Cappadocia is a historical region in Central Anatolia in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Niğde Provinces in Turkey. According to Herodotus, in the time of the Ionian Revolt, the Cappadocians were reported as occupying a region from Mount Taurus to the vicinity of the Euxine. Cappadocia, in this sense, was bounded in the south by the chain of the Taurus Mountains that separate it from Cilicia, to the east by the upper Euphrates, to the north by Pontus, to the west by Lycaonia and eastern Galatia; the name, traditionally used in Christian sources throughout history, continues in use as an international tourism concept to define a region of exceptional natural wonders, in particular characterized by fairy chimneys and a unique historical and cultural heritage. The earliest record of the name of Cappadocia dates from the late 6th century BC, when it appears in the trilingual inscriptions of two early Achaemenid kings, Darius I and Xerxes, as one of the countries of the Persian Empire. In these lists of countries, the Old Persian name is Haspaduya, which according to some researchers is derived from Iranian Huw-aspa-dahyu- "the land/country of beautiful horses".
Others proposed that Kat-patuka came from the Luwian language, meaning "Low Country". Subsequent research suggests that the adverb katta meaning'down, below' is Hittite, while its Luwian equivalent is zanta; therefore the recent modification of this proposal operates with the Hittite katta peda- "place below" as a starting point for the development of the toponym Cappadocia. Herodotus tells us that the name of the Cappadocians was applied to them by the Persians, while they were termed by the Greeks "Syrians" or "White Syrians" Leucosyri. One of the Cappadocian tribes he mentions is the Moschoi, associated by Flavius Josephus with the biblical figure Meshech, son of Japheth: "and the Mosocheni were founded by Mosoch. AotJ I:6. Cappadocia appears in the biblical account given in the book of Acts 2:9; the Cappadocians were named as one group hearing the Gospel account from Galileans in their own language on the day of Pentecost shortly after the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Acts 2:5 seems to suggest that the Cappadocians in this account were "God-fearing Jews".
See Acts of the Apostles. The region is mentioned in the Jewish Mishnah, in Ketubot 13:11. Under the kings of the Persian Empire, the Cappadocians were divided into two satrapies, or governments, with one comprising the central and inland portion, to which the name of Cappadocia continued to be applied by Greek geographers, while the other was called Pontus; this division had come about before the time of Xenophon. As after the fall of the Persian government the two provinces continued to be separate, the distinction was perpetuated, the name Cappadocia came to be restricted to the inland province, which alone will be the focus of this article; the kingdom of Cappadocia still existed in the time of Strabo as a nominally independent state. Cilicia was the name given to the district in which Caesarea, the capital of the whole country, was situated; the only two cities of Cappadocia considered by Strabo to deserve that appellation were Caesarea and Tyana, not far from the foot of the Taurus. Cappadocia lies in the heartland of what is now Turkey.
The relief consists of a high plateau over 1000 m in altitude, pierced by volcanic peaks, with Mount Erciyes near Kayseri being the tallest at 3916 m. The boundaries of historical Cappadocia are vague towards the west. To the south, the Taurus Mountains form the boundary with Cilicia and separate Cappadocia from the Mediterranean Sea. To the west, Cappadocia is bounded by the historical regions of Lycaonia to the southwest, Galatia to the northwest. Due to its inland location and high altitude, Cappadocia has a markedly continental climate, with hot dry summers and cold snowy winters. Rainfall is sparse and the region is semi-arid. Cappadocia was known as Hatti in the late Bronze Age, was the homeland of the Hittite power centred at Hattusa. After the fall of the Hittite Empire, with the decline of the Syro-Cappadocians after their defeat by the Lydian king Croesus in the 6th century, Cappadocia was ruled by a sort of feudal aristocracy, dwelling in strong castles and keeping the peasants in a servile condition, which made them apt to foreign slavery.
