Old Saint Peter's Church, Strasbourg
The Church of Old Saint Peters is a by simultaneum Catholic and Lutheran church building in Strasbourg, Alsace is first mentioned in 1130. In the Middle Ages it was one of Diocese of Strasbourg's nine parish churches. On 22 May 1398 the Chapter of the Abbey of Honau, in Rhinau since 1290, moved to Old St Peter's because of flooding in Rhinau; the Chapter stayed there until 1529, conducting its services in the choir, while the parish occupied the nave. When the Catholic rite was restored in 1683, the Chapter returned to the Church and stayed there until 1790, when it was wound up. On 20 February 1529, when Strasbourg joined the Reformation and suspended the practice of the mass, the Church became Lutheran. Martin Bucer and the other Strasbourg reformers had campaigned for several years to have Protestant services in all of Strasbourg's churches, but in 1525 the city council had voted to retain the mass in several churches, including Old St Peter's. In 1535, in the context of the Reform, a Latin school, or'Middle school' was opened at Old Saint Peters.
In 1683, two years after the annexation of Strasbourg by France, Louis XIV ordered that part of the Church be returned to the Catholics and that a wall be constructed inside the church by the rood screen, to restrict the Protestant services to the Nave. It was not until 2012. In the 19th century, the Catholic part of the Church was extended; the extension was designed by the architect Conrath and opened in 1867. The Catholic Church contains relics of Brigit of Kildare as well as a number of important works of art classified as Monuments historiques such as the "Passion of Christ", a series of ten Gothic paintings by Heinrich Lutzelmann, the "Scenes from the Life of St Peter" an series of four wooden early Renaissance or late Gothic reliefs made around 1500 and a series of four 1504 paintings depicting "Scenes of the Life of Christ after the Resurrection"; the Lutheran part of the church, presently owned and used by a congregation within the Protestant Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine features some notable works of art, among which the wooden Renaissance relief "Holy Family" by Hans Wydyz, classified as a Monument historique.
Views of the Catholic Church Views of the Protestant Church Media related to Églises St Pierre le Vieux at Wikimedia Commons
A church building or church house simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities for Christian worship services. The term is used by Christians to refer to the physical buildings where they worship, but it is sometimes used to refer to buildings of other religions. In traditional Christian architecture, the church is arranged in the shape of a Christian cross; when viewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented by the aisle and the junction of the cross is located at the altar area. Towers or domes are added with the intention of directing the eye of the viewer towards the heavens and inspiring visitors. Modern church buildings have a variety of architectural layouts; the earliest identified Christian church building was a house church founded between 233 and 256. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches were erected across Western Europe. A cathedral is a church building Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, or Oriental Orthodox, housing a cathedra, the formal name for the seat or throne of a presiding bishop.
In Greek, the adjective kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón means "belonging, or pertaining, to a Kyrios", the usage was adopted by early Christians of the Eastern Mediterranean with regard to anything pertaining to the Lord Jesus Christ: hence "Kyriakós oíkos", "Kyriakē", or "Kyriakē proseukhē". In standard Greek usage, the older word "ecclesia" was retained to signify both a specific edifice of Christian worship, the overall community of the faithful; this usage was retained in Latin and the languages derived from Latin, as well as in the Celtic languages and in Turkish. In the Germanic and some Slavic languages, the word kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón was adopted instead and derivatives formed thereof. In Old English the sequence of derivation started as "cirice" Middle English "churche", "church" in its current pronunciation. German Kirche, Scots kirk, Russian церковь, etc. are all derived. According to the New Testament, the earliest Christians did not build church buildings. Instead, they synagogues; the earliest archeologically identified Christian church is a house church, the Dura-Europos church, founded between 233 and 256.
In the second half of the 3rd century AD, the first purpose-built halls for Christian worship began to be constructed. Although many of these were destroyed early in the next century during the Diocletianic Persecution larger and more elaborate church buildings began to appear during the reign of the Emperor Constantine the Great. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches occurred across Western Europe. In addition to being a place of worship, the cathedral or the parish church was used by the community in other ways, it could serve as a hall for banquets. Mystery plays were sometimes performed in cathedrals, cathedrals might be used for fairs; the church could be used as a place to store grain. Between 1000 and 1200 the romanesque style became popular across Europe. While the name of the romanesque era refers to the tradition of Roman architecture, it was a West- and Central European trend. Romanesque buildings appear rather compact.
