Vale is one of the ten parishes of Guernsey. In 933 the islands under the control of William I Duchy of Brittany were annexed by the Duchy of Normandy; the island of Guernsey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Duchy of Normandy. Much of the Vale parish belonging to the fief Saint Michael, which benefited the Benedictine monks who lived in an abbey, built next to the Vale Church from when it was granted in 1032 by Robert of Normandy, caught in a storm and his ship had ended up safe in Guernsey; the rights to the fief were removed by Henry VIII when he undertook the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The Castle of Saint Michael, now called Vale Castle, has an origin going back at least 1,000 years and was used as a refuge from pirate attacks, it was started in the late 10th century. In 1372 Owain Lawgoch, a claimant to the Welsh throne, attacked Guernsey at the head of a free company, on behalf of France; this event is popularly called La Descente des Aragousais.
Owain Lawgoch withdrew after killing 400 of the Island militia. The poem of the same name refers to the castle as the Château de l'Archange, the location of the last-ditch stand against the insurgents. In 1615 the island was required to maintain the Vale Castle, while the Crown maintained Castle Cornet, it has been a focal point for defence. Until 1806 the parish occupied territory on the mainland of Guernsey, the Vingtaine de l'Epine, as well as the whole of Le Clos du Valle, a tidal island forming the northern extremity of Guernsey separated from the mainland by Le Braye du Valle, a tidal channel. Le Braye was reclaimed in 1806 by the British Government as a defence measure. Vale now consists of two non-contiguous territories; the Vale postal code starts with GY3 with some starting GY8. The parish was twinned with the Normandy port of Barneville-Carteret in 1987. Vale comprises the whole of the Vale administrative division In the Guernsey general election, 2016 there was a 3,774 or 74% turnout to elect six Deputies.
Those elected being Matt Fallaize, Dave Jones, Mary Lowe, Laurie Queripel, Jeremy Smithies and Sarah Hansmann Rouxel. Dave Jones died in July 2016 and a by-election was held in October 2016 to elect a replacement
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Geology of Guernsey
Guernsey has a geological history stretching further back into the past than most of Europe. The majority of rock exposures on the Island may be found along the coastlines, with inland exposures scarce and highly weathered. There is a broad geological division between the south of the Island; the Southern Metamorphic Complex is elevated above the geologically younger, lower lying Northern Igneous Complex. Guernsey has experienced a complex geological evolution with multiple phases of intrusion and deformation recognisable; the southern part if the island is composed of Icart Gneiss. The Icart Gneiss is an augen gneiss of granitic composition containing potassium feldspar; this was formed from a granite dated at 2,061 million years ago using U-Pb dating on zircon grains. A foliated Perelle quartz diorite, occurs in the west of the island; this is a calc-alkaline tonalitic rock. The foliation was formed at around 600 million years ago during the Cadomian Orogeny. Rafts of metamorphosed sediments, older than the Foliated Perelle Diorite are embedded between them.
The Pleinmont Formation consists of metamorphosed sediments is of unknown age, although it has been proposed that these belong to the Brioverian group that outcrop on nearby Jersey It is named after Pleinmont Point on the south west tip of the Island. The older rocks were deformed during the Cadomian Orogeny; the Icart Gneisses formed the basement to an outboard terrane, subsequently accreted to Armorica. The Cobo Granite was formed at 570 million years ago, named after Cobo Bay on the mid west coast; the north end of the island is an unfoliated calc-alkaline pluton of the Bordeaux Diorite Complex consisting of diorite and granodiorite. This is dated at 570 million years ago. On the central east coast around Saint Peter Port is the St Peter Port Gabbro containing layers with olivine and two kinds of pyroxene; the igneous plutonic intrusion is 0.8 km thick. It dips shallowly to the west; the lower and upper portions are layered on the scale of a meter, while millimeter scale layering is found on the uppermost parts.
