district had moderately different boundaries. In that year it was split in two, with part being merged with Saint John South to form this current Saint John Harbour district, while the other half of the former Harbour district became a part of Saint John Lancaster; this district was created in the early 1990s using all of the district of Saint John South and a small portion of the old Saint John Harbour district, resulting in some confusion as most of what had been known as Saint John Harbour became a part of Saint John Portland.
In the 2006 redistribution it underwent only minor changes. Liberal Ed Doherty faced NDP candidate Dan Robichaud, whom he had run against in the 2005 by-election, as well as Conservative candidate Idee Inyangudor, an aide to a member of the cabinet and David Raymond Amos. Elizabeth Weir, who had held this riding since its creation, resigned on October 13, 2005 and Premier of New Brunswick Bernard Lord called a by-election for the riding on October 15; the by-election was held on November 14, 2005 and was from the outset thought to be a close race between Lord's Progressive Conservatives and the Liberals with Weir's New Democrats unlikely to be able to compete without her personal popularity against the large organizations the other parties were to bring into the riding from around the province. In the end the Liberals won the race in a landslide, more than doubling their vote over the previous election, with an absolute majority of 55% in a race with four candidates. Bernard Lord placed his reputation on the line, according to pundits, due to his choice of a high-profile candidate and his announcing over $50 million in spending over the course of the four-week campaign.
As a result, many viewed this election as a huge blow to Lord's leadership and that it, along with two years of opinion polling showing Lord's PCs trailing the Liberals, the beginning of the end of his government. The by-election had immediate province-wide repercussions, bringing the standings in the legislature to 27 government, 27 opposition and the speaker; these standings would mean that the absence of one government member - if he or she did not vote with the opposition - could defeat the government. October 13, 2005 - Elizabeth Weir resigns from the seat to accept the post of President and CEO of the new Energy Efficiency and Conservation Agency. October 14, 2005 - Michelle Hooton announces she will be a candidate for the Progressive Conservatives in the by-election. October 15, 2005 - The Liberals and the Progressive Conservatives both hold their conventions, which were scheduled. Bernard Lord, the premier and leader of the PCs, drops the writ at his convention. October 17, 2005 - Hooton is acclaimed as PC candidate.
October 18, 2005 - Dr. Ed Doherty is acclaimed as Liberal candidate. October 20, 2005: Glen Jardine files papers to run as an independent. Dan Robichaud is elected as New Democratic Party candidate in a three-way race, though only 19 people voted at his nominating meeting. October 21, 2005 - The Liberals announce their platform for the by-election, promising to invest $50 million in and around the riding if they win the next general election; the Liberals highlight that the majority of this money would come from federal funding, available but Lord has refused to accept based on the conditions attached thereto. They argue. November 1, 2005 - An all candidates debate is co-hosted by Rogers Cable and the New Brunswick Telegraph-Journal newspaper, Independent Glen Jardine does not participate due to his late announcement as a candidate; the debate is televised once on each of the two following days. November 8, 2005 - An all candidates debate is held live on popular radio talk show Talk of the Town on CFBC.
All four candidates participate. November 9, 2005 - Michelle Hooton unveils her platform. Unlike the Liberal candidate, she does this individually. Where the Liberals promised what they would do with Doherty as a part of their team, Hooton promised what she would try to change from within the government if she was elected, she promised to change the government's position on nursing home payments, powers of municipalities in dealing with slum landlords, harbour cleanup, the St. Joseph's Hospital and affordable housing caps, she pledged to build a new justice complex, a skateboard park, several community police stations and focus on waterfront development. November 11, 2005 - A Telegraph Journal / Corporate Research Associates poll reveals a runaway lead for Doherty; the poll shows Hooton at 10 %, Robichaud at 9 % and Jardine at 1 % with 34 % undecided. Undecided voters were asked if they were leaning toward any candidate and, with leaning voters factored in, the result was Doherty 53%, Hooton 20%, Robichaud 19% and Jardine 2%.
November 14, 2005 - Ed Doherty wins the election in a landslide. He takes the stage to read his victory speech at 9:05 local time to announce Michelle Hooton has conceded to him; as of his announcement, he is ahead of Hooton by more than a 2 to 1 margin. * This was a new riding created out of a merger of the whole of the electoral district of Saint John Sou
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Partridge Island (Saint John County)
Partridge Island is a Canadian island located in the Bay of Fundy off the coast of Saint John, New Brunswick, within the city's Inner Harbour. The island is a provincial historic site and was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1974, it lies on the west side of the mouth of the Saint John River. During the American Revolution, in 1780, six British troops from Major Timothy Hierlihy's corps, under the command of Lieut. Wheaton, attacked eight American privateers in a house they were occupying on Partridge island; the British killed three of the other five were taken prisoner. Partridge Island was first established as a quarantine station and pest house in 1785 by the Saint John Royal Charter, which set aside the island for use as a navigational aid station and a military post, its first use as a quarantine station was not until 1816. A hospital was constructed on the island in 1830; the island received its largest influx of immigrants in the 1840s during the "Great Famine" known as the "Irish Potato Famine," when a shortage of potatoes occurred due to potato blight striking Ireland's staple crop.