Typical features are circular arches, octagonal towers and cushion capitals on the pillars. In the early romanesque era, coffering on the ceiling was fashionable, while in the same era, groined vault was more popular; the rooms became the motivs of sculptures became more epic. The Gothic style emerged around 1140 in spread through all of Europe; the gothic buildings were less compact than they had been in the romanesque era and contained symbolic and allegoric features. For the first time, pointed arches, rib vaults and buttresses were used, with the result that massive walls were not longer needed to stabilise the building. Due to that advantage, the area of the windows became bigger, which resulted in a brighter and more friendly atmosphere inside the church; the nave so did the pillars and the church steeple. The amibition to test out the limits of the architectural possibilities resulted in the collapse of several towers. In Germany and the Netherlands, but in Spain, it became popular to build hall churches, in which every vault has the same height.
Cathedrals were built in a lavish way, as in the romanesque era. Examples for that are the Notre-Dame de Paris and the Notre-Dame de Reims in France, but the San Francesco d’Assisi in Palermo, the Salisbury Cathedral and the Wool Church in Lavenham, England. Many gothic churches contain features from the romanesque era; some of the most well-known gothic churches stayed unfinished for hundreds of years, after the gothic style was not popular anymore. About half of the Cologne Cathedral was for example build in the 19th century. In the 15th and 16th century, the change in e
Theodor Heuss was a West German liberal politician who served as the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 to 1959. Beside the stern chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Heuss' cordial manners contributed to the stabilization of democracy in West Germany during the Wirtschaftswunder years. Heuss was born in a small town in Württemberg near Heilbronn; this “wine community” is located next to the border of Swabian to the Franconian area. He studied economics, art history and political science at the universities of Munich and Berlin, receiving his doctorate in 1905 in Munich with Lujo Brentano as his thesis adviser. On 11 April 1908, he married Elly Heuss-Knapp; the minister at the Lutheran wedding ceremony held in Straßburg was Albert Schweitzer, a close friend of Elly's. Heuss was a member of the Evangelical Church in Germany. After his studies Heuss worked as a political journalist in Berlin and from 1905 until 1912 presided over the magazine Die Hilfe published by Friedrich Naumann.
From 1912 to 1918, he was editor in chief of the Neckarzeitung in Heilbronn. In Berlin, he worked as editor for the weekly newsletter Deutsche Politik. With Naumann, Heuss in 1903 he joined the liberal Free-minded Union, which in 1910 merged in the Progressive People's Party, in which he was engaged until its dissolution in 1918. After World War I, Heuss between 1923 and 1926 published the magazine Die Deutsche Nation, he had become a member of the German Democratic Party, from 1930 renamed German State Party, the political heir of the Fortschrittliche Volkspartei in 1918 and was a member of the Reichstag parliament from 1924 to 1928 and again from 1930 to 1933. On 23 March 1933, along with his four fellow DStP parliamentarians, Heuss voted in favour of the Enabling Act, granting Chancellor Adolf Hitler quasi-dictatorial powers, he had set out to abstain, but after Heinrich Brüning indicated that with regard to the Reichskonkordat the Centre Party MPs would assent subordinated to party discipline.
Alternative views of Hermann Dietrich, Weimar Republic finance minister claim that he was part of the majority in favor of voting for the enabling law. When Germany became a one-party state, the DStP was dissolved on 28 June 1933 and Heuss was divested of his Reichstag mandate by decree of Minister of the Interior Wilhelm Frick with effect from 8 July. Following the end of his term he returned to private life. During the Third Reich he stayed in contact with a network of liberals, leading to contacts with the German resistance towards the end of the war, though he was not an active resister. In 1936 Heuss faced a publication ban in 1941 he became an employee of the Frankfurter Zeitung, one of the few remaining liberal newspapers at that time. Heuss wrote under pseudonyms until publishing of the paper was prohibited in 1943, he spent the following years writing a biography of Robert Bosch. After World War II the US Office of Military Government on 24 September 1945 appointed Heuss the first Minister of Education and Cultural Affairs in the German state of Württemberg-Baden under his fellow party member Minister-president Reinhold Maier, in favour of whom he resigned in 1946.
As a co-founder of the Democratic People's Party, the predecessor of the German Free Democratic Party in the southwestern German states, he was a member of the Württemberg-Baden state parliament from 1946 to 1949. Heuss taught history at the Stuttgart Institute of Technology in 1946 and 1947, receiving the title of an honorary professor in 1948. After plans elaborated with Wilhelm Külz to build up an all-German liberal party had failed, Heuss in December 1948 was elected head of West German and Berlin sections of the newly founded Free Democratic Party, he advocated uniting all liberal parties in the Western occupation zones, overcoming the split between right liberals and left liberals that had existed in the Weimar Republic. In 1948, he was a member of the Parlamentarischer Rat at Bonn with considerable influence in the drafting of West Germany's constitution, the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany. After being elected to the first German Bundestag, he relinquished his parliamentary mandate on 12 September 1949, when he was elected President by the Federal Convention defeating the Social Democrat leader Kurt Schumacher in the second ballot.
