Saint Julian's Tower
Saint Julian's Tower known as Torre di San Giuliano and known as Sliema Tower, is a small watchtower in Sliema, Malta. It was completed in 1658 as the fifth of the De Redin towers. An artillery battery was built around the tower in 1715. Today, the remains of the battery are a restaurant. Saint Julian's Tower was built in 1658 to protect St. Julian's Bay, it follows the standard design of the De Redin towers, having a square plan with two floors and a turret on the roof. It has Saint George's Tower in its line of sight to the west, the capital Valletta to its east. In 1715, a semi-circular artillery battery was built around the seaward side of the tower. Part of the battery had a parapet with four embrasures, with the rest of the parapet being en barbette. A free standing wall and a redan pierced with musketry loopholes enclosed the tower's land front, protected by a shallow rock hewn ditch. In 1798, during the Maltese uprising against the French, insurgents led by Vincenzo Borg captured Saint Julian's Tower and Battery.
On during the blockade, the battery's guns were transferred to other insurgent fortifications such as the Corradino Batteries, in order to bombard the French in Valletta. The tower gave its name to Tower Road, today one of Malta's most popular seaside promenades. Today, the tower is intact and in good condition; the battery is missing its land redan, which have been replaced by a promenade. In addition, the parapet with embrasures has been replaced by a low boundary wall; the tower and battery are now used as a restaurant, known as It-Torri Restaurant. Frendo, Henry. "The French in Malta 1798 - 1800: reflections on an insurrection". Cahiers de la Méditerranée. University of Malta. 57: 144–145. ISSN 1773-0201. National Inventory of the Cultural Property of the Maltese Islands YouTube video showing a 3D model of Saint Julian's Tower and Battery
Xlendi Tower is a small watchtower near Xlendi Bay, within the limits of Munxar on the island of Gozo in Malta. The tower is one of the Lascaris towers and dates to 1650, it is the oldest of the four surviving watchtowers on Gozo. The earlier Garzes and Marsalforn towers were destroyed in the 19th centuries. Xlendi Tower was proposed in 1649 by the Baliff Baldassare de Demandolx. Construction began soon after, it was complete by June 1650; the Università of Gozo paid the cost of construction. The tower is rectangular and its design is similar to that of the earlier Lascaris towers on Malta. Unlike the earlier Lascaris towers, Xlendi Tower has an additional platform with a slope to its base on the seaward side, it has a flat roof. It held two 6-pounder guns, which were replaced by two 4-pounder guns. Entrance to the tower is via an external flight of stairs that connects to the only doorway, situated on the second floor; the tower was under the command of a Capomastro, assisted by a bombardier, an Aggiutante, all of whom were paid by the Università.
At night, three men manned the tower. Salt pans are located close to the tower. By 1681 it was in poor condition, needing renovation. During the British era the tower fell under the responsibility of the Royal Malta Fencible Regiment, which became the Royal Malta Fencible Artillery; when the Fencible Artillery was relieved of its coastal watch duties in 1873, the tower was abandoned. During World War II, the Coast Police manned the tower as an observation post. In 1954 the tower was leased to private persons but it was abandoned; the tower was handed to the Munxar Local Council and Din l-Art Ħelwa in October 2009. They are restoring the tower, while sharing the expenses equally. Notes National Inventory of the Cultural Property of the Maltese Islands
Għajn Ħadid Tower
Għajn Ħadid Tower known as Torre di Salomone and known by locals as Xaghra Tower, is a ruined watchtower in Selmun, limits of Mellieħa, Malta. It was built in 1658 as the first of the De Redin towers; the tower has been in ruins since its upper floor collapsed in an earthquake in 1856. Għajn Ħadid Tower was the first De Redin tower to be built, was constructed between March and May 1658; the total cost of construction was 2 tari and 8 uqija. It was built on a cliff face overlooking Mġiebaħ Bay, having views of l-Aħrax tal-Mellieħa, Gozo, St. Paul's Bay and Baħar iċ-Ċagħaq; the design of the tower was based on the Sciuta Tower, built in 1638 in Wied iż-Żurrieq. It had a square plan with two floors and a turret on the roof, with the entrance being a doorway located on the first floor, that could only be reached by a retractable ladder; the design continued to be used for all the other De Redin towers in Malta. According to a 1743 report in which all coastal towers were inspected due to the fear of a plague, the tower was armed with two bronze cannons, gun wheels and stock, eighteen cannonballs, fifteen rotolos of gunpowder, four muskets and twelve rotolos of musket balls.
It was manned by six people. The area around the tower contains a number of fields with rubble walls that were used to grow crops and house animals. A well dug into solid rock is found a couple of metres away from the tower. Both the fields and the well were used by the militia stationed in the tower since the tower was in a remote location and was difficult to supply; the tower was therefore self-sufficient. A small defensible room pierced by musketry loopholes is located nearby, but it is not known if this predates the tower or if it was built after it; the remains of a small sentry room can be seen in the area. All these features are unique to Għajn Ħadid Tower. Għajn Ħadid Tower was damaged in an earthquake on 12 October 1856, when its upper floor collapsed. Most of the stones were removed to be used in other buildings, but part of the scarped base still exists; the defensible room near the tower survived the earthquake, still exists today. Despite the tower's collapse, its ruins are still important as they show elements of the tower's architecture which are not visible in the still standing towers.