The famine caused millions to starve to death or otherwise emigrate to North America. During the famine, some 30,000 immigrants were processed by the island's visiting and resident physicians, with 1,196 dying at Partridge Island and the adjacent city of Saint John during the Typhus epidemic of 1847. During the 1890s there were over 78,000 immigrants a year being treated on the island. A memorial to the Irish immigrants of the mid-1840s was set up on the island in the 1890s, but by World War One it had deteriorated. In 1926 the Saint John City Cornet Band approached Saint John contractor George McArthur who agreed to lead a campaign to build a suitable monument; the Celtic Cross memorial to the Irish dead of 1847 was dedicated in 1927. This was restored and rededicated in 1985. In the early and mid-1980s, memorials were built by the Saint John Jewish Community, the Loyal Orange Lodge, the Partridge Island Research Project, the Partridge Island & Harbour Heritage Inc. a company, registered in 1988 and dissolved in 2004.
The memorials were dedicated to the Protestant and Jewish immigrants buried in the six island graveyards. A monument was dedicated to all of the Irish dead from 1830 to the 1920s; the island's folklore begins with the Mi'kmaq Nation, who referred to the island as "Quak'm'kagan'ik" meaning "a piece cut out." This name is in reference to the belief that the island was created when Glooscap smashed the dam that "Big Beaver" had built. At the Reversing Falls Rapids a piece of the dam was swept in the rush of water to the mouth of the harbour where it came to rest to form the island; this version of the legend dates to the early 20th century. The 19th century version refers to Partridge Island in Minas Basin in Nova Scotia. Following the arrival of the American Loyalists from the American Revolutionary War in 1783, the formation of the city of Saint John, there was the need for a lighthouse to aid shipping. A light station was erected on Partridge Island and began operating in 1791, it was only the third light station to have been built in British North America.
A signal station was soon located on the island and it was used for many years to alert the harbour to vessels approaching from the Bay of Fundy. The island's light and signal station were both established in 1791; the island was Saint John's principal military fortification from 1800 until 1947. It was the only Saint John fortification to be used during all periods of Saint John's military activity. There are still visible remains of the Royal Artillery gun battery of 1812, of both the First and Second World Wars; the island was home to dozens of island families over the years, from lightkeepers such as Captain Samuel Duffy, James Wilson, Albert Smith, Charles Mitchell and Thomas Furness, to hospital staff such as Doctors George and William Harding, hospital stewards Thomas McGowan and Jim Hargrove, teachers for the island's school such as Jean MacCullum and Forbes Elliott. Boat tours to the island operated from 1982 until 1995. Public access is now restricted. There have been numerous books written about the island as well as video documentaries.
Ambitions to turn Partridge Island into a tourist site have been ongoing. In 2014, the federal government set aside $200,000 for a feasibility study which would assess the cost of repairing the breakwater and creating a walkway that would cross to the island as well as annual operation and maintenance costs; the study found that it would cost between $27-$40 million to create a path to the island. Wayne Long, MP for Saint John, has proposed that a wharf be built at the site and that boat tours would go to and from it. Long said in 2017, "The time for action is now" about creating access to the historic island. Long estimates that the wharf would cost only $5 million, a sharp reduction from the cost of a walkway. Before opening to the public, a clean-up of the island's significant soil contaminates would have to be done. All of the remaining buildings on the site have been burned. Of the six graveyards, the 19th century graveyard was completely obliterated by the military during World War II. Less than three dozen graves remain.
Instead of remaining a well-kept national historic site, Partridge Island has become the "haunted, dangerous rite of passage for New Brunswick’s wasted youth." Many young people from the local area go to the island to party or to vandalise, although it is illegal to cross the breakwater. List of communities in New Brunswick List of islands of New Brunswick Gateway to Canada - Heritage Resources Saint John A Chronicle of Irish Immigration to Saint John, New Brunswick, 184
New Brunswick is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. According to the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick is the only bilingual province. About two thirds of the population declare themselves a third francophones. One third of the population describes themselves as bilingual. Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas in Greater Moncton, Greater Saint John and the capital Fredericton. Unlike the other Maritime provinces, New Brunswick's terrain is forested uplands, with much of the land further from the coast, giving it a harsher climate. New Brunswick is 83% forested, less densely-populated than the rest of the Maritimes. Being close to Europe, New Brunswick was among the first places in North America to be explored and settled by Europeans, starting with the French in the early 1600s, who displaced the indigenous Mi'kmaq and the Passamaquoddy peoples; the French settlers were displaced when the area became part of the British Empire.