It was included in the third Persian satrapy in the division established by Darius but continued to be governed by rulers of its own, none supreme over the whole country and all more or less tributaries of the Great King. After ending the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great tried to rule the area through one of his military commanders, but Ariarathes, a Persian aristocrat, somehow became king of the Cappadocians. As Ariarathes I, he was a successful ruler, he extended the borders of the Cappadocian Kingdom as far as to the Black Sea; the kingdom of Cappadocia lived in peace until the death of Alexander. The previous empire was divided into many parts, Cappadocia fell to Eumenes, his claims were made good in 322 BC by the regent Perdiccas. Persian colonists in the Cappadocian kingdom, cut off from their co-religionists in Iran proper, continued to practice Zoroastrianism. Stra
Judea (Roman province)
The Roman province of Judea, sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea and Idumea, extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea. It was named after Herod Archelaus's Tetrarchy of Judea, but the Roman province encompassed a much larger territory; the name "Judea" was derived from the Kingdom of Judah of the 6th century BCE. According to the historian Josephus following the deposition of Herod Archelaus, Judea was turned into a Roman province, during which time the Roman procurator was given authority to punish by execution; the general population began to be taxed by Rome. The province of Judea was the scene of unrest at its founding in 6 CE during the Census of Quirinius, the Crucifixion of Jesus circa 30-33 CE, several wars, known as the Jewish–Roman wars, were fought in its history; the Second Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE as part of the First Jewish–Roman War, resulting in the institution of the Fiscus Judaicus, after the Bar Kokhba revolt, the Roman Emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province to Syria Palaestina and Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina, which certain scholars conclude was an attempt to remove the relationship of the Jewish people to the region.
The first intervention of Rome in the region dates from 63 BCE, following the end of the Third Mithridatic War, when Rome made a province of Syria. After the defeat of Mithridates VI of Pontus, Pompey sacked Jerusalem and established Hasmonean prince Hyrcanus II as Ethnarch and High Priest, but he was denied the title of King. A appointment by Julius Caesar was Antipater the Idumaean known as Antipas, as the first Roman Procurator. Herod the Great, Antipater's son, was designated "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate in 40 BCE but he did not gain military control until 37 BCE. During his reign the last representatives of the Hasmoneans were eliminated, the great port of Caesarea Maritima was built, he died in 4 BCE, his kingdom was divided among three of his sons, two of whom becoming tetrarchs, one of whom becoming an ethnarch who ruled over half of his father's kingdom. One of these principalities was Judea, corresponding to the territory of the historic Judea, plus Samaria and Idumea. Herod's son Archelaus ruled Judea so badly that he was dismissed in 6 CE by the Roman emperor Augustus, after an appeal from his own population.
Herod Antipas, ruled as tetrarch of Galilee and Perea from 4 BCE to 39 CE, being dismissed by Caligula. Herod's son, Philip the Tetrarch, ruled over the northeastern part of his father's kingdom. In 6 CE Archelaus' tetrachy came under direct Roman administration; the Judean province did not include Galilee, nor Peraea or the Decapolis. Its revenue was of little importance to the Roman treasury, but it controlled the land and coastal sea routes to the bread basket of Egypt and was a buffer against the Parthian Empire; the capital was at Caesarea Maritima, not Jerusalem. Quirinius became Legate of Syria and conducted the first Roman tax census of Syria and Judea, opposed by the Zealots. Judea was not a senatorial province, nor an imperial province, but instead was a "satellite of Syria" governed by a prefect, a knight of the equestrian order, not a former consul or praetor of senatorial rank. Still, Jews living in the province maintained some form of independence and could judge offenders by their own laws, including capital offenses, until c. 28 CE.
The Province of Judea during the late Hellenistic period and early Roman period was divided into five conclaves, or administrative districts: Jerusalem, Amathus and Sepphoris. The'Crisis under Caligula' has been proposed as the first open break between Rome and the Jews. Between 41 and 44 CE, Judea regained its nominal autonomy, when Herod Agrippa was made King of the Jews by the emperor Claudius, thus in a sense restoring the Herodian dynasty, although there is no indication Judea ceased to be a Roman province because it no longer had a prefect. Claudius had decided to allow, across the empire, personal agents to the Emperor serving as provincial tax and finance ministers, to be elevated to governing magistrates with full state authority to keep the peace, he elevated Judea's procurator whom he trusted to imperial governing status because the imperial legate of Syria was not sympathetic to the Judeans. Following Agrippa's death in 44 CE, the province returned to direct Roman control, incorporating Agrippa's personal territories of Galilee and Peraea, under a row of procurators.
