April 14 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
April 13 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - April 15 All fixed commemorations below are observed on April 27 by Eastern Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar. For April 14th, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on April 1. Apostles Aristarchus of Apamea and Trophimus of the Seventy Apostles Martyr Ardalion the Actor, who suffered under Maximian Martyr Azat the Eunuch and 1,000 Martyrs, in Persia Martyr Thomais of Alexandria Saint St Martin the Confessor, Pope of Rome St. Sergiy and Theodor, Confessor Bishops who were exiled to the Crimean peninsula together with St. Martin the Confessor, Pope of Rome Venerable martyr Christopher the Sabbaite, of St. Sabbas’ Monastery Virgin-martyr Domnina of Terni and Companions, martyred in Terni in Italy at the same time as Bishop Valentine Martyrs Tiburtius and Maximus, in Rome Saint Tassach, one of St Patrick's earliest disciples and first Bishop of Raholp Saint Abundius the Sacristan, a sacrist at St Peter's in Rome Saint Lambert of Lyons, Abbot of Fontenelle and Bishop of Lyons Martyrs Anthony and Eustathios, of Vilnius, Lithuania New Martyr Demetrius of the Peloponnese, at Tripolis New Martyr Sergius of Nizhni-Novgorod and companion New Hieromartyr Alexander Orlov, Priest Synaxis of the Icon of the Mother of God of Vilnius April 14 / April 27.
Orthodox Calendar. April 27 / April 14. HOLY TRINITY RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH. April 14. OCA - The Lives of the Saints. Dr. Alexander Roman. April. Calendar of Ukrainian Orthodox Saints; the Autonomous Orthodox Metropolia of Western Europe and the Americas. St. Hilarion Calendar of Saints for the year of our Lord 2004. St. Hilarion Press. P. 28. April 14. Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome; the Roman Martyrology. Transl. by the Archbishop of Baltimore. Last Edition, According to the Copy Printed at Rome in 1914. Revised Edition, with the Imprimatur of His Eminence Cardinal Gibbons. Baltimore: John Murphy Company, 1916. P. 105. Greek Sources Great Synaxaristes: 14 ΑΠΡΙΛΙΟΥ. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ. Συναξαριστής. 14 Απριλίου. ECCLESIA. GR.. Russian Sources 27 апреля. Православная Энциклопедия под редакцией Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Кирилла.. 14 апреля 27 апреля 2013. Русская Православная Церковь Отдел внешних церковных связей
Marcus Valerius Martialis was a Roman poet from Hispania best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian and Trajan. In these short, witty poems he cheerfully satirises city life and the scandalous activities of his acquaintances, romanticises his provincial upbringing, he wrote a total of 1,561 epigrams. Martial has been called the greatest Latin epigrammatist, is considered the creator of the modern epigram. Knowledge of his origins and early life are derived entirely from his works, which can be more or less dated according to the well-known events to which they refer. In Book X of his Epigrams, composed between 95 and 98, he mentions celebrating his fifty-seventh birthday, his place of birth was Augusta Bilbilis in Hispania Tarraconensis. His parents and Flaccilla, appear to have died in his youth, his name seems to imply that he was born a Roman citizen, but he speaks of himself as "sprung from the Celts and Iberians, a countryman of the Tagus".
His home was evidently one of rude comfort and plenty, sufficiently in the country to afford him the amusements of hunting and fishing, which he recalls with keen pleasure, sufficiently near the town to afford him the companionship of many comrades, the few survivors of whom he looks forward to meeting again after his thirty-four years' absence. The memories of this old home, of other spots, the rough names and local associations which he delights to introduce into his verse, attest to the simple pleasures of his early life and were among the influences which kept his spirit alive in the stultifying routines of upper-crust social life in Rome, he was educated in Hispania, a part of the Roman Empire which in the 1st century produced several notable Latin writers, including Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Younger and Quintilian, Martial's contemporaries Licinianus of Bilbilis, Decianus of Emerita and Canius of Gades. Martial professes to be of the school of Catullus and Marsus; the epigram bears to this day the form impressed upon it by his unrivalled skill in wordsmithing.
