Dedication is the act of consecrating an altar, church, or other sacred building. It refers to the inscription of books or other artifacts when these are addressed or presented to a particular person; this practice, which once was used to gain the patronage and support of the person so addressed, is now only a mark of affection or regard. In law, the word is used of the setting apart by a private owner of a road to public use; the Feast of Dedication, today Hanukkah, once called "Feast of the Maccabees," was a Jewish festival observed for eight days from the 25th of Kislev. It was instituted in the year 165 B. C. by Judas Maccabeus, his brothers, the elders of the congregation of Israel in commemoration of the reconsecration of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, of the altar of burnt offerings, after they had been desecrated during the persecution under Antiochus Epiphanes. The significant happenings of the festival were the illumination of houses and synagogues, a custom taken over from the Feast of Tabernacles, the recitation of Psalm 30:1-12.
J. Wellhausen suggests that the feast was connected with the winter solstice, only afterwards with the events narrated in Maccabees; the Feast of Dedication is mentioned in John 10:22 where it mentions Jesus being at the Jerusalem Temple during "the Feast of Dedication" and further notes "and it was winter." The Greek term used in John is "the renewals". Josephus refers to the festival in Greek as "lights." Churches under the authority of a bishop are dedicated by the bishop in a ceremony that used to be called that of consecration, but is now called that of dedication. For the Catholic Church, the rite of dedication is described in the Caeremoniale Episcoporum, chapters IX-X, in the Roman Missal's Ritual Masses for the Dedication of a Church and an Altar. In the Church of England, a consecrated church may only be closed for worship after a legal process; the custom of solemnly dedicating or consecrating buildings as churches or chapels set apart for Christian worship must be as old as Christianity itself.
When we come to the earlier part of the 4th century allusions to and descriptions of the consecration of churches become plentiful. This service is of Jewish origin; the hallowing of the tabernacle and of its furniture and ornaments. All these point to the probability of the Christians deriving their custom from a Jewish origin. Eusebius of Caesarea speaks of the dedication of churches rebuilt after the Diocletian persecution, including the church at Tyre in 314 AD; the consecrations of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem in 335, built by Constantine I, of other churches after his time, are described both by Eusebius and by other ecclesiastical historians. From them we gather that every consecration was accompanied by a celebration of the Holy Eucharist and a sermon, special prayers of a dedicatory character, but there is no trace of the elaborate ritual of the medieval pontificals dating from the 8th century onwards; the separate consecration of altars is provided for by Canon 14 of the Council of Agde in 506, by Canon 26 of the Council of Epaone in 517, the latter containing the first known reference to the usage of anointing the altar with chrism.
The use of both holy water and of unction is attributed to St. Columbanus, who died in 615. There was an annual commemoration of the original dedication of the church, a feast with its octave extending over eight days, during which Gregory the Great encouraged the erection of booths and general feasting on the part of the populace, to compensate them for, in some way to take the place of, abolished pagan festivities. At an early date the right to consecrate churches was reserved to bishops, as by a canon of the First Council of Bracara in 563, by the 23rd of the Irish collections of canons, once attributed to St Patrick, but hardly to be put earlier than the 8th century; the manuscripts and printed service-books of the medieval church contain a lengthy and elaborate service for the consecration of churches in the pontifical. The earliest known pontifical is that of Egbert, Archbishop of York, however, only survives in a 10th-century manuscript copy. Pontificals are numerous and somewhat varied.
A good idea of the general character of the service can be obtained from a skeleton of it as performed in England after the Reformation according to the use of Sarum. The service is taken from an early 15th-century pontifical in the Cambridge University Library as printed by W. Makell in Monumenta ritualia ecclesiae Anglicanae. There is a preliminary office for laying a foundation-stone. On the day of consecration the bishop is to vest in a tent outside the church proceed to the door of the church on the outside, a single deacon being inside the church. There he blesses holy water, twelve lighted candles being placed outside, twelve inside the church, he sprinkles the walls all round outside and knocks at the door. He sprinkles the walls all round outside a second time a third time, knocking at the door each time, he may enter, all laity being excluded. The bishop fixes a cross in the centre of the church, after which the litany is said, including a special clause for the consecration of the church and altar.