Since the other De Redin towers are identical, more information about their construction can be found by studying Għajn Ħadid Tower. The commemorative plaque, on the tower is on public display at a garden in Tas-Salib Square in Mellieħa; the tower's 6-pound cannon was retrieved in 1975 by the Historical Society of Mellieħa, it is now displayed along with the plaque at the same garden. On the plaque it is written: FR. D. MARTINVS DE REDIN MAGNO S. R. H. MAGISTROSEXTAM SPEULAM. PRO GARINARVM. AC INCOLARVM TUTIORI STATIONE, ERIGENTI, MELITEN S. POPVLVS PRINCIPI SVO CLEMENT PRO. VT IN CORDE. SIC IN L…RIDE GRATES DEBITAS REDDEBAT AN. 1658. National Inventory of the Cultural Property of the Maltese Islands
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval and early modern Catholic military order. It was headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, on the island of Rhodes, in Malta and St Petersburg; the Hospitallers arose in the early 11th century, at the time of the great monastic reformation, as a group of individuals associated with an Amalfitan hospital in the Muristan district of Jerusalem, dedicated to John the Baptist and founded around 1023 by Gerard Thom to provide care for sick, poor or injured pilgrims coming to the Holy Land. Some scholars, consider that the Amalfitan order and hospital were different from Gerard Thom's order and its hospital. After the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 during the First Crusade, the organisation became a military religious order under its own Papal charter, charged with the care and defence of the Holy Land. Following the conquest of the Holy Land by Islamic forces, the knights operated from Rhodes, over which they were sovereign, from Malta, where they administered a vassal state under the Spanish viceroy of Sicily.
The Hospitallers were the smallest group to colonise parts of the Americas: they acquired four Caribbean islands in the mid-17th century, which they turned over to France in the 1660s. The knights were weakened in the Protestant Reformation, when rich commanderies of the order in northern Germany and the Netherlands became Protestant and separated from the Roman Catholic main stem, remaining separate to this day, although ecumenical relations between the descendant chivalric orders are amicable; the order was disestablished in England, Denmark, as well as in some other parts of northern Europe, it was further damaged by Napoleon's capture of Malta in 1798, following which it became dispersed throughout Europe. In 603, Pope Gregory I commissioned the Ravennate Abbot Probus, Gregory's emissary at the Lombard court, to build a hospital in Jerusalem to treat and care for Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land. In 800, Emperor Charlemagne added a library to it. About 200 years in 1005, Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah destroyed the hospital and three thousand other buildings in Jerusalem.
In 1023, merchants from Amalfi and Salerno in Italy were given permission by the Caliph Ali az-Zahir of Egypt to rebuild the hospital in Jerusalem. The hospital, built on the site of the monastery of Saint John the Baptist, took in Christian pilgrims travelling to visit the Christian holy sites, it was served by the Order of Saint Benedict. The monastic hospitaller order was founded following the First Crusade by Gerard Thom, whose role as founder was confirmed by the papal bull Pie Postulatio Voluntatis issued by Pope Paschal II in 1113. Gerard acquired territory and revenues for his order throughout the Kingdom of Jerusalem and beyond. Under his successor, Raymond du Puy, the original hospice was expanded to an infirmary near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem; the group cared for pilgrims in Jerusalem, but the order soon extended to providing pilgrims with an armed escort, which soon grew into a substantial force. Thus the Order of St. John imperceptibly became military without losing its charitable character.
Raymond du Puy, who succeeded Gerard as Master of the Hospital in 1118, organised a militia from the order's members, dividing the order into three ranks: knights, men at arms, chaplains. Raymond offered the service of his armed troops to Baldwin II of Jerusalem, the order from this time participated in the crusades as a military order, in particular distinguishing itself in the Siege of Ascalon of 1153. In 1130, Pope Innocent II gave the order a silver cross in a field of red; the Hospitallers and the Knights Templar became the most formidable military orders in the Holy Land. Frederick Barbarossa, the Holy Roman Emperor, pledged his protection to the Knights of St. John in a charter of privileges granted in 1185; the statutes of Roger de Moulins deal only with the service of the sick. In the latter a marked distinction is made between secular knights, externs to the order, who served only for a time, the professed knights, attached to the order by a perpetual vow, who alone enjoyed the same spiritual privileges as the other religious.
The order numbered three distinct classes of membership: the military brothers, the brothers infirmarians, the brothers chaplains, to whom was entrusted the divine service. In 1248 Pope Innocent IV approved a standard military dress for the Hospitallers to be worn during battle. Instead of a closed cape over their armour, they wore a red surcoat with a white cross emblazoned on it. Many of the more substantial Christian fortifications in the Holy Land were built by the Templars and the Hospitallers. At the height of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Hospitallers held seven great forts and 140 other estates in the area; the two largest of these, their bases of power in the Kingdom and in the Principality of Antioch, were the Krak des Chevaliers and Margat in Syria. The property of the Order was divided into priories, subdivided into bailiwicks, which in turn were divided into commanderies; as early as the late 12th century the order had begun to achieve recognition in the Kingdom of England and Duchy of Normandy.