This is dated at 570 million years ago. Near Vale Castle the rock is of a type called bojite with interlocking hornblende and plagioclase crystals. During the Quaternary Devensian glaciation, loess was deposited; the island was only separated from the continent of Europe by rising sea levels at about 5000 BC during the new stone age. Many of the rocks present in the south of Guernsey may be observed on Lihou Island. At the western coast of the island, a shear zone is exposed at the contact between the Perelle Foliated Quartz Diorite and the Icart Gneiss; the younger quartz diorite is mylonitised, where field evidence suggests that it was most deformed synchronously with its intrusion. The contact between the two rocks is folded, as are the mylonitic fabrics in the two rocks. Dykes are abundant on the Island of doleritic composition. Guernsey has had an active quarrying industry over the years removing rock for use as building materials. Many local houses are constructed of red-brown Cobo Granite.
The only remaining active quarry is Les Vardes on the west coast of the Island, operated by Ronez. Here the Bordeaux Diorite is crushed on site to produce aggregate. Many of the disused quarry sites have been allowed to fill with water, such as St. Andrews Reservoir, now used by the States of Guernsey water board. Mont Cuet is another former quarry, now used as a landfill site to dispose of the majority of the Island's non-recyclable waste. Eldridge M. Moores. "Great Britain: Channel Islands". Encyclopedia of European and Asian regional geology. London: Chapman & Hall. Pp. 276–277. ISBN 978-0-412-74040-4. Renouf, John. "Geological excursion guide 1: Jersey and Guernsey, Channel Islands". Geology Today. 1: 90–93. Doi:10.1111/j.1365-2451.1985.tb00293.x
The Corbet Field
The Corbet Field is a multi-use stadium in St Sampson, Guernsey. It is used for football matches and Crown Green Bowling. Is the home of Vale Recreation FC, Vale Recreation Bowls Club and serves as the home of the Guernsey national football team administration centre; the stadium was built in 1932 by Jurat Wilfred John Corbet OBE who donated the land for such use
A clipper was a fast sailing ship of the middle third of the 19th century. Developed from a type of schooner known as Baltimore clippers, clipper ships had three masts and a square rig, they were narrow for their length, small by 19th century standards, could carry limited bulk freight, had a large total sail area. Clipper ships were constructed in British and American shipyards, though France, the Netherlands and other nations produced some. Clippers sailed all over the world on the trade routes between the United Kingdom and its colonies in the east, in transatlantic trade, on the New York-to-San Francisco route around Cape Horn during the California Gold Rush. Dutch clippers were built beginning in the 1850s for the tea passenger service to Java; the boom years of the clipper ship era began in 1843 as a result of a growing demand for a more rapid delivery of tea from China. It continued under the stimulating influence of the discovery of gold in California and Australia in 1848 and 1851, ended with the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869.
The term "clipper" most derives from the verb "clip", which in former times meant, among other things, to run or fly swiftly. Dryden, the English poet, used the word "clip" to describe the swift flight of a falcon in the 17th century when he said "And, with her eagerness the quarry missed, Straight flies at check, clips it down the wind." The ships appeared to clip along the ocean water. The term "clip" became synonymous with "speed" and was applied to fast horses and sailing ships. "To clip it," and "going at a good clip," remained familiar expressions in the early 20th century. While the first application of the term "clipper" in a nautical sense is by no means certain, it seems to have had an American origin when applied to the Baltimore clippers of the late 18th century; when these vessels of a new model were built, which were intended to "clip" over the waves rather than plough through them, the improved type of craft became known as "clippers" because of their speed. In England the nautical term "clipper" appeared a little later.