He took the oath required by article 56 of the Basic Law before a joint session of the Bundestag and the Bundesrat on the same date. By the time he was confirmed as the first democratic German president since Paul von Hindenburg, he refused to be called “Excellency”, preferring instead to be called “Herr Heuss”, Herr Bundespräsident is the German term of address up to today. Heuss's plans for a new national anthem were aborted by Adenauer, who – in rare accordance with Kurt Schumacher – had the third stanza of the old Deutschlandlied established in 1952. A widower since 1952, Heuss was re-elected in 1954 with no opposition, after the Social Democrats had renounced the nomination of a rival candidate. Not until May 1956, could he make his first state visit, invited by King Paul of Greece; the president, accompanied by Foreign Minister Heinrich von Brentano, was overwhelmed by the warm reception in Athens, considering that the country had suffered under German occupation in World War II. He held office until the end of his term on 12 September 1959, succeeded by Heinrich Lübke
The Charismatic Movement is the international trend of mainstream Christian congregations adopting beliefs and practices similar to Pentecostalism. Fundamental to the movement is the use of spiritual gifts. Among mainline Protestants, the movement began around 1960. Among Roman Catholics, it originated around 1967; the classic Pentecostalism movement traces its origin to the early twentieth century, with the ministry of Charles F. Parham and the subsequent ministry of William Joseph Seymour and the Azusa Street Revival, its unique doctrine involved a dramatic encounter with God, termed baptism with the Holy Spirit. The evidence for having received this experience was interpreted by some as speaking in tongues. Before 1955 the religious mainstream did not embrace Pentecostal doctrines. If a church member or clergyman expressed such views, they would separate from their existing denomination. However, by the 1960s many of the characteristic teachings were gaining acceptance among Christians within mainline Protestant denominations.
The charismatic movement represented a reversal of this previous pattern as those influenced by Pentecostal spirituality chose to remain in their original denominations. The popularization and broader acceptance of charismatic teachings and ideas are linked to the healing revivals that occurred from 1946–1958; the revivalists of the time, including William Branham, Oral Roberts, A. A. Allen, held large interdenominational meetings which emphasized the gifts of the spirit; this global revival led to greater acceptance of pentecostal teachings and practices. The high church wing of the American Episcopal Church became the first traditional ecclesiastical organization to feel the impact of the new movement internally; the beginning of the charismatic movement is dated to Sunday, April 3, 1960, when Dennis J. Bennett, rector of St Mark's Episcopal Church in Van Nuys, California recounted his Pentecostal experience to his parish, doing it again on the next two Sundays, including Easter, during which many of his congregation shared his experience, causing him to be forced to resign.
The resulting controversy and press coverage spread an awareness of the emerging charismatic movement. The movement grew to embrace other mainline churches, where clergy began receiving and publicly announcing their Pentecostal experiences; these clergy began holding meetings for seekers and healing services which included praying over and anointing of the sick. The Catholic Charismatic Renewal began in 1967 at Duquesne University in Pennsylvania. Despite the fact that Pentecostals tend to share more in common with evangelicals than with either Roman Catholics or mainline Protestants, the charismatic movement was not influential among evangelical churches. C. Peter Wagner traces the spread of the charismatic movement within evangelicalism to around 1985, he termed this movement the Third Wave of the Holy Spirit. The Third Wave has expressed itself through the formation of churches and denomination-like organizations; these groups are referred to as "neo-charismatic". The Vineyard Movement and the British New Church Movement exemplify Third Wave or neo-charismatic organizations.
Charismatic Christians believe that the gifts of the Holy Spirit as described in the New Testament are available to contemporary Christians through the infilling or baptism of the Holy Spirit, with-or-without the laying on of hands. Although the Bible lists many gifts from God through His Holy Spirit, there are nine specific gifts listed in 1 Corinthians 12:8–10 that are Supernatural in nature and are the focus of and distinguishing feature of the Charismatic Movement: Word of Wisdom, Word of Knowledge, Gifts of Healing, Miraculous Powers, Distinguishing between Spirits, Speaking in different Tongues, Interpretation of Tongues. While Pentecostals and charismatics share these beliefs, there are differences. Many in the charismatic movement deliberately distanced themselves from Pentecostalism for cultural and theological reasons. Foremost among theological reasons is the tendency of many Pentecostals to insist that speaking in tongues is always the initial physical sign of receiving Spirit baptism.