Agrippa's son, Agrippa II was designated King of the Jews in 48. He was the last of the Herodians. From 70 CE until 135 CE, Judea's rebelliousness required a governing Roman legate capable of commanding legions; because Agrippa II maintained loyalty to the Empire, the Kingdom was retained until he died, either in 93/94 or 100, when the area returned to complete, undivided Roman Empire control. Judaea was the stage of two three, major Jewish–Roman wars: 66–70 CE – First Jewish–Roman War, resulting in the siege of Jerusalem the destruction of Herod's Temple and ending with the siege of Masada in 73–74.. Before the war Judaea was a Roman province of the third category, that is, under the administration of a procurator of equestrian rank and under the overall control of the govern
An axe is an implement, used for millennia to shape and cut wood, to harvest timber, as a weapon, as a ceremonial or heraldic symbol. The axe has many forms and specialised uses but consists of an axe head with a handle, or helve. Before the modern axe, the stone-age hand axe was used from 1.5 million years BP without a handle. It was fastened to a wooden handle; the earliest examples of handled axes have heads of stone with some form of wooden handle attached in a method to suit the available materials and use. Axes made of copper, bronze and steel appeared as these technologies developed. Axes are composed of a head and a handle; the axe is an example of a simple machine, as it is dual inclined plane. This reduces the effort needed by the wood chopper, it splits the wood into two parts by the pressure concentration at the blade. The handle of the axe acts as a lever allowing the user to increase the force at the cutting edge—not using the full length of the handle is known as choking the axe. For fine chopping using a side axe this sometimes is a positive effect, but for felling with a double bitted axe it reduces efficiency.
Cutting axes have a shallow wedge angle, whereas splitting axes have a deeper angle. Most axes are double bevelled, i.e. symmetrical about the axis of the blade, but some specialist broadaxes have a single bevel blade, an offset handle that allows them to be used for finishing work without putting the user's knuckles at risk of injury. Less common today, they were once an integral part of a joiner and carpenter's tool kit, not just a tool for use in forestry. A tool of similar origin is the billhook. Most modern axes have steel heads and wooden handles hickory in the US and ash in Europe and Asia, although plastic or fibreglass handles are common. Modern axes are specialised by use and form. Hafted axes with short handles designed for use with one hand are called hand axes but the term hand axe refers to axes without handles as well. Hatchets tend to be small hafted axes with a hammer on the back side; as easy-to-make weapons, axes have been used in combat. Axes were tools of stone called hand axes, used without handles, had knapped cutting edges of flint or other stone.
Stone axes made with ground cutting edges were first developed sometime in the late Pleistocene in Australia, where ground-edge axe fragments from sites in Arnhem Land date back at least 44,000 years. In Europe, the innovation of ground edges occurred much in the Neolithic period ending 4,000 to 2,000 BC; the first true hafted axes are known from the Mesolithic period. Few wooden hafts have been found from this period, but it seems that the axe was hafted by wedging. Birch-tar and raw-hide lashings were used to fix the blade. Sometimes a short section of deer antler was used, which prevented the splitting of the haft and softened the impact on the stone blade itself, helping absorb the impact of each axe blow and lessening the chances of breaking the handle; the antler was hollowed out at one end to create a socket for the axehead. The antler sheath was either perforated and a handle inserted into it or set in a hole made in the handle instead; the distribution of stone axes is an important indication of prehistoric trade.