The Oxford English Dictionary says its earliest quotation for "clipper" is from 1830. This does not mean, that little British opium clippers from prior to 1830 were not called "opium clippers" just as they are today. Carl C. Cutler reports the first newspaper appearance was in 1835, by the term was familiar. An undated painting of the British Water Witch built in 1831 is labeled OPIUM CLIPPER "WATER WITCH" so the term had at least passed into common usage during the time that this ship sailed. There is no single definition of the characteristics of a clipper ship, but mariner and author Alan Villiers describes them as follows:To sailors, three things made a ship a clipper, she must be sharp-lined. She must carry the utmost spread of canvas, and she must use that sail and night, fair weather and foul. Optimized for speed, they were too fine-lined to carry much cargo. Clippers carried extra sails such as skysails and moonrakers on the masts, studding sails on booms extending out from the hull or yards, which required extra sailors to handle them.
In conditions where other ships would shorten sail, clippers drove on, heeling so much that their lee rails were in the water. A clipper is confused with a windjammer, but they are different types of ship. Clippers were optimized for speed only and carrying priced cargo in small quantities, such as tea, spices or opium. Whereas clippers had short lifespans—most were scrapped after only two decades of service—windjammers could have fifty or more years of service life, several windjammers are still today in use as school ships; the first ships to which the term "clipper" seems to have been applied were the Baltimore clippers. Baltimore clippers were topsail schooners developed in the Chesapeake Bay before the American Revolution, which reached their zenith between 1795 and 1815, they were small exceeding 200 tons OM, modelled after French luggers. Some were armed in the War of 1812, sailing under Letters of Marque and Reprisal, when the type—exemplified by Chasseur, launched at Fells Point, Baltimore in 1814—became known for her incredible speed.
Clippers, running the British blockade of Baltimore, came to be recognized for speed rather than cargo space. Speed was required for the Chinese opium trade between England and China. Small, sharp-bowed British vessels were the result. An early example, today known as an opium clipper, was Transit of 1819, she was followed by many more. Meanwhile, Baltimore Clippers still continued to be built, were built for the China opium trade running opium between India and China, a trade that only became unprofitable for American shipowners in 1849. Ann McKim is considered to be the original clipper ship, she was built in Baltimore in 1833 and was the first attempt at building a larger swift vessel in the United States. Ann McKim, 494 tons OM, was built on the enlarged lines of a Baltimore clipper, with raked stem, counter stern and square rig, she was built in Baltimore in 1833 by the Williamson shipyard. Although Ann McKim was the first large clipper ship constructed, it cannot be said that she founded the clipper ship era, or that she directly influenced shipbuilders, since no other ship was built like her.
History of Guernsey
The history of Guernsey stretches back to evidence of prehistoric habitation and settlement and encompasses the development of its modern society. Around 6000 BCE, rising sea created the English Channel and separated the Norman promontories that became the bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey from continental Europe. Neolithic farmers settled on its coast and built the dolmens and menhirs found on the islands today; the island of Guernsey contains two sculpted menhirs of great archaeological interest, while the dolmen known as L'Autel du Dehus contains a dolmen deity known as Le Gardien du Tombeau. The Roman occupation of western Europe induced people to flee, including to the Channel Islands where a number of hoards have been found, including the Grouville Hoard, it brought trade and Roman settlements. A 3rd-century Gallo-Roman ship wreck was found in St Peter Port harbour. Trade was by ship down the west coast of Europe, silver from England, Breton pottery, wine amphorae, as discovered in the Kings Road excavation in St Peter Port.
The Nunnery in Alderney, was a 5th-century Roman signal station fort. During their migration to Brittany, Britons occupied the Lenur islands including Sarnia or Lisia and Angia, it was thought that the island's original name was Sarnia, but recent research indicates that this might have been the Latin name for Sark Travelling from the Kingdom of Gwent, Saint Sampson the abbot of Dol in Brittany, is credited with the introduction of Christianity to Guernsey. A chapel, dedicated to St Magloire, stood in the Vale. St Magloire was a nephew of St Samson of Dol, was born about the year 535; the chapel in his name was mentioned in a bull of Pope Adrian IV as being in the patronage of Mont Saint-Michel, in Normandy. While the chapel would be of a much date, St Magloire, the British missionary, may well have set up a centre of Christian worship before A. D. 600. Somewhere around A. D. 968, from the Benedictine monastery of Mont Saint-Michel, came to Guernsey to establish a community in the North of the Island.