Next the bishop inscribes the alp
Pope Sylvester I
Pope Sylvester I, was the 33rd Pope of the Catholic Church from 314 to his death in 335. He succeeded Pope Miltiades, he filled the See of Rome at an important era in the history of the Western Church, yet little is known of him. The accounts of his papacy preserved in the Liber Pontificalis contain little more than a record of the gifts said to have been conferred on the Church by Constantine I, although it does say that he was the son of a Roman named Rufinus, his feast is celebrated as Saint Sylvester's Day in Western Christianity on December 31, while Eastern Christianity commemorates it on January 2. During his pontificate, the great churches founded at Rome by Constantine, e.g. the Basilica of St. John Lateran, Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, Old St. Peter's Basilica were built, several cemeterial churches were built over the graves of martyrs. Sylvester did not attend the First Council of Nicaea in 325, where the Nicene Creed was formulated, but he was represented by two legates and Vincentius, he approved the council's decision.
One of the Symmachian forgeries, the Vita beati Silvestri, preserved in Greek and Syriac, is an apocryphal alleged account of a Roman council, including legends of Sylvester's close relationship with the first Christian emperor. These appear in the Donation of Constantine. Long after his death, the figure of Sylvester was embroidered upon in a fictional account of his relationship to Constantine, which seemed to support the Gelasian doctrine of papal supremacy, papal auctoritas guiding imperial potestas, the doctrine, embodied in the forged Donation of Constantine of the eighth century. In the fiction, of which an early version is represented in the early sixth-century Symmachean forgeries emanating from the curia of Pope Symmachus, the Emperor Constantine was cured of leprosy by the virtue of the baptismal water administered by Sylvester; the Emperor, abjectly grateful, not only confirmed the bishop of Rome as the primate above all other bishops, he resigned his imperial insignia and walked before Sylvester's horse holding the Pope's bridle as the papal groom.
The Pope, in return, offered the crown of his own good will to Constantine, who abandoned Rome to the pope and took up residence in Constantinople. "The doctrine behind this charming story is a radical one," Norman F. Cantor observes: "The pope is supreme over all rulers the Roman emperor, who owes his crown to the pope and therefore may be deposed by papal decree"; such a useful legend gained wide circulation. Pope Sylvester II, himself a close associate of Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor, chose the name Sylvester in imitation of Sylvester I. In the West, the liturgical feast of Saint Sylvester is on 31 December, the day of his burial in the Catacomb of Priscilla; this is the last day in the year and, accordingly, in German-speaking countries and in some others close to them, New Year's Eve is known as Silvester. In some other countries, the day is referred to as Saint Sylvester's Day or the Feast of Saint Sylvester. In São Paulo, Brazil, a long-distance running event called the Saint Silvester Road Race occurs every year on 31 December.
The Donation of Constantine is a document fabricated in the second half of the eighth century, purporting to be a record by the Emperor himself of his conversion, the profession of his new faith, the privileges he conferred on Pope Sylvester I, his clergy, their successors. According to it, Pope Sylvester was offered the imperial crown, however, he refused."Lu Santu Papa Silvestru", a story in Giuseppe Pitrè's collection of Sicilian fables, recounts the legend as follows: Constantine the king wants to take a second wife, asks Sylvester. Sylvester denies calling on heaven as witness. Not long after, Constantine falls ill, he obeys, Sylvester receives Constantine's messengers in his cave and swiftly baptizes them, whereafter he is led back to Constantine, whom he baptizes and cures. In this story and his entourage are not pagans but Jews. Another legend has Sylvester slaying a dragon, he is depicted with the dying beast. List of longest-reigning popes List of Catholic saints List of popes Gisela Schmitt.
