Saint Paul Island (Alaska)

Saint Paul Island is the largest of the Pribilof Islands, a group of four Alaskan volcanic islands located in the Bering Sea between the United States and Russia. The city of St. Paul is the only residential area on the island; the three nearest islands to Saint Paul Island are Otter Island to the southwest, Saint George to the south, Walrus Island to the east. St. Paul Island has a land area of 40 square miles. St. Paul Island has one school, one post office, one bar, one small store, one church, listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places. Saint Paul lies the farthest north. With a width of 7.66 mi at its widest point and a length of 13.5 mi on its longest axis, it has a total area of 43 sq mi. Volcanic in origin, Saint Paul features a number of cinder cones and volcanic craters in its interior; the highest of these, Rush Hill, rises to 665 ft on the island's western shore, though most of the upland areas average less than 150 ft in elevation. Most of the island is a low-lying mix of rocky plateaus and valleys, with some of the valleys holding freshwater ponds.

Much of its 45.5 mi of shoreline is rugged and rocky, rising to sheer cliffs at several headlands, though long sandy beaches backed by shifting sand dunes flank a number of shallow bays. Like the other Pribilof Islands, Saint Paul rises from a basaltic base, its hills are brown or red tufa and cinder heaps, though some are composed of red scoria and breccia. The island sits on the southern edge of the Bering-Chukchi platform, may have been part of the Bering Land Bridge's southern coastline when the last ice age's glaciers reached their maximum expansion. Sediment core samples taken on Saint Paul show that tundra vegetation similar to that found on the island today has been present for at least 9,000 years; the thick rough turf is dominated by umbellifers and Artemisia, though grasses and sedges are abundant. The Aleut peoples knew of the Pribilofs, they called the islands Amiq, Aleut for "land of mother's brother" or "related land". According to their oral tradition, the son of an Unimak Island elder found them after paddling north in his boat in an attempt to survive a storm that caught him out at sea.

Russian fur traders were the first non-natives to discover Saint Paul. The island was discovered by Gavriil Pribylov on St. Peter and St. Paul's Day, July 12, 1788. Three years the Russian merchant vessel John the Baptist was shipwrecked off the shore; the crew were listed as missing until 1793. In the 18th century, Russians forced Aleuts from the Aleutian chain to hunt seal for them on the Pribilof Islands. Before this the Pribilofs were not inhabited; the Aleuts were slave labor for the Russians—hunting and preparing fur seal skins, which the Russians sold for a great deal of money. The Aleuts were not taken back to their home islands. Saints Peter and Paul Church, a Russian Orthodox church, was built on the island in 1907. Saint Paul's climate is influenced by the cold waters of the surrounding Bering Sea, is classified as polar due to the raw chilliness of the summers, it experiences a narrow range of temperatures, high wind and cloudiness levels, persistent summer fog. There is high seasonal lag: February is the island's coldest month, while August is its warmest.

Although the mean average temperature for the year is above freezing, at 35.33 °F, the monthly daily average temperature remains below freezing from December to April. Low temperatures at or below 0 °F occur an average of 4.7 nights per year, the island is part of USDA Hardiness Zone 6. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −19 °F on March 14, 1971, up to 66 °F on August 25, 1987. Winds are persistent year-round, averaging around 15 mph, they are strongest from late autumn through winter, when they increase to an average of nearly 20 mph, blowing from the north. In the summer, they become weaker and blow from the south; the island's humidity level, which averages more than 80 percent year round, is highest during the summer. Cloud cover levels peak during the summer as well. Although high year-round, with an average of 88 percent, cloud cover levels rise to 95 percent in the summer. Fog too is more common in the summer, occurring on one-third of the days; the island receives about 23.8 in of precipitation per year, with the highest monthly totals occurring between late summer and early winter, when Bering Sea storms batter the island.