The success of his countrymen may have been what motivated Martial to move to Rome, from Hispania, once he had completed his education. This move occurred in AD 64. Seneca the Younger and Lucan may have served as his first patrons. Not much is known of the details of his life for the first twenty years or so, he published some juvenile poems of which he thought little in his years, he chuckles at a foolish bookseller who would not allow them to die a natural death. His faculty ripened with experience and with the knowledge of that social life, both his theme and his inspiration. From many answers which he makes to the remonstrances of friends—among others to those of Quintilian—it may be inferred that he was urged to practice at the bar, but that he preferred his own lazy, some would say Bohemian kind of life, he secured the favor of both Titus and Domitian. From them he obtained various privileges, among others the semestris tribunatus, which conferred on him equestrian rank. Martial failed, however, in his application to Domitian for more substantial advantages, although he commemorates the glory of having been invited to dinner by him, the fact that he procured the privilege of citizenship for many persons on whose behalf he appealed to him.
The earliest of his extant works, known as Liber spectaculorum, was first published at the opening of the Colosseum in the reign of Titus. It relates to the theatrical performances given by him, but the book as it now stands was published about the first year of Domitian, i.e. about the year 81. The favour of the emperor procured him the countenance of some of the worst creatures at the imperial court—among them of the notorious Crispinus, of Paris, the supposed author of Juvenal's exile, for whose monument Martial afterwards wrote a eulogistic epitaph; the two books, numbered by editors XIII and XIV, known by the names of Xenia and Apophoreta—inscriptions in two lines each for presents—were published at the Saturnalia of 84. In 86 he produced the first two of the twelve books. From that time till his return to Hispania in 98 he published a volume every year; the first nine books and the first edition of Book X appeared in the reign of Domitian. A revised edition of book X, that which we now possess, appeared in 98, about the time of Trajan's entrance into Rome.
The last book was written after three years' absence in Hispania, shortly before his death about the year 102 or 103. These twelve books bring Martial's ordinary mode of life between the age of forty-five and sixty before us, his regular home for thirty-five years was the bustle of metropolitan Rome. He lived at first up three flights of stairs, his "garret" overlooked the laurels in front of the portico of Agrippa, he had a small villa and unproductive farm near Nomentum, in the Sabine territory, to which he retired from the pestilence and noises of the city. In his years he had a small house on the Quirinal, near the temple of Quirinus. At the t
The Basilica of Saint Praxedes known in Italian as Santa Prassede, is an ancient titular church and minor basilica in Rome, located near the papal basilica of Saint Mary Major. The current Cardinal Priest of Titulus Sancta Praxedis is Paul Poupard; the church in its current form was commissioned by Pope Hadrian I around the year 780, built on top of the remains of a 5th-century structure and was designed to house the bones of Saint Praxedes and Saint Pudentiana, the daughters of Saint Pudens, traditionally St. Peter's first Christian convert in Rome; the two female saints were murdered for providing Christian burial for early martyrs in defiance of Roman law. The basilica was decorated by Pope Paschal I in c. 822. Pope Paschal, who reigned 817-824, was at the forefront of the Carolingian Renaissance started and advocated by the emperor Charlemagne, they desired to get back to the foundations of Christianity artistically. Paschal, began two, ambitious programs: the recovery of martyrs' bones from the catacombs of Rome and an unprecedented church building campaign.
Paschal transplanted them to this church. The Titulus S. Praxedis was established by Pope Evaristus, around 112; the inscriptions found in Santa Prassede, a valuable source illustrating the history of the church, have been collected and published by Vincenzo Forcella. The church provided the inspiration for Robert Browning's poem "The Bishop Orders His Tomb at Saint Praxed's Church." The main altarpiece is a canvas of St Praxedes Gathering the Blood of the Martyrs by Domenico Muratori. The most famous element of the church is the mosaic decorative program. Paschal hired a team of professional mosaicists to complete the work in the apse, the apsidal arch, the triumphal arch. In the apse, Jesus is in the center, flanked by Sts. Peter and Paul who present Prassede and Pudenziana to God. On the far left is Paschal, with the square halo of the living, presenting a model of the church as an offering to Jesus. Below runs an inscription of Paschal's, hoping that this offering will be sufficient to secure his place in heaven.