"Pope Sylvester I". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 10. Herzberg: Bautz. Col. 338–341. ISBN 3-88309-062-X. Pope St. Sylvester I Francesco Scorza Barcellona: SILVESTRO I, santo. In: Enciclopedia dei Papi, Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana Template:LThK Horst Fuhrmann: Konstantinische Schenkung in: Lexikon des Mittelalters. Vol. 5, Artemis & Winkler, Munich/Zurich 1991, ISBN 3-7608-8905-0, Col. 1385–1387. Wilhelm Pohlkamp: Silvester I. Papst in: Lexikon des Mittelalters. Vol. 7, LexMA-Verlag, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-7608-8907-7, Col. 1905–1908. Media related to Sylvester I at Wikimedia Commons Opera Omnia by Migne Colonnade Statue in St Peter's Square Legenda Aurea
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organization and doctrine. Individual bodies, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, such as church or sometimes fellowship. Divisions between one group and another are defined by doctrine. Groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs and historical ties—are sometimes known as "branches of Christianity"; these branches differ in many ways through differences in practices and belief. Individual denominations vary in the degree to which they recognize one another. Several groups claim to be the direct and sole authentic successor of the church founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. Others, believe in denominationalism, where some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices; because of this concept, some Christian bodies reject the term "denomination" to describe themselves, to avoid implying equivalency with other churches or denominations.
The Catholic Church which claims 1.2 billion members – over half of all Christians worldwide – does not view itself as a denomination, but as the original pre-denominational church, a view rejected by other Christians. Protestant denominations account for 37 percent of Christians worldwide. Together and Protestantism comprise Western Christianity. Western Christian denominations prevail in Western, Northern and Southern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania; the Eastern Orthodox Church, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents, is the second-largest Christian organization in the world and considers itself the original pre-denominational church. Unlike the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church is itself a communion of independent autocephalous churches that mutually recognize each other to the exclusion of others; the Eastern Orthodox Church, together with Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East, constitutes Eastern Christianity. Eastern Christian denominations are represented in Eastern Europe, North Asia, the Middle East, Northeast Africa and South India.
Christians have various doctrines about the Church and about how the divine church corresponds to Christian denominations. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox hold that their own organizations faithfully represent the One Holy catholic and Apostolic Church to the exclusion of the other. Sixteenth-century Protestants separated from the Catholic Church because of theologies and practices that they considered to be in violation of their own interpretation. Members of the various denominations acknowledge each other as Christians, at least to the extent that they have mutually recognized baptisms and acknowledge orthodox views including the Divinity of Jesus and doctrines of sin and salvation though doctrinal and ecclesiological obstacles hinder full communion between churches. Since the reforms surrounding the Second Vatican Council of 1962–1965, the Catholic Church has referred to Protestant communities as "denominations", while reserving the term "church" for apostolic churches, including the Eastern Orthodox.
But some non-denominational Christians do not follow any particular branch, though sometimes regarded as Protestants. Each group uses different terminology to discuss their beliefs; this section will discuss the definitions of several terms used throughout the article, before discussing the beliefs themselves in detail in following sections. A denomination within Christianity can be defined as a "recognized autonomous branch of the Christian Church". "Church" as a synonym, refers to a "particular Christian organization with its own clergy and distinctive doctrines". Some traditional and evangelical Protestants draw a distinction between membership in the universal church and fellowship within the local church. Becoming a believer in Christ makes one a member of the universal church; some evangelical groups describe themselves as interdenominational fellowships, partnering with local churches to strengthen evangelical efforts targeting a particular group with specialized needs, such as students or ethnic groups.
A related concept is denominationalism, the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices.. Protestant leaders differ from the views of the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, the two largest Christian denominations; each church makes mutually exclusive claims for itself to be t
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church for men founded by Ignatius of Loyola and approved by Pope Paul III. The members are called Jesuits; the society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations. Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, cultural pursuits. Jesuits give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, promote ecumenical dialogue. Saint Ignatius of Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona, he composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including Francis Xavier and Peter Faber and professed vows of poverty and obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope in matters of mission direction and assignment. Ignatius's plan of the order's organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by a bull containing the "Formula of the Institute".