Snowfall levels are highest between March, averaging 61.7 in per year. Other than trace amounts, the period from June to September is snow-free. High winds and warm temperatures combine to keep snow levels low, resulting in monthly mean snow depths of less than 6 in. Hours of daylight range from a low of 6.5 hours in midwinter to a high of 18 hours in m


The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer was a NASA lunar exploration and technology demonstration mission. It was launched on a Minotaur V rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport on September 7, 2013. During its seven-month mission, LADEE orbited around the Moon's equator, using its instruments to study the lunar exosphere and dust in the Moon's vicinity. Instruments included a dust detector, neutral mass spectrometer, ultraviolet-visible spectrometer, as well as a technology demonstration consisting of a laser communications terminal; the mission ended on April 18, 2014, when the spacecraft's controllers intentionally crashed LADEE into the far side of the Moon, determined to be near the eastern rim of Sundman V crater. LADEE was announced during the presentation of NASA's FY09 budget in February 2008, it was planned to be launched with the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory satellites. Mechanical tests including acoustic and shock tests were completed prior to full-scale thermal vacuum chamber testing at NASA's Ames Research Center in April 2013.

During August 2013, LADEE underwent final balancing and mounting on the launcher, all pre-launch activities were complete by August 31, ready for the launch window which opened on September 6. NASA Ames was responsible for the day-to-day functions of LADEE while the Goddard Space Flight Center operated the sensor suite and technology demonstration payloads as well as managing launch operations; the LADEE mission cost $280 million, which included spacecraft development and science instruments, launch services, mission operations, science processing and relay support. The Moon may have a tenuous atmosphere of moving particles leaping up from and falling back to the Moon's surface, giving rise to a "dust atmosphere" that looks static but is composed of dust particles in constant motion. According to models proposed starting from 1956, on the daylit side of the Moon, solar ultraviolet and X-ray radiation is energetic enough to knock electrons out of atoms and molecules in the lunar soil. Positive charges build up until the tiniest particles of lunar dust are repelled from the surface and lofted anywhere from metres to kilometres high, with the smallest particles reaching the highest altitudes.

They fall back toward the surface where the process is repeated. On the night side, the dust is negatively charged by electrons in the solar wind. Indeed, the "fountain model" suggests that the night side would charge up to higher voltages than the day side launching dust particles to higher velocities and altitudes; this effect could be further enhanced during the portion of the Moon's orbit where it passes through Earth's magnetotail. On the terminator there could be significant horizontal electric fields forming between the day and night areas, resulting in horizontal dust transport; the Moon has been shown to have a "sodium tail" too faint to be detected by the human eye. It is hundreds of thousands of miles long, was discovered in 1998 as a result of Boston University scientists observing the Leonid meteor storm; the Moon is releasing atomic sodium gas from its surface, solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms in the anti-sunward direction, forming an elongated tail which points away from the Sun.

As of April 2013, it had not yet been determined whether ionized sodium gas atoms or charged dust are the cause of the reported Moon glows. China's Chang'e 3 spacecraft, launched on December 1, 2013, entered lunar orbit on December 6, was expected to contaminate the tenuous lunar exosphere with both propellant from engine firings and lunar dust from the vehicle's landing. While concern was expressed that this could disrupt LADEE's mission, such as its baseline readings of the Moon's exosphere, it instead provided additional science value since both the quantity and composition of the spacecraft's propulsion system exhaust were known. Data from LADEE was used to track the distribution and eventual dissipation of the exhaust and dust in the Moon's exosphere, it was possible to observe the migration of water, one component of the exhaust, giving insight on how it is transported and becomes trapped around the lunar poles. The LADEE mission was designed to address three major science goals: Determine the global density and time variability of the tenuous lunar exosphere before it is perturbed by further human activity.

LADEE was launched on September 7, 2013, at 03:27 UTC, from the Wallops Flight Facility at the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport on a Minotaur V carrier rocket. This was the first lunar mission to be launched from that facility; the launch had the potential for visibility along much of the U. S. eastern seaboard, from Maine to South Carolina. As the Minotaur V is a solid-propellant rocket, spacecraft attitude control on this mission operated a bit differently from a typical liquid-fueled rocket with more continuous closed-loop feedback; the first three Minotaur stages "fly a pre-programmed attitude profile" to gain velocity and deliver the vehicle to its preliminary trajectory, while the fourth stage is used to modify the flight profil

Basic income in India

Basic income in India refers to the debate and practical experiments with universal basic income in India. The greatest impetus has come from the 40-page chapter on UBI that the Economic Survey of India published in January 2017, it outlined the 3 themes of a proposed UBI programme: Universality - intent of providing every citizen "a basic income to cover their needs Unconditionality - accessibility of all to basic income, without any means tests Agency - citizen's independent ability to choose how they spend their incomeThe survey mentions that UBI "liberates citizens from paternalistic and clientelistic relationships with the state. Several scholars around the globe, including Guy Standing and Pranab Bardhan, have expressed strong support of the implementation of UBI as an alternative to corrupt and ineffective existing social programmes in India. Organisations such as the Self Employed Women's Association and UNICEF have backed the proposal since launching the earlier 2010 UBI pilot programme in Madhya Pradesh, India.