On the apsidal arch are twelve men on each side, holding wreaths of victory, welcoming the souls into heaven. Above them are symbols of the four Gospel writers: the lion; those mosaics, as well as those in the Chapel of Saint Zeno, a funerary chapel which Pope Paschal built for his mother, are the best-known aspects of the church. Noteworthy are ancient frescoes. Ascending a spiral staircase, one enters a small room, covered in scaffolding; the frescoes depict the life-cycle of the name saint of the church, Praxedes. Santa Prassede houses an alleged segment of the pillar upon which Jesus was flogged and tortured before his crucifixion in Jerusalem; the relic is alleged to have been retrieved in the early 4th century by Saint Helena who at the age of eighty undertook a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, where she founded churches for Christian worship and rescued relics associated with the crucifixion of Jesus on Calvary. Among these legendary relics retrieved by Helena, which included pieces of the True Cross and wood from the Jesus' crib enshrined at S. Maria Maggiore.
The authenticity of these relics, including the Santa Prassede pillar, is disputed by historians, due to lack of forensic evidence and the proliferation of falsified relics during the Middle Ages. Among known titulars of this see are Lambertus Scannabecchi, Ubaldo Allucingoli, Alain de Coëtivy, Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, Saint Charles Borromeo, Rafael Merry del Val. B. M. Apollonj Ghetti, Santa Prassede. Gillian Vallance Mackie, The Iconographic Programme of the Zeno Chapel at Santa Prassede, Rome. Marchita B. Mauck, “The Mosaic of the Triumphal Arch of Santa Prassede: A Liturgical Interpretation.” Speculum 62-64, pp. 813-828. Rotraut Wisskirchen, Mosaikprogramm von Santa Prassede in Rom. Anna Maria Affanni, La chiesa di Santa Prassede: la storia, il rilievo, il restauro. Mary M. Schaefer, Women in Pastoral Office: The Story of Santa Prassede, Rome. Maurizio Caperna, La basilica di Santa Prassede: il significato della vicenda architettonica. Benedictine Monks of Vallombroso, The Basilica of Saint Praxedes, in memory of their eighth century of presence at Saint Praxedes: 1198-1998.
Kunsthistorie.com, photogallery. Santa Prassede Mosaics High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of Santa Prassede | Art Atlas Episcopa Theodora
Santa Pudenziana is a church of Rome, a basilica built in the 4th-century, dedicated to Saint Pudentiana, sister of Saint Praxedis and daughter of Saint Pudens. It is therefore one of the national churches in Rome, it has been suggested that there was no such person as Pudentiana, the name having originated as an adjective used to describe the house of Pudens, Domus Pudentiana. However, St. Paul refers to Pudens, so it appears that there was a real person with this name; the church of Santa Pudenziana is recognized as the oldest place of Christian worship in Rome. It was built over a 2nd-century house during the pontificate of Pius I in 140–155 AD, re-uses part of a bath facility still visible in the structure of the apse; this church was the residence of the Pope until, in 313, Emperor Constantine I offered the Lateran Palace in its stead. In the 4th century, during the pontificate of Pope Siricius, the building was transformed into a three-naved church. In the acts of the synod of 499, the church bears the titulus Pudentis, indicating that the administration of the sacraments was allowed.
The church is situated at a lower level. One enters through wrought iron gates. Steps spring down to the square courtyard from both sides of the entrance; the architrave of the entrance hall of the faded façade contains a marble frieze that used to belong to a portal from the 11th century. It is a significant work of medieval sculpture in Rome, it shows Pastore, Pudenziana and their father Pudens. The columns in the nave were part of the original basilica structure; the Romanesque belltower was added in the early 13th century. Restorations of 1388 by Francesco da Volterra, on orders from cardinal Enrico Caetani, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, transformed the three naves into one and a dome was added designed by Francesco da Volterra; the painting of Angels and Saints before the Saviour on the dome is a fresco by the painter Pomarancio. During these last restorations some fragments of a Laocoön group were found that were larger than those in the Vatican; as no one was willing to pay extra for this find, they filled up the hole in the ground.
These fragments were never recovered. The façade was renewed in 1870 and frescoes were added by Pietro Gagliardi; the right side of the present basilica was part of a Roman bath house dating from the reign of emperor Hadrian. On the wall behind the high altar are three paintings made in 1803 by Bernardino Nocchi representing: St. Timotheus, The Glory of St Pudentiana, St Novatus; the mosaics in the apse are late Roman art. They date from around the end of the 4th century, they were restored in the 16th century. They are among the oldest Christian mosaics in Rome and one of the most striking mosaics outside of Ravenna, they were deemed the most beautiful mosaics in Rome by the 19th-century historian Ferdinand Gregorovius. This mosaic is remarkable for its iconography. Christ is represented as a human figure rather than as a symbol, such as lamb or the good shepherd, as he was in early Christian images; the regal nature of this representation prefigures the majestic bearing of Christ as depicted in Byzantine mosaics.