Although specific teachings will vary from group to group, charismatics believe that the baptism with the Holy Spirit occurs at the new birth and prefer to call subsequent encounters with the Holy Spirit by other names, such as "being filled". In contrast to Pentecostals, charismatics tend to accept a range of supernatural experiences as evidence of having been baptized or filled with the Holy Spirit. Pentecostals are distinguished from the charismatic movement on the basis of style. Pentecostals have traditionally placed a high value on evangelization and missionary work. Charismatics, on the other hand, have tended to see their movement as a force for revitalization and renewal within their own church traditions. Detractors argue these sign and revelatory gifts were manifested in the New Testament for a specific purpose, upon which once accomplished these signs were withdrawn and no longer function; this position is called cessationism, is claimed by its proponents to be the universal position of Christians until the Charismatic movement started.
The Charismatic Movement is based on a belief. In America, the Episcopalian Dennis Bennett is sometimes cited as one of the charismatic movement's seminal influence. Bennett was the Rector at St Mark's Episcopal Church in Van Nuys, California when he announced to the congre
Elisabeth Eleonore Anna Justine "Elly" Heuss-Knapp, was a German politician of the Free Democratic Party, social reformer and wife of German president Theodor Heuss. She was the founder of the Müttergenesungswerk charitable organisation called Elly Heuss-Knapp Foundation in her honour. Elly Knapp was born in Straßburg capital of the Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine, the daughter of the renowned economist Georg Friedrich Knapp, founder of the chartalist school of monetary theory, who taught at the Straßburg University, her mother Lydia Qorghanashvili, from Georgia, became mentally ill shortly after her birth. Elly, a bright, inquisitive child, her sister Marianne spent much time with their grandparents and were raised by their father alone, uncommon at the time, she studied to become a teacher, taking the exam in 1899, worked as a teacher at a girls' school in Straßburg from 1900, of which she was one of the co-founders. Concerned with civic education, she early became influenced by the liberal politician Friedrich Naumann and in 1905, she went on to study economics in Freiburg and Berlin, while becoming a frequent public speaker on political issues.
In 1908, she married an assistant to Friedrich Naumann. The wedding in Straßburg was presided over by Albert Schweitzer, their only son, Ernst Ludwig Heuss, was born in 1910. Due to complications during that birth, she could not have more children. Back in Berlin after World War I, Elly Heuss-Knapp like her husband had been a candidate for the liberal German Democratic Party in the German federal election of 1919 emphasiszing women's suffrage. Over the years Elly became more interested in theological questions and from 1922 became active in the Protestant congregation of Otto Dibelius in Berlin. After the Nazi Machtergreifung in 1933, she was forbidden to speak publicly, her husband was dismissed from his lecturing job at the university, their home became a meeting place of people opposed to the regime, including the Dahlem pastor Martin Niemöller. Elly Heuss-Knapp became an author and worked in advertising to support her family, developing an early kind of jingle radio commercial, her autobiography, Ausblick vom Münsterturm, was published in 1934, a second edition in 1952.
In the final stage of the World War II Heuss-Knapp and her husband lived in Heidelberg. After the war she was elected a member of the Landtag state legislature in Württemberg-Baden in 1946, as a representative of the liberal Democratic People's Party and its Free Democratic Party successor, her work as a politician concentrated on child care and social policy in general, earning her the reputation of an unofficial "mother of the state". She finished her parliamentary career when her husband was elected President of Germany in 1949. Together with her husband, Elly Heuss-Knapp was one of the co-founders of the European Movement in Germany in June 1949, was Vice President of the organisation. On 31 January 1950 she publicly announced the foundation of the Müttergenesungswerk organisation for maternal health, which remained under the patronage of the wives of the German presidents up to today, it was named Elly-Heuss-Knapp-Stiftung – Deutsches Müttergenesungswerk in her honour. Elly Heuss-Knapp died in 1952 at the university clinic in Bonn, was buried at the Stuttgart Waldfriedhof cemetery.