Ignatius was a nobleman who had a military background, the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world, where they might be required to live in extreme conditions. Accordingly, the opening lines of the founding document declared that the society was founded for "whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine." Jesuits are thus sometimes referred to colloquially as "God's soldiers", "God's marines", or "the Company", which evolved from references to Ignatius' history as a soldier and the society's commitment to accepting orders anywhere and to endure any conditions. The society participated in the Counter-Reformation and in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council; the Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, it is led by a Superior General. The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome.
The historic curia of Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit mother church. In 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit to be elected Pope, taking the name Pope Francis; as of 2012, the Jesuits formed the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church. The Jesuits have experienced a decline in numbers in recent decades; as of 2017 the society had 16,088 members, 11,583 priests and 4,505 Jesuits in formation, which includes brothers and scholastics. This represents a 42.6 percent decline since 1977, when the society had a total membership of 28,038, of which 20,205 were priests. This decline is most pronounced in Europe and the Americas, with modest membership gains occurring in Asia and Africa. There seems to be no "Pope Francis effect" in counteracting the fall of vocations among the Jesuits; the society is divided into 83 provinces along with six independent regions and ten dependent regions. On 1 January 2007, members served in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India and the US.
Their average age was 57.3 years: 63.4 years for priests, 29.9 years for scholastics, 65.5 years for brothers. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Arturo Sosa; the society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is active in the Philippines and India. In the United States the Jesuits have historical ties to 28 colleges and universities and 61 high schools; the degree to which the Jesuits are involved in the administration of each institution varies. As of September 2018, 15 of the 28 Jesuit universities in the US had non-Jesuit lay presidents. According to a 2014 article in The Atlantic, "the number of Jesuit priests who are active in everyday operations at the schools isn’t nearly as high as it once was". Worldwide it runs 172 colleges and universities. A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning, lifelong spiritual and intellectual growth, training men and women for others.
Ignatius laid out his original vision for the new order in the "Formula of the Institute of the Society of Jesus", "the fundamental charter of the order, of which all subsequent official documents were elaborations and to which they had to conform." He ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and by Pope Julius III in 1550. The formula expressed the nature, community life, apostolate of the new religious order, its famous opening statement echoed Ignatius' military background: Whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God beneath the banner of the Cross in our Society, which we desire to be designated by the Name of Jesus, to serve the Lord alone and the Church, his spouse, under the Roman Pontiff, the Vicar of Christ on earth, after a solemn vow of perpetual chastity and obedience, keep what follows in mind. He is a member of a Society founded chiefly for this purpose: to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine, by means of public preaching and any other ministration whatsoever of the Word of God, further by means of ret
Red Rock Indian Band
The Red Rock Indian Band is an Ojibway First Nation band government in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. Their territory is located on the Red Rock 53 and Lake Helen 53A Indian reserves in Ontario; as of March 2017, they had a total registered population of 1,837 people. The Nation is led by Chief Matthew Dupuis; the council is an independent member of Union of a Tribal Political Organization. The First Nation is a member of Waaskiinaysay Ziibi Inc. an economic development corporation made up of five Lake Nipigon First Nations. Members of the Red Rock Indian Band once lived in different locations around Lake Nipigon. Members are known to have lived at Jackfish Island, Gull Bay, McIntyre Bay called Grand Bay; the Indian reserves are 100 km northeast of the city of Thunder Bay and 2 km east of Nipigon. The total area covered by the two reserves is 950 acres; this site is the location of Saint Sylvesters Church. St. Sylvester’s Church was built in 1877, a Jesuit Mission; the first recorded burial was October 3, 1880.