Christ sits on a jewel encrusted throne. He poses. Christ wears a halo and holds in his left hand the text: "Dominus conservator ecclesiae Pudentianae", he sits among his apostles. The apostles wear senatorial togas, they all face the spectator. The lower part of the mosaic was removed during the restoration in the late 16th century; the mosaics of the apostles on the right side have been lost in the course of time and are replaced by new, but rather blank, mosaics. Two female figures hold a wreath above the head of St. Paul. Above them the roofs and domes of heavenly Jerusalem are depicted. Above Christ stands a large jewel encrusted cross on a hill, as a sign of the triumph of Christ, amidst the Christian symbols of the Four Evangelists; these iconographic symbols are the oldest still existing representations of the Evangelists. The backdrop is a blue sky with an orange sunset. One scholar has suggested that the enthroned figure in the center of the apse mosaic regarded as Christ, in fact represents God the Father, which would be an unusual depiction of God the Father in art at this date.
The Peter chapel, on the left side of the apse, contains a part of the table at which Saint Peter would have held the celebration of the Eucharist in the house of Saint Pudens. The rest of the table is embedded in the papal altar of St. John Lateran; the sculpture on the altar depicts Christ delivering the keys of Heaven to St. Peter by the architect and sculptor Giacomo della Porta. In the same chapel there are two bronze slabs in the wall, explaining that here St. Peter was given hospitality and that St. Peter offered for the first time in Rome bread and wine as a consecration of the Eucharist; the pavement is ancient. A door opens into a cortile with a small chapel. Chapel of the Crucifix: contains a bronze crucifix by A
Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar
The Eastern Orthodox Liturgical Calendar describes and dictates the rhythm of the life of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Passages of Holy Scripture and events for commemoration are associated with each date, as are many times special rules for fasting or feasting that correspond to the day of the week or time of year in relationship to the major feast days. There are two types of feasts in the Orthodox Church calendar: fixed and movable. Fixed feasts occur on the same calendar day every year; the moveable feasts are relative to Pascha, so the cycle of moveable feasts is referred to as the Paschal cycle. The following list of dates links only to fixed feasts of the Orthodox Church; these are the fixed dates. All dates having to do with Pascha - the beginning of Great Lent, Pentecost, etc. - are moveable feasts, thus are not on this calendar. These important notes should be remembered in using the following calendar: For the day in the modern Gregorian Calendar. On which churches following the Julian Calendar celebrate any fixed date's commemoration, the 13 days which were lapsed to correct the calendar to the seasons must again lapse, by adding the 13 days to the dates below.
For example, Christmas Day on the Julian Calendar falls on January 7 of the modern Gregorian Calendar. The number of days by which the Gregorian calendar differs from the Julian calendar is 13, but will increase to 14 on March 1, 2100. Over the course of future centuries, the difference will continue to increase, limitlessly. For those churches which follow the Revised Julian Calendar the dates below correspond to the dates on the Gregorian Calendar; the Orthodox liturgical year begins on September 1. Pascha is, by far, the most important day in the ecclesiastical year, all other days, in one way or another, are dependent upon it. Pascha falls on different calendar dates from year to year, calculated according to a strict set of rules. While the Fixed Cycle begins on September 1, the new Paschal Cycle begins on "Zaccheus Sunday", eleven Sundays before Pascha, continues until the Zaccheus Sunday of the following year; the Epistle and Gospel readings at the Divine Liturgy throughout the year are determined by the date of Pascha.