The Priory of Mont Saint-Michel was a dependency of the famous Abbey of Mont Saint-Michel. The history of the Bailiwick of Guernsey goes back to 933 when the islands, came under the control of William Longsword, son of Rollo the first Duke of Normandy, having been annexed from the Duchy of Brittany by the Duchy of Normandy; the island of Guernsey and the other island in the Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Duchy of Normandy. In the islands, Elizabeth II's traditional title as head of state is Duke of Normandy. According to tradition, Robert I, Duke of Normandy was journeying to England in 1032, to help Edward the Confessor, he was obliged to take shelter in Guernsey and gave land, now known as the Clos du Valle, to the monks. Furthermore, in 1061, when pirates attacked and pillaged the Island, a complaint was made to Duke William, he sent over Sampson D'Anneville, who succeeded, with the aid of the monks, in driving the pirates out. For this service, Sampson D' Anneville and the monks were rewarded with a grant of half the Island between them.
The portion going to the monastery being known as Le Fief St Michel, included the parishes of St Saviour, St Pierre du Bois, Ste. Marie du Catel, the Vale; the loss of Normandy by King John in 1204 isolated the Channel Islands from mainland Europe. Each time England and France went to war over the coming centuries, trade to and from the Channel Islands was restricted or banned and when not at war, the island was attacked by continental pirates and naval forces. Fortifications were improved in the Channel Islands, manned by professional soldiers and the Guernsey militia who would help to defend the Island for the next 600 years. Service was compulsory in the militia for every man in the Island. Raids on Guernsey in 1336 and 1337 by exiled David Bruce, came at the start of the Hundred Years War, they were followed by Sark being captured and using this as a base, the next year when, starting in 1339, Guernsey was occupied by the Capetians, holding the Island for two years and Castle Cornet for seven.
The attacks would recur on several occasions. It was 1348. In 1372, the island was invaded by Aragonese mercenaries under the command of Owain Lawgoch, in the pay of the French king. Lawgoch and his dark-haired mercenaries were absorbed into Guernsey legend as an invasion by fairies from across the sea. In 1394 Richard II of England granted a new Charter to the islands, because of great loyalty shown to the Crown, exemption for from English tolls and duties. Ship building skills improved and trade to and from Guernsey increased with a growing number of ports, sometimes using trading treaties and sometimes avoiding paying duties. Guernsey ships in the 14th century were small. 12-80 tons with crews of 8-20 men. In times of war, ships could be seized as prizes, the practice continuing in times of peace, against all nationalities, as piracy. In the mid-16th century, the island was influenced by Calvinist reformers from Normandy. During the Marian persecutions, three local women, the Guernsey Martyrs, were burned at the stake in 1556 for their Protestant beliefs.
Two years Elizabeth I came to the throne and Catholicism faded in Guernsey. The French and piracy were problems to trade with Guernsey in the 16th century, requiring English naval ships to keep them at bay. Guernsey and Jersey were given certain privileges as the
Guernsey loophole towers
The British built 15 Guernsey loophole towers at various points along the coast of Guernsey between August 1778 and March 1779 to deter possible French attacks after France had declared itself an ally of the American rebels in the American Revolutionary War. Towards the start of the Napoleonic Wars several towers received additional reinforcement in the form of batteries at their bases. Today, 12 towers still survive. Two of the survivors, Petit Bôt and Rousse, contain interpretive exhibits that the public may examine. In 1778, General Henry Seymour Conway, Governor of Jersey, recommended that 30 towers be built there to impede a possible French incursion; as it happened all the towers were built after the Battle of Jersey in 1781. However, in July 1778, the British government authorized the building of 15 towers on Guernsey; these towers were designed to accommodate only muskets. Although most of the towers were built on the Commons, or on public land above the high-water mark, three towers were to be built on private land.
