Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 637,827 inhabitants, it is the largest city in the three Baltic states, home to one third of Latvia's population and one tenth of the three Baltic states' combined population; the city lies at the mouth of the Daugava river. Riga's territory lies 1 -- 10 m above sea level, on a flat and sandy plain. Riga is a former Hanseatic League member. Riga's historical centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, noted for its Art Nouveau/Jugendstil architecture and 19th century wooden architecture. Riga was the European Capital of Culture along with Umeå in Sweden. Riga hosted the 2006 NATO Summit, the Eurovision Song Contest 2003, the 2006 IIHF Men's World Ice Hockey Championships and the 2013 World Women's Curling Championship, it is home to the European Union's office of European Regulators for Electronic Communications. In 2016, Riga received over 1.4 million visitors. It is served by the largest and busiest airport in the Baltic states. Riga is a member of Eurocities, the Union of the Baltic Cities and Union of Capitals of the European Union.
One theory about the origin of the name Riga is that it is a corrupted borrowing from the Liv ringa meaning loop, referring to the ancient natural harbour formed by the tributary loop of the Daugava River. The other is that Riga owes its name to this already-established role in commerce between East and West, as a borrowing of the Latvian rija, for threshing barn, the "j" becoming a "g" in German — notably, Riga is called Rie by English geographer Richard Hakluyt, German historian Dionysius Fabricius confirms the origin of Riga from rija. Another theory could be that Riga was named after Riege, the German name for the River Rīdzene, a tributary of the Daugava. Another theory is that Riga's name is introduced by the bishop Albert, initiator of christening and conquest of Livonian and Baltic people, he introduced an explanation of city name as derived from Latin rigata that symbolizes an "irrigation of dry pagan souls by Christianity". The river Daugava has been a trade route since antiquity, part of the Vikings' Dvina-Dnieper navigation route to Byzantium.
A sheltered natural harbour 15 km upriver from the mouth of the Daugava — the site of today's Riga — has been recorded, as Duna Urbs, as early as the 2nd century. It was settled by an ancient Finnic tribe. Riga began to develop as a centre of Viking trade during the early Middle Ages. Riga's inhabitants occupied themselves with fishing, animal husbandry, trading developing crafts; the Livonian Chronicle of Henry testifies to Riga having long been a trading centre by the 12th century, referring to it as portus antiquus, describes dwellings and warehouses used to store flax, hides. German traders began visiting Riga, establishing a nearby outpost in 1158. Along with German traders the monk Meinhard of Segeberg arrived to convert the Livonian pagans to Christianity. Catholic and Orthodox Christianity had arrived in Latvia more than a century earlier, many Latvians baptised. Meinhard settled among the Livs, building a castle and church at Ikšķile, upstream from Riga, established his bishopric there.
The Livs, continued to practice paganism and Meinhard died in Ikšķile in 1196, having failed in his mission. In 1198, the Bishop Berthold arrived with a contingent of crusaders and commenced a campaign of forced Christianization. Berthold died soon afterwards and his forces defeated; the Church mobilised to avenge the issuance of a bull by Pope Innocent III declaring a crusade against the Livonians. Bishop Albert was proclaimed Bishop of Livonia by his uncle Hartwig of Uthlede, Prince-Archbishop of Bremen and Hamburg in 1199. Albert landed in Riga in 1200 with 500 Westphalian crusaders. In 1201, he transferred the seat of the Livonian bishopric from Ikšķile to Riga, extorting agreement to do this from the elders of Riga by force; the year 1201 marked the first arrival of German merchants in Novgorod, via the Dvina. To defend territory and trade, Albert established the Order of Livonian Brothers of the Sword in 1202, open to nobles and merchants; the Christianization of the Livs continued. In 1207, Albert started to fortify the town.
Emperor Philip invested Albert with Livonia as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire. To promote a permanent military presence, territorial ownership was divided between the Church and the Order, with the Church taking Riga and two-thirds of all lands conquered and granting the Order a third; until it had been customary for crusaders to serve for a year and return home. Albert had ensured Riga's commercial future by obtaining papal bulls which decreed that all German merchants had to carry on their Baltic trade through Riga. In 1211, Riga minted its first coinage, Albert laid the cornerstone for the Riga Dom. Riga was not yet secure. In 1212, Albert led a campaign to compel Polotsk to grant German merchants free river passage. Polotsk conceded Kukenois and Jersika to Albert ending the Livs' tribute to Polotsk. Riga's merchant citizenry sought greater autonomy from the Church. In 1221, they acquired the right to independently self-administer Riga and adopted a city constitution; that same year Albert was compelled to recognise Danish rule over lands they had conquered in Estonia and Livonia.