Thin sectioning is used to determine the provenance of the stone blades. In Europe, Neolithic "axe factories", where thousands of ground stone axes were roughed out, are known from many places, such as: Great Langdale, England Rathlin Island, Ireland Krzemionki, Poland Plancher-les-Mines, France Aosta Valley, Italy. Stone axes are still in use today in parts of Papua, Indonesia; the Mount Hagen area of Papua New Guinea was an important production centre. From the late Neolithic/Chalcolithic onwards, axes were made of copper mixed with arsenic; these axes were hafted much like their stone predecessors. Axes continued to be made in this manner with the introduction of Bronze metallurgy; the hafting method changed and the flat axe developed into the "flanged axe" palstaves, winged and socketed axes. The Proto-Indo-European word for "axe" may have been *pelek'u-, but the word was a loan, or a Neolithic wanderwort related to Sumerian balag, Akkadian pilaku-. At least since the late Neolithic, elaborate axes had a religious significance and indicated the exalted status of their owner.
Certain types never show traces of wear. In Minoan Crete, the double axe had a special significance, used by priestesses in religious ceremonies; the symbol refers to deification ceremonies. In 1998 a labrys, complete with an elaborately embellished haft, was found at Cham-Eslen, Canton of Zug, Switzerland; the haft wrapped in ornamented birch-bark. The axe blade is 17.4 cm long and made of antigorite, mined in the Gotthard-area. The haft is fastened by wedges of antler and by birch-tar, it belongs to the early Cortai
Simone Martini was an Italian painter born in Siena. He was a major figure in the development of early Italian painting and influenced the development of the International Gothic style, it is thought that Martini was a pupil of Duccio di Buoninsegna, the leading Sienese painter of his time. According to late Renaissance art biographer Giorgio Vasari, Simone was instead a pupil of Giotto di Bondone, with whom he went to Rome to paint at the Old St. Peter's Basilica, Giotto executing a mosaic there. Martini's brother-in-law was the artist Lippo Memmi. Little documentation of Simone's life survives, many attributions are debated by art historians. Simone was doubtlessly apprenticed from an early age. Among his first documented works is the Maestà of 1315 in the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena. A copy of the work, executed shortly thereafter by Lippo Memmi in San Gimignano, testifies to the enduring influence Simone's prototypes would have on other artists throughout the 14th century. Perpetuating the Sienese tradition, Simone's style contrasted with the sobriety and monumentality of Florentine art, is noted for its soft, decorative features, sinuosity of line, courtly elegance.
Simone's art owes much to French manuscript illumination and ivory carving: examples of such art were brought to Siena in the fourteenth century by means of the Via Francigena, a main pilgrimage and trade route from Northern Europe to Rome. Simone's other major works include the St. Louis of Toulouse Crowning the King Robert of Anjou at the Museo di Capodimonte in Naples. During this stay, putative pupils were his son Francesco, Gennaro di Cola, Stefanone. Among other of Simone's works, he painted the Saint Catherine of Alexandria Polyptych in Pisa and the Annunciation with St. Margaret and St. Ansanus at the Uffizi in Florence, as well as frescoes in the San Martino Chapel in the lower church of the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi. Francis Petrarch became a friend of Simone's while in Avignon, two of Petrarch's sonnets make reference to a portrait of Laura de Noves that Simone painted for the poet. A Christ Discovered in the Temple is in the collections of Liverpool's Walker Art Gallery.
Simone Martini died while in the service of the Papal court at Avignon in 1344. Memmo di Filippuccio Vasari, Giorgio. Lives of the Artists. Penguin Classics. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Simone Martini". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Art of Simone Martini Simone Martini – Gothic Painter Simone Martini at the National Gallery of Art
Holy Spirit in Christianity
For the majority of Christian denominations, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is the third person of the Trinity: the Triune God manifested as God the Father, God the Son,and God the Holy Spirit. Nontrinitarian Christians, who reject the doctrine of the Trinity, differ from mainstream Christianity in their beliefs about the Holy Spirit and fall into several distinct categories such as Unitarianism, Binitarianism and others; some Christian theologians identify the Holy Spirit with the Ruach Hakodesh in Jewish scripture, with many similar names including the Ruach Elohim, Ruach YHWH, the Ruach Hakmah. In the New Testament it is identified with the Spirit of Christ, the Spirit of Truth, the Paraclete and the Holy Spirit; the New Testament details a close relationship between the Holy Spirit and Jesus during his earthly life and ministry. The Gospels of Matthew and Luke and the Nicene Creed state that Jesus was "conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary"; the Holy Spirit descended on Jesus like a dove during his baptism, in his Farewell Discourse after the Last Supper Jesus promised to send the Holy Spirit to his disciples after his departure.