The grave yard is adjacent to the church and people are still buried there regularly. Although a historical landmark, the Church is no longer used; the Red Rock Indian Band is located within the 1850 Robinson Superior Treaty area. Band members use the Parmachene area for fishing, berry picking, trapping, gathering of medicinal plants and participate in traditional ceremonies. Blueberry picking in particular is enjoyed by many Red Rock Indian Band members; the Lake Helen Reserve 53A is the main community located on the shores of Lake Helen. Al Hackner, 2-time world curling champion, is a member of Red Rock Indian Band; the traditional Ojibwe name for the band is Opwaaganasiniing which means pipestone in the locative voice. AANDC profile FirstNations.ca profile Official website
Lake Nipigon is the largest lake within the boundaries of the Canadian province of Ontario. It is part of the Great Lake drainage basin. Lying 260 metres above sea level, the lake drains into the Nipigon River and thence into Nipigon Bay of Lake Superior; the lake and river are the largest tributaries of Lake Superior. It lies about 120 kilometres northeast of the city of Ontario. Lake Nipigon has a total area of 4,848 square kilometres, compared to 3,150 square kilometres for Lake of the Woods; the largest islands are Caribou Island, Geikie Island, Katatota Island, Kelvin Island, Logan Island, Murchison Island, Murray Island, Shakespeare Island. Maximum depth is 165 metres; the lake is noted for its towering cliffs and unusual green-black sand beaches composed of the fine particles of a dark green mineral known as pyroxene. The lake basin provides an important habitat for woodland caribou. Abstract mafic rocks at Lake Nipigon give evidence of rift-related continental basaltic magmatism during the Midcontinent Rift System event, estimated at 1,109 million years ago.
Great sills up to 150 to 200 metres thick are related with the rifting event, forming cliffs hundreds of meters high. The mafic and ultramafic intrusions centered on Lake Nipigon represent a failed arm of the main rift called the Nipigon Embayment; as the last Ice Age was ending, Lake Nipigon was, at times, part of the drainage path for Lake Agassiz. The French Jesuit Claude Allouez celebrated the first mass beside the Nipigon River May 29, 1667, he visited the village of the Nipissing Indians who had fled there during the Iroquois onslaught of 1649-50. In the Jesuit Relations the lake is called lac Alimibeg, was subsequently known as Alemipigon or Alepigon. In the 19th century it was spelled as Lake Nepigon; this may have originated from the Ojibwe word Animbiigoong, meaning'at continuous water' or'at waters that extends.' Though some sources claim the name may be translated as'deep, clear water,' this description is for Lake Temagami. Today, the Ojibwa bands call Lake Nipigon Animbiigoo-zaaga'igan.
The 1778 Il Paese de' Selvaggi Outauacesi, e Kilistinesi Intorno al Lago Superiore map by John Mitchell identifies the lake as Lago Nepigon and its outlet as F. Nempissaki. In the 1807 map A New Map of Upper & Lower Canada by John Cary, the lake was called Lake St Ann or Winnimpig, while the outflowing river as Red Stone R. Today, the Red Rock First Nation located along the Nipigon River still bears the "Red Stone" name. In the 1827 map Partie de la Nouvelle Bretagne. By Philippe Vandermaelen, the lake was called L. Ste Anne, while the outflowing river as R. Nipigeon. In the 1832 map North America sheet IV. Lake Superior. By the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, the lake was called St Ann or Red L. while the outflowing river as Neepigeon and the heights near the outlet of the Gull River as Neepigon Ho. By 1883, maps such as Statistical & General Map of Canada by Letts, Son & Co. began identify the lake as Lake Nipigon. In 1683 Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut established a fur trading post on Lake Nipigon named Fort la Tourette after his brother, Claude Greysolon, Sieur de la Tourette.
The Alexis Hubert Jaillot map of 1685 suggests that this fort was somewhere in Ombabika Bay at the northeast end of the lake where the Ombabika River and Little Jackfish River empty. This post, like most of the western French posts, was closed in 1696 by order of the king, due to a surplus of beaver belts, the system of trading permits established in 1681 was abolished. On 17 April 1744, the Count of Maurepas, Minister of the Marine, informed the Canadian officials that Jean de La Porte was to be given the "fur ferme" of Lac Alemipigon from that year forward as a reward for his services in New France. After the Treaty of Paris, the area passed into the hands of the British, the Hudson's Bay Company expanded its trading area to include the Lake. Although it was considered to be within British North America, it was not until 1850 that the watershed draining into Lake Superior was ceded formally by the Ojibwe Indians to the Province of Canada. A four square mile reservation was set aside on Gull River near Lake Nipigon on both sides of the river for the Chief Mishe-muckqua.