Albert had sought the aid of King Valdemar of Denmark to protect Riga and Livonian lands against Liv insurrection when reinforcements could not
Livonian Brothers of the Sword
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga, in 1202. Pope Innocent III sanctioned the establishment in 1204 for the second time; the membership of the order comprised German "warrior monks" who fought Baltic and Finnic pagans in the area of modern-day Estonia and Lithuania. Alternative names of the Order include Christ Knights, Sword Brethren, The Militia of Christ of Livonia; the seal reads: +MAGISTRI ETFRM MILICIE CRI DE LIVONIA. Following their defeat by the Samogitians and Semigallians in the Battle of Schaulen in 1236, the surviving Brothers merged into the Teutonic Order as an autonomous branch and became known as the Livonian Order. Albert, Bishop of Riga, founded the Brotherhood in 1202 to aid the Bishopric of Livonia in the conversion of the pagan Livonians and Selonians living across the ancient trade routes from the Gulf of Riga eastwards. From its foundation, the undisciplined Order tended to ignore its supposed vassalage to the bishops.
In 1218, Albert asked King Valdemar II of Denmark for assistance, but Valdemar instead arranged a deal with the Brotherhood and conquered northern Estonia for Denmark. The Brotherhood had its headquarters at Fellin in present-day Estonia, where the walls of the Master's castle still stand. Other strongholds included Wenden and Ascheraden; the commanders of Fellin, Marienburg and the bailiff of Weißenstein belonged to the five-member entourage of the Order's Master. Pope Gregory IX asked the Brothers to defend Finland from the Novgorodian attacks in his letter of November 24, 1232. However, no known information regarding the knights' possible activities in Finland has survived; the Order was decimated in the Battle of Schaulen in 1236 against Lithuanians and Semigallians. This disaster led the surviving Brothers to become incorporated into the Order of Teutonic Knights in the following year, from that point on they became known as the Livonian Order, they continued, however, to function in all respects as an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, headed by their own Master.
Wenno 1204–1209 Volkwin 1209–1236 Teutonic Order Battle of Saule Livonian Crusade Northern Crusades Order of Dobrin
Missionary work of the Catholic Church has been undertaken outside the geographically defined parishes and dioceses by religious orders who have people and material resources to spare, some of which specialized in missions. Parishes and dioceses would be organized worldwide after an intermediate phase as an apostolic prefecture or apostolic vicariate; the New Testament missionary outreach of the Christian church from the time of St Paul was extensive throughout the Roman Empire. During the Middle Ages Christian monasteries and missionaries such as Saint Patrick and Adalbert of Prague propagated learning and religion beyond the boundaries of the old Roman Empire. In the seventh century Gregory the Great sent missionaries, including Augustine of Canterbury, into England; the Hiberno-Scottish mission began in 563. In the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, Franciscans such as William of Rubruck, John of Montecorvino, Giovanni ed' Magnolia were sent as missionaries to the Near and Far East.
Their travels took them as far as China in an attempt to convert the advancing Mongols the Great Khans of the Mongol Empire. During the Age of Discovery, the Roman Catholic Church established a number of missions in the Americas and other colonies through the Augustinians and Dominicans in order to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the indigenous peoples of the Americas and other indigenous people. At the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans were moving into Asia and the Far East; the Portuguese sent missions into Africa. These are some of the most well-known missions in history. In the empires ruled by both Portugal and Spain, religion was an integral part of the state and evangelization was seen as having both secular and spiritual benefits. Wherever these powers attempted to expand their territories or influence, missionaries would soon follow. By the Treaty of Tordesillas, the two powers divided the world between them into exclusive spheres of influence and colonization.
The Roman Catholic world order was challenged by the England. Theoretically, it was repudiated by Grotius's Mare Liberum. Portugal's and Spain's colonial policies were challenged by the Roman Catholic Church itself; the Vatican founded the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide in 1622 and attempted to separate the churches from the influence of the Iberian kingdoms. While missions in areas ruled by Spanish and Portuguese, to a lesser extent, the French, are associated with cultural imperialism and oppression, operated under the sponsorship and consent of colonial governments, those in other portions of the world were focused on the conversion of individuals within existing social and political structures, operated without the consent of local government. John of Monte Corvino was a Franciscan sent to China to become prelate of Peking in around 1307, he traveled from Persia and moved down by sea to India in 1291, to the Madras region or "Country of St. Thomas". There he baptized about one hundred people.