The Holy Spirit is referred to as "the Lord, the Giver of Life" in the Nicene Creed, which summarises several key beliefs held by many Christian denominations. The participation of the Holy Spirit in the tripartite nature of conversion is apparent in Jesus' final post-resurrection instruction to his disciples at the end of the Gospel of Matthew: "make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit," and "For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them." Since the first century, Christians have called upon God with the trinitarian formula "Father and Holy Spirit" in prayer and benediction. In the book of the Acts of the Apostles the arrival of the Holy Spirit happens fifty days after the resurrection of the Christ, is celebrated in Christendom with the feast of Pentecost. In Christian theology, pneumatology refers to the study of the Holy Spirit; the Koine Greek word pneûma is found around 385 times in the New Testament, with some scholars differing by three to nine occurrences.
Pneuma appears 105 times in the four canonical gospels, 69 times in the Acts of the Apostles, 161 times in the Pauline epistles, 50 times elsewhere. These usages vary: in 133 cases, it refers to "spirit" in a general sense and in 153 cases to "spiritual". Around 93 times, the reference to the Holy Spirit, sometimes under the name pneuma and sometimes explicitly as the pneûma tò Hagion, it was translated into the Vulgate as Spiritus and Spiritus Sanctus. The English terms "Holy Ghost" and "Holy Spirit" are complete synonyms: one derives from the Old English gast and the other from the Latin loanword spiritus. Like pneuma, they both refer to the breath, to its animating power, to the soul; the Old English term is shared by all other Germanic languages and is older, but the King James Bible used both interchangeably, 20th-century translations of the Bible overwhelmingly prefer "Holy Spirit" because the general English term "ghost" has come to refer only to the spirit of a dead person. Source: וְר֣וּחַ קָדְשׁ֑וֹ – His Holy Spirit וְר֣וּחַ קָ֝דְשְׁךָ֗ – Thy Holy Spirit וְר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֔ים – Spirit of God נִשְׁמַת־ר֨וּחַ חַיִּ֜ים – The Breath of the Spirit of Life ר֣וּחַ יְהוָ֑ה – Spirit of YHWH ר֧וּחַ חָכְמָ֣ה וּבִינָ֗ה – Spirit of Wisdom and Understanding ר֤וּחַ עֵצָה֙ וּגְבוּרָ֔ה – Spirit of Counsel and Might ר֥וּחַ דַּ֖עַת וְיִרְאַ֥ת יְהוָֽה – Spirit of Knowledge and Fear of YHWH πνεύματος ἁγίου – Holy Spirit πνεύματι θεοῦ – Spirit of God ὁ παράκλητος – The Comforter, cf. Paraclete John 14:26 πνεῦμα τῆς ἀληθείας – Spirit of Truth Πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ – Spirit of Christ Depending on context: πνεῦμα – Spirit Πνεύματος – Spirit What the Hebrew Bible calls "Spirit of God" and "Spirit of Elohim" is called in the Talmud and Midrash "Holy Spirit".