There are Twelve Great Feasts throughout the church year—not counting Pascha, above and beyond all other feast days. These are feasts which celebrate major historical events in the lives of Jesus Christ or the Theotokos. Of these, three are on the Paschal Cycle: Palm Sunday Ascension Pentecost The other Great Feasts are on the Fixed Cycle: The Nativity of the Theotokos — 21 September The Elevation of the Holy Cross — 27 September The Presentation of the Theotokos — 4 December The Nativity of the Lord — 7 January The Theophany of the Lord — 19 January The Presentation of the Lord — 15 February The Annunciation — 7 April The Transfiguration — 19 August The Dormition of the Theotokos — 28 August In addition, the feast day of the patron saint of a parish church or monastery is counted as a Great Feast, is celebrated with great solemnity. In addition to Great Lent, there are three other lesser lenten seasons in the church year: Nativity Fast Apostles' Fast Dormition Fast The season from the Sunday of the Publican and Pharisee through Holy Saturday is called Triodion, while the season from Pascha through Pentecost is called the Pentecostarion.
Because of the complexity created by the intersection of the various cycles, a number of Orthodox institutions will print an annual calendar which contains rubrics for the services during that particular year. Simpler wall calendars will show the major commemoration of the day together with the appointed scripture readings. Byzantine calendar List of Eastern Orthodox saint titles For saints and other commemorations: Orthodox Church Calendar at OrthodoxWiki Complete lives of the saints for every day of the Byzantine liturgical year Lives of the Saints and Feast days Search at Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America Orthodox Calendar at Holy Trinity Russian Orthodox Church Where to learn and purchase Orthodox Liturgical Calendars For scriptural readings: The Orthodox Study Bible. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1993: 771-780
An icon is a religious work of art, most a painting, in the cultures of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Roman Catholic, certain Eastern Catholic churches. The most common subjects include Christ, Mary and angels. Although associated with "portrait" style images concentrating on one or two main figures, the term covers most religious images in a variety of artistic media produced by Eastern Christianity, including narrative scenes. Icons can represent various scenes in the Bible. Icons may be cast in metal, carved in stone, embroidered on cloth, painted on wood, done in mosaic or fresco work, printed on paper or metal, etc. Comparable images from Western Christianity are not classified as "icons", although "iconic" may be used to describe a static style of devotional image. Eastern Orthodox tradition holds that the production of Christian images dates back to the early days of Christianity, that it has been a continuous tradition since then. Modern academic art history considers that, while images may have existed earlier, the tradition can be traced back only as far as the 3rd century, that the images which survive from Early Christian art differ from ones.
The icons of centuries can be linked closely, to images from the 5th century onwards, though few of these survive. Widespread destruction of images occurred during the Byzantine Iconoclasm of 726–842, although this did settle permanently the question of the appropriateness of images. Since icons have had a great continuity of style and subject. At the same time there has been development. Christian tradition dating from the 8th century identifies Luke the Evangelist as the first icon painter. Aside from the legend that Pilate had made an image of Christ, the 4th-century Eusebius of Caesarea, in his Church History, provides a more substantial reference to a "first" icon of Jesus, he relates that King Abgar of Edessa sent a letter to Jesus at Jerusalem, asking Jesus to come and heal him of an illness. In this version there is no image. A account found in the Syriac Doctrine of Addai mentions a painted image of Jesus in the story. Further legends relate that the cloth remained in Edessa until the 10th century, when it was taken to Constantinople.
It went missing in 1204 when Crusaders sacked Constantinople, but by numerous copies had established its iconic type. The 4th-century Christian Aelius Lampridius produced the earliest known written records of Christian images treated like icons in his Life of Alexander Severus that formed part of the Augustan History. According to Lampridius, the emperor Alexander Severus, himself not a Christian, had kept a domestic chapel for the veneration of images of deified emperors, of portraits of his ancestors, of Christ, Apollonius and Abraham. Saint Irenaeus, in his Against Heresies says scornfully of the Gnostic Carpocratians: "They possess images, some of them painted, others formed from different kinds of material, they crown these images, set them up along with the images of the philosophers of the world, to say, with the images of Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, the rest. They have other modes of honouring these images, after the same manner of the Gentiles ". On the other hand, Irenaeus does not speak critically of icons or portraits in a general sense—only of certain gnostic sectarians' use of icons.
Another criticism of image veneration appears in the non-canonical 2nd-century Acts of John, in which the Apostle John discovers that one of his followers has had a portrait made of him, is venerating it: "...he went into the bedchamber, saw the portrait of an old man crowned with garlands, lamps and altars set before it. And he called him and said: Lycomedes, what do you mean by this matter of the portrait? Can it be one of thy gods, painted here? For I see that you are still living in heathen fashion." In the passage John says, "But this that you have now done is childish and imperfect: you have drawn a dead likeness of the dead." At least some of the hierarchy of the Christian churches still opposed icons in the early 4th century. At the Spanish non-ecumenical Synod of Elvira bishops concluded, "Pictures are not to be placed in churches, so that they do not become objects of worship and adoration". Bishop Epiphanius of Salamis, wrote his letter 51 to John, Bishop of Jerusalem in which he recounted how he tore down an image in a church and admonished the other bishop that such images are "opposed... to our religion".