As a result, buildings such as St John's Jerusalem and the Knights Gate, Quenington i
Ħamrija Tower known as Torre della Pietra Nigra and known locally as Torri ta' Rsejjen, is a small watchtower in Qrendi, Malta. It was completed in 1659 as the twelfth of the De Redin towers; the tower was restored by Heritage Malta and it is now in good condition. Ħamrija Tower was built in 1659 on a cliff on the southwestern coast of Malta, on the site of a medieval watch post. It is located between Għar Lapsi, part of Siġġiewi, Wied iż-Żurrieq, part of Qrendi, it has excellent views of the island of Filfla. The tower is located a few hundred meters from two Neolithic temple sites, Mnajdra and Ħaġar Qim, although these had not yet been discovered when it was built; the tower's structure is similar to the other De Redin towers, having a square base with two floors. The entrance is on the upper floor; the nearest tower in the chain is the Sciutu Tower to the southeast. Ħamrija Tower is the last tower on the southwest coast, so it has no other towers in its line of sight. It was armed with a 3-pounder gun and a ½-pounder gun, which were used to signal to the other towers.
The tower was restored and rebuilt after parts of its external revetments collapsed. These works involved the reconstruction of the spiral staircase, along with the parapet, it now forms part of the Ħaġar Qim and Mnajdra Archaeological Park, which includes the temples, the tower, a memorial to Sir Walter Norris Congreve, a visitor centre and the surrounding area. National Inventory of the Cultural Property of the Maltese Islands
Saint George's Tower
Saint George's Tower is a small watchtower in St. Julian's, Malta, it is one of the Lascaris towers. Today, it is located in the grounds of a hotel. Saint George's Tower is located at St. George's Bay, St. Julian's, its site was occupied by a medieval watch post. The tower remained in use during the British period but was converted to a Fire Control Station once Fort Pembroke was built; the tower served as a radio communications post in World War II. The tower appears in a 1916 painting with the British additions, it was listed by MEPA as a Grade I National Monument in 1995, in 1997 the fire control tower added by the British was demolished, which restored the tower to its original state. The tower is now incorporated within the grounds of the Corinthia Hotel St George's Bay. Lascaris towers List of monuments in St. Julian's National Inventory of the Cultural Property of the Maltese Islands
Saint Agatha's Tower
Saint Agatha's Tower known as the Red Tower, Mellieħa Tower or Fort Saint Agatha, is a large bastioned watchtower in Mellieħa, Malta. It was built as the sixth of the Lascaris towers; the tower's design is different from the rest of the Lascaris towers, but it is similar to the earlier Wignacourt towers. St. Agatha's Tower was the last large bastioned tower. Saint Agatha's Tower was built between November 1647 and April 1649 to a design by the architect Antonio Garsin; the structure consists of a square tower with four corner towers. Cannon ports in the turrets gave interlocking fields of fire commanding the base of the walls and the gateway, with other large cannon ports in the faces of the main tower; the outer walls are four metres thick at the base and the interior of the tower is enclosed by a barrel vaulted roof. The corner turrets are surmounted by characteristic fish tail crenelations. A chapel was located within the tower; the tower is situated in a commanding position on the crest of Marfa Ridge at the north west end of Malta, overlooking the natural harbour and potential enemy landing site of Mellieħa Bay, with clear views over to Comino and Gozo, eastward to the line of watchtowers along the north shore of Malta that linked it with the Knights headquarters in Valletta.
It was the Knights' primary stronghold in the west of Malta, was manned by a garrison of 30 men, with ammunition and supplies to withstand a siege of 40 days. The ammunition of other fortifications in the north of Malta, such as Aħrax Tower and Wied Musa Battery, was stored in the tower. Like many of the Knights' early defensive structures, St. Agatha's Tower was strengthened during the early 18th century. A low profile rubble wall entrenchment was built around the flanks of the tower in the form of a redan trace. Due to this, the tower functioned as a redoubt, similar to the one at Żabbar during the French blockade, it continued to have a military function throughout the British period, was manned during both World Wars. From the British period it continued its military function being used as a radar station by the Armed Forces of Malta. By the close of the 20th century St. Agatha's Tower was in poor repair, with one turret missing and another turret damaged; the tower was restored by Din l-Art Ħelwa, starting in 1999 and completed in 2001, assisted by substantial industrial sponsorship.
As part of the restoration work, the damaged turrets were replaced, the walls and roof were rebuilt, eroded stone facing was replaced, interior walls were scraped and painted, the original floor was uncovered, the interior staircase to the roof was rebuilt. Due to the extreme unevenness of the floor, this was covered by a wooden surface with glass apertures through which one can view the original slabs; the tower is open to the public. In 2015, the tower was awarded a Certificate of Excellence by TripAdvisor. National Inventory of the Cultural Property of the Maltese Islands Saint Agatha's Tower, Malta