In 1871 Lake Nipigon was included in Ontario. The Township of Nipigon was incorporated in 1908; the Municipality of Greenstone was incorporated in 2001 and includes Orient Bay, MacDiarmid, Nakina, Caramat and Geraldton. In 1943 Canada and the United States agreed to the Ogoki diversion which diverts water into Lake Superior that would flow into James Bay and thence into Hudson Bay; the diversion connects the upper portion of the Ogoki River to Lake Nipigon. This water was diverted to support three hydroelectric plants on the Nipigon River; the diversion is governed by the International Lake Superior Board of Control, established in 1914 by the International Joint Commission. Lake Nipigon Provincial Park is located on the east side of Lake Nipigon. In 1999 the park boundary was amended to reduce the park area from 14.58 to 9.18 square kilometres. The area was deregulated and transferred to the Government of Canada for a reserve for the Sand Point First Nation. Douglas, R. ed. Nipigon to Winnipeg: a canoe voyage through Western Ontario by Edward Umfreville in 178
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term dioikesis meaning "administration". Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the organization of the Roman Empire, the subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. After Christianity was given legal status in 313, the Churches began to organize themselves into dioceses based on provinces, not on the larger regional imperial districts; the dioceses were smaller than the provinces since there were more bishops than governors. Christianity was declared the Empire's official religion by Theodosius I in 380. Constantine I in 318 gave litigants the right to have court cases transferred from the civil courts to the bishops; this situation must have hardly survived Julian, 361-363. Episcopal courts are not heard of again in the East until 398 and in the West in 408; the quality of these courts were low, not above suspicion as the bishop of Alexandria Troas found out that clergy were making a corrupt profit.
Nonetheless, these courts were popular. Bishops had no part in the civil administration until the town councils, in decline, lost much authority to a group of'notables' made up of the richest councilors and rich persons exempted from serving on the councils, retired military, bishops post-450 A. D; as the Western Empire collapsed in the 5th century, bishops in Western Europe assumed a larger part of the role of the former Roman governors. A similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division. For Gaul, Bruce Eagles has observed that "it has long been an academic commonplace in France that the medieval dioceses, their constituent pagi, were the direct territorial successors of the Roman civitates."Modern usage of'diocese' tends to refer to the sphere of a bishop's jurisdiction.
This became commonplace during the self-conscious "classicizing" structural evolution of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, but this usage had itself been evolving from the much earlier parochia, dating from the formalized Christian authority structure in the 4th century. Most archdioceses are metropolitan sees. A few are suffragans of a metropolitan are directly subject to the Holy See. While the terms "diocese" and "episcopal see" are applicable to the area under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of any bishop, a bishop in charge of an archdiocese thereby holds the rank of archbishop. If the title of archbishop is granted on personal grounds to a diocesan bishop, his diocese does not thereby become an archdiocese; as of January 2019, in the Catholic Church there are 2,886 regular dioceses: 1 papal see, 645 archdioceses and 2,240 dioceses in the world. In the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy; the Eastern Orthodox Church calls dioceses episkopē in the Greek tradition and eparchies in the Slavic tradition.
After the English Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as dioceses, not archdioceses: they are the metropolitan bishops of their respective provinces and bishops of their own diocese and have the position of archbishop. Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics; these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Church of Norway. From about the 13th century until the German mediatization of 1803, the majority of the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire were prince-bishops, as such exercised political authority over a principality, their so-called Hochstift, distinct, considerably smaller than their diocese, over which they only exercised the usual authority of a bishop.
Some American Lutheran church bodies such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America have a bishop acting as the head of the synod, but the synod does not have dioceses and archdioceses as the churches listed above. Rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory; the Lutheran Church - International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure, with four dioceses in North America. Its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes; the Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States. In the COGIC, most states are divided into at least three or more dioceses that are each led by a bishop; these dioceses are called "jurisdictions" within COGIC. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term "bishopric" is used to describe the bishop himself, together with his two counselors, not the ward or congregation of which a bishop has charge. In the United Methodist Church, a bishop is given oversight over a geographical area called an episcopal area; each episcopal area contains one or more an