Although the expression "Holy Spirit" occurs in Ps. 51:11 and in Isa. 63:10–11, it had not yet acquired quite the same meaning, attached to it in rabbinical literature: in the latter it is equivalent to the expression "Spirit of the Lord". In Gen.1:2 God's spirit hovered over the form of lifeless matter, thereby making the Creation possible. Although the ruach ha-kodesh may be named instead of God, it was conceived of as being something distinct; the most characteristic sign of the presence of the ruach ha-kodesh is the gift of prophecy. The use of the word "ruach" in the phrase ruach ha-kodesh seems to suggest that Judaic authorities believed the Holy Spirit was a kind of communication medium like the wind; the spirit talks sometimes sometimes with a feminine voice. The term Holy Spirit appears at least 90 times in the New Testament; the sacredness of the Holy Spirit to Christians is affirmed in all three Syno
Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Armenia, Eritrea, Ethiopia and parts of the Middle East and India. An Eastern Christian communion of autocephalous churches, its bishops are equal by virtue of episcopal ordination, its doctrines can be summarised in that the communion recognizes the validity of only the first three ecumenical councils; the Oriental Orthodox communion is composed of six autocephalous churches: the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church. Collectively, they consider themselves to be the One, Holy and Apostolic church founded by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles.
Most member churches are part of the World Council of Churches. All member churches share a identical theology, with the distinguishing feature being Miaphysitism. Three different rites are practiced in the communion: the western-influenced Armenian Rite, the West Syrian Rite of the two Syriac churches, the Alexandrian Rite of the Copts and Eritreans. At the Council of Chalcedon in 451 AD, the Oriental Orthodox churches separated from the Imperial Roman Church over differences in Christology. Oriental Orthodoxy developed distinctively under the Patriarchate of Alexandria in Egypt part of the Pentarchy, the only episcopal see besides the Holy See to maintain the title "Pope"; the majority of Oriental Orthodox Christians live in Egypt, Ethiopia and Armenia, with smaller Syriac communities living in the Middle East–decreasing due to persecution–and India. There are many in other parts of the world, formed through diaspora and missionary activity; the Oriental Orthodox churches are distinguished by their recognition of only the first three ecumenical councils during the period of the State church of the Roman Empire –the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381 and the Council of Ephesus in 431.
Oriental Orthodoxy shares much theology and many ecclesiastical traditions with the Eastern Orthodox Church. The primary theological difference between the two communions is the differing Christology. Oriental Orthodoxy rejects the Chalcedonian Definition, instead adopts the Miaphysite formula, believing that the human and divine natures of Christ are united; the early prelates of the Oriental Orthodox churches thought that the Chalcedonian Definition implied a possible repudiation of the Trinity or a concession to Nestorianism. Other differences include minor deviations in social teaching and different views on ecumenism. Oriental Orthodox churches are considered to be more conservative with regard to social issues as well more enthusiastic about ecumenical relations with non-Orthodox churches; the break in communion between the Imperial Roman and Oriental Orthodox churches did not occur but rather over 2-3 centuries following the Council of Chalcedon. The two communions developed separate institutions, the Oriental Orthodox did not participate in any of the ecumenical councils.
The Oriental Orthodox churches maintain their own ancient apostolic succession. The various churches are governed by holy synods, with a primus inter pares bishop serving as primate; the primates hold titles like patriarch and pope. Among these patriarchs, the Pope of Alexandria takes precedence, is sometimes considered the "face" of Oriental Orthodoxy; the Alexandrian Patriarchate, along with Rome and Antioch, was one of the most prominent sees of the early Christian Church, contains a majority population of Coptic Christians, unlike Antioch is still a major population center. That said, the Pope of Alexandria has no governing powers with respect to the non-Coptic churches. Oriental Orthodoxy does not have a magisterial leader like the Roman Catholic Church, nor does the communion have a leader who can convene ecumenical synods like the Eastern Orthodox Church; the schism between Oriental Orthodoxy and the adherents of Chalcedonian Christianity was based on differences in Christology. The First Council of Nicaea, in 325, declared that Jesus Christ is God, to say, "consubstantial" with the Father.