Elly Heuss-Knapp: Bürgerkunde und Volkswirtschaftslehre für Frauen. Elly Heuss-Knapp: Schmale Wege, Verlag Wunderlich, 1946 Georg Friedrich Knapp, Elly Heuss-Knapp: Eine Jugend. Deutsche Verl.-Anst.. Erw. Aufl. Elly Heuss-Knapp: Ausblick vom Münsterturm. Erinnerungen. Verlag R. Wunderlich, Tübingen 1984, ISBN 3-8052-0086-2 Elly Heuss-Knapp, Margarethe Vater: Bürgerin zweier Welten. Verlag Wunderlich, 1961 Elly Heuss-Knapp in the German National Library catalogue Rundfunkwerbung der dreißiger Jahre von Elly Heuss-Knapp, Deutsches Rundfunkarchiv Gedenkblatt zu Elly Heuss-Knapp, Stiftung Geißstraße 7
John Calvin was a French theologian and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism, aspects of which include the doctrines of predestination and of the absolute sovereignty of God in salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation, in which doctrines Calvin was influenced by and elaborated upon the Augustinian and other Christian traditions. Various Congregational and Presbyterian churches, which look to Calvin as the chief expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world. Calvin was a tireless apologetic writer who generated much controversy, he exchanged cordial and supportive letters with many reformers, including Philipp Melanchthon and Heinrich Bullinger. In addition to his seminal Institutes of the Christian Religion, Calvin wrote commentaries on most books of the Bible, confessional documents, various other theological treatises. Trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530.
After religious tensions erupted in widespread deadly violence against Protestant Christians in France, Calvin fled to Basel, where in 1536 he published the first edition of the Institutes. In that same year, Calvin was recruited by Frenchman William Farel to join the Reformation in Geneva, where he preached sermons throughout the week. At the invitation of Martin Bucer, Calvin proceeded to Strasbourg, where he became the minister of a church of French refugees, he continued to support the reform movement in Geneva, in 1541 he was invited back to lead the church of the city. Following his return, Calvin introduced new forms of church government and liturgy, despite opposition from several powerful families in the city who tried to curb his authority. During this period, Michael Servetus, a Spaniard regarded by both Roman Catholics and Protestants as having a heretical view of the Trinity, arrived in Geneva, he was burned at the stake for heresy by the city council. Following an influx of supportive refugees and new elections to the city council, Calvin's opponents were forced out.
Calvin spent his final years promoting the Reformation both throughout Europe. John Calvin was born as Jehan Cauvin on 10 July 1509, at Noyon, a town in Picardy, a province of the Kingdom of France, he was the first of four sons. His mother, Jeanne le Franc, was the daughter of an innkeeper from Cambrai, she died of an unknown cause after having borne four more children. Calvin's father, Gérard Cauvin, had a prosperous career as the cathedral notary and registrar to the ecclesiastical court. Gérard intended his three sons — Charles and Antoine — for the priesthood. Young Calvin was precocious. By age 12, he was employed by the bishop as a clerk and received the tonsure, cutting his hair to symbolise his dedication to the Church, he won the patronage of an influential family, the Montmors. Through their assistance, Calvin was able to attend the Collège de la Marche, where he learned Latin from one of its greatest teachers, Mathurin Cordier. Once he completed the course, he entered the Collège de Montaigu as a philosophy student.
In 1525 or 1526, Gérard withdrew his son from the Collège de Montaigu and enrolled him in the University of Orléans to study law. According to contemporary biographers Theodore Beza and Nicolas Colladon, Gérard believed that Calvin would earn more money as a lawyer than as a priest. After a few years of quiet study, Calvin entered the University of Bourges in 1529, he was intrigued by a humanist lawyer. Humanism was a European intellectual movement. During his 18-month stay in Bourges, Calvin learned Koine Greek, a necessity for studying the New Testament. Alternate theories have been suggested regarding the date of Calvin's religious conversion; some have placed the date of his conversion around 1533. In this view, his resignation is the direct evidence for his conversion to the evangelical faith. However, T. H. L. Parker argues that while this date is a terminus for his conversion, the more date is in late 1529 or early 1530; the main evidence for his conversion is contained in two different accounts of his conversion.
In the first, found in his Commentary on the Book of Psalms, Calvin portrayed his conversion as a sudden change of mind, brought about by God: God by a sudden conversion subdued and brought my mind to a teachable frame, more hardened in such matters than might have been expected from one at my early period of life. Having thus received some taste and knowledge of true godliness, I was inflamed with so intense a desire to make progress therein, that although I did not altogether leave off other studies, yet I pursued them with less ardour. In the second account, Calvin wrote of a long process of inner turmoil, followed by spiritual and psychological anguish: Being exceedingly alarmed at the misery into which I had fallen, much more at that which threatened me in view of eternal death, I, duty bound, made it my first business to betake myself to your way, condemning my past life, not without groans and tears, and now, O Lord, what remains to a wretch like me, but instead of defence, earnestly to supplicate you not to judge that fearful abandonment of your Word according to its deserts, from which in your wondrous goodnes