The States were of the opinion that the project was of such importance that if necessary they would exercise eminent domain, "...notwithstanding any Clameur de haro or any opposition whatsoever...". Manning the towers was the responsibility of the Royal Guernsey Militia; this force of 4-5,000 men consisted of four infantry regiments. Service in the militia was unpaid; the men took turns manning other fortifications assigned to each regiment. A report of 1787 pointed out the towers' limitations; as a result, at the onset of the Napoleonic Wars, during General Sir John Doyle's tenure as Lieutenant Governor, a number of the towers received supporting batteries, either at their base, or nearby. In 1803, the towers had their roofs strengthened and they received 12-pounder carronades as additional armament. During the German occupation of the Channel Islands during World War II, the Germans modified some towers to their purposes by replacing some of the loopholes with machine-gun slits; the Petit Bôt Tower provided one example.
The towers were all built to one design. They all had three floors, the two above the ground floor having loopholes that would permit musket fire to cover all approaches to the tower. Captain Frederick Bassett, RE, the Commanding Engineer in the Channel Islands, oversaw the towers' construction, they were to be built to the design of the Jersey round towers, but in fact deviated in a number of ways. They had a batter at the base, were slenderer than the Jersey towers; the Jersey towers later received machicolations, which are absent from the Guernsey loophole towers. The towers are 30ft feet tall, have an external diameter of 20ft and an internal diameter of just over 12ft, they have a batter to the walls to the first floor, rise straight up from there. The towers were built of Guernsey granites. Tower #1, at Houge à la Perre Battery, on Belle Greve Bay, St Peter Port, was built of St Peter Port gabbro. All the others were built with Vazon being built of Cobo Granite; the towers are numbered sequentially, in a counter-clockwise direction from St Peter Port.
- Houge à la Perre Tower and battery, St Sampson. Destroyed 2 July 1905 for a tram shed and road widening. A German bunker now occupies the site. - Houge à la Perre Tower, Saint Sampson. Destroyed in 1958 for States flats. - Mont Crevelt Tower and battery, St Sampson. - By Fort Le Marchant, Vale. - L’Ancresse Bay, Nid de l'Herbe, Vale. - L’Ancresse Common, Vale. The Common now holds a golf course. - L'Ancresse Common, Vale, on the golf course. - L'Ancresse Common, Vale, on the golf course. Destroyed by the Germans during World War II. - Bay de la Jaonneuse, Vale. The tower now has a slight lean. - Chouet, Vale. The Chouet and Rousse towers stand on the headlands. Up until the early 19th Century, the bay led to the Braye du Valle, a saltwater channel that extended to St Sampson's Harbour, that made the northern extremity of Guernsey, Le Clos du Valle, a tidal island. - Rousse Tower and battery, Vale. The battery, of three 24-pounder and two 9-pounder guns, was added in 1804; the tower has three levels and one can climb to the top, which provides a good view along the coast.
In the tower, life-size models show how members of the Guernsey militia, their families, manned the defenses. The nearby magazine has additional displays. - Vazon Road, Castel. There is a battery located nearby; the battery would have mounted four 24-pounder guns in 1816. - Petit Bôt Tower, Forest - The tower was placed at Petit Bot because Petit Bot has a sandy beach, making it one of the few potential landing places on the south coast of the island. The tower was renovated between 2011 and 2012 and the information centre on the ground floor opened in June 2012. - Saints Bay, St Martin - Fermain Tower and battery, St Martin. Fermain North Battery and its magazine stand near the tower. Clements, William H. Towers of Strength: Martello Towers Worldwide.. ISBN 978-0-85052-679-0. Dillon, Paddy Channel Island Walks.. ISBN 1-85284-288-1 Grimsley, E. J; the historical development of the Martello Tower in the Channel Islands.. ISBN 978-0951386804