The third ecumenical council, the Council of Ephesus, declared that Jesus Christ, though divine as well as human, is only one being, or person. Thus, the Council of Ephesus explicitly rejected Nestorianism, the Christological doctrine that Christ was two distinct beings, one divine and one human, who happened to inhabit the same body; the churches that became Oriental Orthodoxy were anti-Nestorian, therefore supported the decisions made at Ephesus. Twenty years after Ephesus, the Council of Chalcedon reaffirmed the view that Jesus Christ was a single person, but at the same time declared that this one person existed "in two complete natures", one human and one divine; those who opposed Chalcedon saw this as a concession to Nestorianism, or as a conspiracy to convert the Church to Nestorianism by stealth. As a result, over the following decades, they separated from communion with those who accepted the Council of Chalcedon, formed the body, today called Oriental Orthodoxy. At times, Chalcedonian Christians have referre
Saint Peter known as Simon Peter, Simon, or Cephas, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church. Pope Gregory I called him the "Prince of the Apostles". According to Catholic teaching, Jesus promised Peter in the "Rock of My Church" dialogue in Matthew 16:18 a special position in the Church, he is traditionally counted as the first Bishop of Rome—or pope—and by Eastern Christian tradition as the first Patriarch of Antioch. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and as the founder of the Church of Antioch and the Roman Church, but differ in their attitudes regarding the authority of his present-day successors; the New Testament indicates that Peter's father's name was John and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. His brother Andrew was an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples.
A fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration. According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesus's inner circle, thrice denied Jesus and wept bitterly once he realised his deed, preached on the day of Pentecost. According to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero, it is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, since he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus. Tradition holds, his remains are said to be those contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peter's Basilica, where Pope Paul VI announced in 1968 the excavated discovery of a first-century Roman cemetery; every 29 June since 1736, a statue of Saint Peter in St. Peter's Basilica is adorned with papal tiara, ring of the fisherman, papal vestments, as part of the celebration of the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul. According to Catholic doctrine, the direct papal successor to Saint Peter is the incumbent pope Pope Francis.
Two general epistles in the New Testament are ascribed to Peter, but modern scholars reject the Petrine authorship of both. The Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peter's preaching and eyewitness memories. Several other books bearing his name—the Acts of Peter, Gospel of Peter, Preaching of Peter, Apocalypse of Peter, Judgment of Peter—are considered by Christian denominations as apocryphal, are thus not included in their Bible canons. Peter's original name, as indicated in the New Testament, was "Simon" or "Simeon"; the Simon/Simeon variation has been explained as reflecting "the well-known custom among Jews at the time of giving the name of a famous patriarch or personage of the Old Testament to a male child along with a similar sounding Greek/Roman name". He was given the name כֵּיפָא in Aramaic, rendered in Greek as Κηφᾶς, whence Latin and English Cephas; the precise meaning of the Aramaic word is disputed, some saying that its usual meaning is "rock" or "crag", others saying that it means rather "stone" and in its application by Jesus to Simon, "precious stone" or "jewel", but most scholars agree that as a proper name it denotes a rough or tough character.
Both meanings, "stone" and "rock", are indicated in dictionaries of Syriac. Catholic theologian Rudolf Pesch argues that the Aramaic cepha means "stone, clump, clew" and that "rock" is only a connotation; the combined name Σίμων Πέτρος appears 19 times in the New Testament. In some Syriac documents he is called, in Simon Cephas. Peter's life story is told in the four canonical gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, New Testament letters, the non-canonical Gospel of the Hebrews and other Early Church accounts of his life and death. In the New Testament, he is among the first of the disciples called during Jesus' ministry. Peter became the first listed apostle ordained by Jesus in the early church. Peter was a fisherman in Bethsaida, he was named son of Jonah or John. The three Synoptic Gospels recount how Peter's mother-in-law was healed by Jesus at their home in Capernaum. 1 Cor. 9:5 has been taken to imply that he was married. In the Synoptic Gospels, Peter was a fisherman along with his brother and the sons of Zebedee and John.
The Gospel of John depicts Peter fishing after the resurrection of Jesus, in the story of the Catch of 153 fish. In Matthew and Mark, Jesus called Simon and his brother Andrew to be "fishers of men". A Franciscan church is built upon the traditional site of Apostle Peter's house. In Luke, Simon Peter owns the boat that Jesus uses to preach to the multitudes who were pressing on him at the shore of Lake Gennesaret. Jesu