In 1784, after an influx of refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the province was partitioned from Nova Scotia. The province prospered in the early 1800s and the population grew reaching about a quarter of a million by mid-century. In 1867, New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada. After Confederation, wooden shipbuilding and lumbering declined, while protectionism disrupted trade ties with New England; the mid-1900s found New Brunswick to be one of the poorest regions of Canada, now mitigated by Canadian transfer payments and improved support for rural areas. As of 2002, provincial gross domestic product was derived as follows: services 43%. Tourism accounts for about 9 % of the labour force indirectly. Popular destinations include Fundy National Park and the Hopewell Rocks, Kouchibouguac National Park, Roosevelt Campobello International Park. In 2013, 64 cruise ships called at Port of Saint John carrying on average 2600 passengers each.
Indigenous peoples have been in the area since about 7000 BC. At the time of European contact, inhabitants were the Mi'kmaq, the Maliseet, the Passamaquoddy. Although these tribes did not leave a written record, their language is present in many placenames, such as Aroostook, Petitcodiac and Shediac. New Brunswick may have been part of Vinland during the Norse exploration of North America, Basque and Norman fishermen may have visited the Bay of Fundy in the early 1500s; the first documented European visits were by Jacques Cartier in 1534. In 1604, a party including Samuel de Champlain visited the mouth of the Saint John River on the eponymous Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day. Now Saint John, this was the site of the first permanent European settlement in New Brunswick. French settlement extended up the river to the site of present-day Fredericton. Other settlements in the southeast extended from Beaubassin, near the present-day border with Nova Scotia, to Baie Verte, up the Petitcodiac and Shepody Rivers.
By the early 1700s the area was part of the French colony of Acadia, in turn part of New France. Acadia covered what is now the Maritimes, as well as bits of Maine. In the early 1700s, rivalry between Britain and France for control of territory led to the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, under which Acadia was reduced to Île Saint-Jean and Île-Royale; the ownership of New Brunswick being disputed, with an informal border on the Isthmus of Chignecto. The British prevailed, leading to the 1755 Expulsion of the Acadians. Present-day New Brunswick became part of the colony of Nova Scotia. Hostilities ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Acadians returning from exile discovered several thousand immigrants from New England, on their former lands; some settled along the Saint John River. Settlement was slow. Pennsylvanian immigrants founded Moncton in 1766, English settlers from Yorkshire arrived in the Sackville area. After the American Revolution, about 10,000 loyalist refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit.
The number reached 14,000 by 1784, with about one in ten returning to America. The same year New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia and that year saw its first elected assembly; the colony was named New Brunswick in honour of George III, King of Great Britain, King of Ireland, Prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in what is now Germany. In 1785 Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city; the population of the colony reached 26,000 in 1806 and 35,000 in 1812. The 1800s saw an age of prosperity based on wood export and shipbuilding, bolstered by The Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 and demand from the American Civil War. St. Martins became the third most productive shipbuilding town in the Maritimes, producing over 500 vessels; the first half of the 1800s saw large-scale immigration from Ireland and Scotland, with the population reaching 252,047 by 1861. In 1848, responsible home government was granted and the 1850s saw the emergence of political parties organised along religious and ethnic lines.
The notion of unifying the separate colonies of British North America was discussed i
Reversing Falls Bridge
The Reversing Falls Bridge is a two-lane highway bridge crossing the Saint John River at Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. It carries New Brunswick Route 100 across the river and there is no toll for its use; the Reversing Falls rapids are a notoriously dangerous stretch of water passing through a gorge which creates a chasm through the middle of the Saint John metropolitan region. Prior to construction of the first bridge in 1853, ferries were used to connect both sides of the river in the city; the first bridge was a suspension bridge. Its replacement, the current steel arch structure, was opened to public use alongside the original in 1915. Both structures have shared the site of this crossing with the Reversing Falls Railway Bridge since 1885, it is known as the floating bridge. Until the 1940s, the Reversing Falls Bridge carried a streetcar line; until 1968, with the opening of a second bridge in Saint John, the Harbour Bridge, the Reversing Falls Bridge was the only link between the city's East and West sides.
Visitors may stop at a public viewing point above the bridge on the west bank of the river, or use a restaurant and gift shop constructed adjacent to its western abutment