Elsewhere in his Church History, Eusebius reports seeing what he took to be portraits of Jesus and Paul, mentions a bronze statue at Banias / Paneas under Mount Hermon, of which he wrote, "They say that this statue is an image of Jesus". John Francis Wilson suggests the possibility that this refers to a pagan bronze statue whose tru
Saint Peter known as Simon Peter, Simon, or Cephas, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church. Pope Gregory I called him the "Prince of the Apostles". According to Catholic teaching, Jesus promised Peter in the "Rock of My Church" dialogue in Matthew 16:18 a special position in the Church, he is traditionally counted as the first Bishop of Rome—or pope—and by Eastern Christian tradition as the first Patriarch of Antioch. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and as the founder of the Church of Antioch and the Roman Church, but differ in their attitudes regarding the authority of his present-day successors; the New Testament indicates that Peter's father's name was John and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. His brother Andrew was an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples.
A fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration. According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesus's inner circle, thrice denied Jesus and wept bitterly once he realised his deed, preached on the day of Pentecost. According to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero, it is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, since he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus. Tradition holds, his remains are said to be those contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peter's Basilica, where Pope Paul VI announced in 1968 the excavated discovery of a first-century Roman cemetery; every 29 June since 1736, a statue of Saint Peter in St. Peter's Basilica is adorned with papal tiara, ring of the fisherman, papal vestments, as part of the celebration of the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul. According to Catholic doctrine, the direct papal successor to Saint Peter is the incumbent pope Pope Francis.
Two general epistles in the New Testament are ascribed to Peter, but modern scholars reject the Petrine authorship of both. The Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peter's preaching and eyewitness memories. Several other books bearing his name—the Acts of Peter, Gospel of Peter, Preaching of Peter, Apocalypse of Peter, Judgment of Peter—are considered by Christian denominations as apocryphal, are thus not included in their Bible canons. Peter's original name, as indicated in the New Testament, was "Simon" or "Simeon"; the Simon/Simeon variation has been explained as reflecting "the well-known custom among Jews at the time of giving the name of a famous patriarch or personage of the Old Testament to a male child along with a similar sounding Greek/Roman name". He was given the name כֵּיפָא in Aramaic, rendered in Greek as Κηφᾶς, whence Latin and English Cephas; the precise meaning of the Aramaic word is disputed, some saying that its usual meaning is "rock" or "crag", others saying that it means rather "stone" and in its application by Jesus to Simon, "precious stone" or "jewel", but most scholars agree that as a proper name it denotes a rough or tough character.
Both meanings, "stone" and "rock", are indicated in dictionaries of Syriac. Catholic theologian Rudolf Pesch argues that the Aramaic cepha means "stone, clump, clew" and that "rock" is only a connotation; the combined name Σίμων Πέτρος appears 19 times in the New Testament. In some Syriac documents he is called, in Simon Cephas. Peter's life story is told in the four canonical gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, New Testament letters, the non-canonical Gospel of the Hebrews and other Early Church accounts of his life and death. In the New Testament, he is among the first of the disciples called during Jesus' ministry. Peter became the first listed apostle ordained by Jesus in the early church. Peter was a fisherman in Bethsaida, he was named son of Jonah or John. The three Synoptic Gospels recount how Peter's mother-in-law was healed by Jesus at their home in Capernaum. 1 Cor. 9:5 has been taken to imply that he was married. In the Synoptic Gospels, Peter was a fisherman along with his brother and the sons of Zebedee and John.
The Gospel of John depicts Peter fishing after the resurrection of Jesus, in the story of the Catch of 153 fish. In Matthew and Mark, Jesus called Simon and his brother Andrew to be "fishers of men". A Franciscan church is built upon the traditional site of Apostle Peter's house. In Luke, Simon Peter owns the boat that Jesus uses to preach to the multitudes who were pressing on him at the shore of Lake Gennesaret. Jesu