From there Monte Corvino wrote home, in December 1291, giving one of the earliest noteworthy accounts of the Coromandel coast furnished by any Western European. Traveling by sea from Mailapur, he reached China in 1294, appearing in the capital "Cambaliech". Friar Odoric of Pordenone arrived in India in 1321, he visited Malabar, touching at Pandarani at Cranganore and at Kulam or Quilon, proceeding thence to Ceylon and to the shrine of St Thomas at Maylapur near Madras. He writes; the French Dominican missionary Father Jordanus Catalani followed in 1321–22. He reported to Rome from somewhere on the west coast of India, that he had given Christian burial to four martyred monks. Jordanus is known for his 1329 Mirabilia describing the marvels of the East: he furnished the best account of Indian regions and the Christians, the products, manners, customs and flori given by any European in the Middle Ages – superior to Marco Polo’s. In 1347, Giovanni de Marignolli visited the shrine of St Thomas near the modern Madras, proceeded to what he calls the kingdom of Saba and identifies with the Sheba of Scripture, but which seems from various particulars to have been Java.
Taking ship again for Malabar on his way to Europe, he encountered great storms. Another prominent Indian traveler was priest over Cranganore, he journeyed to Babylon in 1490 and sailed to Europe and visited Portugal and Venice before returning to India. He helped to write a book about his travels entitled The Travels of Joseph the Indian, disseminated across Europe; the introduction of Catholicism in India begins from the first decade of 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese missionaries there. In the 16th century, the proselytization of Asia was linked to the Portuguese colonial policy. With the Papal bull Romanus Pontifex written on 8 January 1455 by Pope Nicholas V to King Afonso V of Portugal, the patronage for the propagation of the Christian faith in Asia was given to the Portuguese, who were rewarded with the right of conquest; the missionaries of the different orders flocked out with the conquerors, began at once to build churches along the coastal districts wherever the Portuguese power made itself felt.
The history of Portuguese missionaries in India starts with the neo-apostles who reached Kappad near
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Loccum Abbey is a Lutheran monastery in the town of Rehburg-Loccum, Lower Saxony, near Steinhude Lake. Originating as a foundation of Count Wilbrand of Hallermund, Loccum Abbey was settled from Volkenroda Abbey under the first abbot, Ekkehard, in 1163. An ancient account describes it as being "in loco horroris et vastæ solitudinis et prædonum et latronum commorationis". Loccum quickly grew wealthy and was under the direct protection of the Pope and the Emperor as an Imperial abbey, it was a Roman Catholic monastery run by the Cistercians. In the 16th century in Protestant Reformation it became Lutheran. By 1700 the abbot of Loccum was permitted to marry and the Loccum Hof was built at Hanover to accommodate his spouse; the monastery retained its property and wealth until the agrarian reforms of the 19th century, when it was included in the territory of the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, otherwise Hanover. Since 1891 the monastery has operated as a Protestant seminary and academy, a tradition going back to around the start of the 19th century.
The title of "abbot" is retained, anomalously. The community today consists of between four and eight members, most of whom are in holy orders. In addition the Lutheran Bishop of Hanover and the Director of Studies of the seminary are members ex officio; the abbot and prior are chosen from among the members. The abbey is known for its well preserved monastic buildings from the late Romanesque period with church and associated rooms, chapter-house, dormitory, refectory and lay-brothers' wing, as well as the various service buildings; the buildings as a whole are considered of equal architectural worth with Maulbronn Abbey and Bebenhausen Abbey. The monastery's ponds and woods throw an interesting light on the abbey's medieval economy; the abbey church of Saints Mary and George – now St. George's parish church – was built between 1230/40 to 1280. Gerhard Wolter Molanus Just Christopherus Böhmer Georg Wilhelm Ebell Christoph Heinrich Chappuzeau Johann Christoph Salfeld August Ludwig Hoppenstedt, vacant till 1832 Friedrich Rupstein Gerhard Uhlhorn Georg Hartwig August Marahrens Johannes Lilje Eduard Lohse Horst Hirschler Valdemar of Denmark ^ Quoted in the "Catholic Encyclopedia" without a reference.
Hirschler and Berneburg, Ernst, 1980. Geschichten aus dem Kloster Loccum. Studien, Dokumente. Hanover. Siegmund, Johannes Jürgen, 2003. Bischof Johannes Lilje, Abt zu Loccum. Eine Biographie.. Göttingen. Official website Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Loccum". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Loccum". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Turaida is a part of Sigulda in the Vidzeme Region of Latvia. Its most famous site is the Brick Gothic Turaida Castle. Turaida website