In 2016, the idea of a Universal Basic Income in India made huge news by taking up over forty pages in the 2016-2017 India Economic Survey as a serious and feasible solution to India's poverty and a hope for the economy as a whole. In India, this was an idea, discussed for decades in both the public and private spheres. Discussion of UBI in India began due to concerns about technologically driven unemployment and poor results of current welfare programs. Given India's sheer size, implementation of UBI would have to be state-administered. Supporters believe this large-scale welfare program could be revolutionary and could provide a poverty alleviation blueprint for other developing countries. However, critics are wary of establishing such a wide-scale program because it might undermine the fragile social security architecture, cause employed workers to drop out of labor force and encourage idleness, encourage wasteful spending. In the forward, the Chief Economic Adviser Arvind Subramanian writes, “providing a Universal Basic Income that has emerged as a raging new idea both in advanced economies and in India.”

In the chapter itself, he notes: “Universal Basic Income is a radical and compelling paradigm shift in thinking about both social justice and a productive economy. It could be to the twenty first century what civil and political rights were to the twentieth.”From June 2011 to November 2012, Self Employed Women's Association and the United Nation's Children's Fund, launched two pilot programs to examine the impact of unconditional, monthly transfers through a modified and controlled trial. The pilot program was notable in three main ways. First, it was universal, meaning that every individual test subject, irrespective of gender, ethnicity, or level of wealth, received a cash transfer. Second, these grants were provided beyond the existing welfare program, meaning it was not a substitute to payments which were received. Third, these two pilot programs were the latest of the eight UBI pilots which have been conducted around the world. Furthermore, these pilot programs were one of the first in Asia and the second experiment to be conducted in the developing world.

Indian policymakers conducted two important studies testing the impact of unconditional cash transfers in Madhya Pradesh and Delhi. The first study conducted from January to December 2011 in New Delhi tested the impact of cash transfers when offered in conjunction with existing public welfare; the Indian government in partnership with SEWA and the Madhya Pradesh state government, carried out a controlled trial. This experiment gave 100 randomly selected households 1,000 rupees per month; the money was deposited under the name of the female head of participating households in a bank. A more ambitious version of this study took place in Madhya Pradesh as a two pilot program. In 2009, the Self Employed Women's Associations began organizing pilot programs to test the effect of an unconditional cash transfer in Madhya Pradesh, one of India's least developed states. SEWA is a trade union, established in 1972 to promote the rights of self-employed, low income women throughout India, its mission is to improve the standards of living for women in India and help women achieve full employment.

The purpose of the Madhya Pradesh Unconditional Cash Transfers Project is to test the potential for cash transfers to address vulnerabilities that low income Indians face. The unconditional cash transfer is a form of a universal basic income, as it provides a set allowance to all civilians in a village every month without any restrictions on what the money can be used for; the MPUCTP, backed by funding from UNICEF and implemented by SEWA, consisted of two pilot programs in 2011 and 2012, both in Madhya Pradesh, a rural area in which SEWA tried to alleviate poverty and inequality. In the first pilot, which lasted 18 m, 20 similar villages were chosen. In eight villages, everyone received grants and in the remaining 12, no one did. In half of all the villages, regardless of whether a village received a grant or not, there were SEWA representatives present to monitor the village; these test villages had similar variables of socio-economic levels, service access, geographical location, similar infrastructure.

In the second pilot, which lasted 12 months, two similar tribal villages were chosen. Everyone in one village no one in the other village received anything. Between both pilots, over 6,000 individuals received cash transfers. In both pilots, every man and child in the selected villages were given a moderate unconditional cash grant: 200 per adult per month and 100 per child per month for 12 months. After 12 months, their grants were raised to 300 and 150 per month for 6 months. A chil