Saint Tudwal known as Tual, Tugdual, Pabu, Papu, or Tugdualus, was a Breton monk, considered to be one of the seven founder saints of Brittany. Tudwal was said to be a brother of Saint Lenorius. Tudwal travelled to Ireland to learn the scriptures, became a hermit on Saint Tudwal's Island East, off the coast of North Wales. Tudwal immigrated to Brittany, settling in Lan Pabu with 72 followers, where he established a large monastery under the patronage of his cousin, King Deroch of Domnonée. Tudwal was made Bishop of Tréguier on the insistence of King of the Franks. Tudwal is shown in iconography as a bishop holding a dragon, now the symbol of Tregor, his feast day is celebrated on 1 December. Tro Breizh is a pilgrimage; these seven saints were Celtic monks from Britain from around the 5th or 6th century who brought Christianity to Armorica and founded its first bishoprics. It including Tréguier, Saint Tudwal's town. Tugdual Menon Blessed Julian Maunoir, "Apostle of Brittany" St Tugual's Chapel, chapel named after St Tudwal
The Llŷn Peninsula extends 30 miles into the Irish Sea from north west Wales, south west of the Isle of Anglesey. It is part of the historic county of Caernarfonshire, historic region and local authority area of Gwynedd. Much of the eastern part of the peninsula, around Criccieth, may be regarded as part of Eifionydd rather than Llŷn, although the boundary is somewhat vague; the area of Llŷn is about 400 km2, its population is at least 20,000. The peninsula was travelled by pilgrims en route to Bardsey Island, its relative isolation has helped to conserve the Welsh language and culture, for which the locality is now famous; this perceived remoteness from urban life has lent the area an unspoilt image which has made Llŷn a popular destination for both tourists and holiday home owners. Holiday homes remain a bone of contention among locals, many of whom are priced out of the housing market by incomers. From the 1970s to the 1990s, a shadowy group known as Meibion Glyndŵr claimed responsibility for several hundred arson attacks on holiday homes using incendiary devices, some of which took place in Llŷn.
The Llyn Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty covers c. 62 square miles. The name Llŷn is sometimes spelled Lleyn, although this spelling is now less common and is considered to be an anglicisation; the name is thought to be of Irish origin, to have the same root – Laigin in Irish – as the word Leinster and which occurs in Porth Dinllaen on the north coast. Following the death of Owain Whitetooth, king of Gwynedd, Owain's son Saint Einion seems to have ruled Llŷn as a kingdom separate from his brother Cuneglas' kingdom in Rhos, he is credited with having sponsored Saint Cadfan's monastery on Bardsey Island, which became a major centre of pilgrimage during medieval times. There are numerous wells throughout the peninsula. Many have holy connotations and they were important stops for pilgrims heading to the island; the most rural parts are characterised by small houses and individual farms, resembling parts of south west Ireland. There are small compact villages, built of traditional materials; the only large-scale industrial activities were quarrying and mining, which have now ceased.
The granite quarries of northern Llŷn have left a legacy of inclines and export docks, were the reason for the growth of villages such as Llithfaen and Trefor. Copper and lead were mined around Llanengan, while 196,770 long tons of manganese were produced at Y Rhiw between 1894 and 1945; the Penrhyn Dû mines have been extensively mined since the seventeenth century around Abersoch. Shipbuilding was important at Nefyn, Aberdaron and Llanaelhaearn, although the industry collapsed after the introduction of steel ships from 1880. Nefyn was an important herring port, most coastal communities fished for crab and lobster. Farming was simple and organic, but underwent major changes after the Second World War as machines came into widespread use. Land was drained and fields expanded and reseeded. From the 1950s onwards, extensive use was made of artificial fertilizers and pesticides, leading to drastic changes in the appearance of the landscape. Tourism developed after the railway to Pwllheli was built in 1867.
The town expanded with several large houses and hotels constructed, a tramway was built linking the town to Llanbedrog. After the Second World War, Butlins established a holiday camp at Penychain, which attracted visitors from the industrial cities of North West England and the West Midlands; as car ownership increased, the tourist industry spread to the countryside and to coastal villages such as Aberdaron, Abersoch and Nefyn, where many families supplemented their income by letting out rooms and houses. Pwllheli was the administrative centre of Llŷn for over 700 years, it was a royal maerdref of the Kingdom of Gwynedd, became a free borough following the English conquest. In the 18th and 19th centuries over 400 ships were built there. Llŷn is an extensive plateau dominated by mountains; the largest of these is Yr Eifl, although Garn Boduan, Garn Fadrun and Mynydd Rhiw are distinctive. Large stretches of the northern coast consist of steep cliffs and rugged rocks with offshore islands and stacks, while there are more extensive sandy beaches on the southern coast, such as Porth Neigwl and Castellmarch Beach.
North of Abersoch a series of sand dunes have developed. The landscape is divided into a patchwork of fields, with the traditional field boundaries, stone walls and cloddiau, a prominent feature; the geology of Llŷn is complex: the majority is formed from volcanic rocks of the Ordovician period. Rocks of Cambrian origin occur south of Abersoch. Numerous granite intrusions and outcrops of rhyolite form prominent hills such as Yr Eifl, whilst gabbro is found at the west end of Porth Neigwl; the western part of the peninsula is formed from Precambrian rocks, the majority of which are considered to form a part of the Monian Complex and thus to be related to the rocks of Anglesey. Numerous faults cut the area and a major shear zone - the Llyn Shear Zone - runs northeast to southwest through the Monian rocks. In 1984 there was an earthquake beneath the peninsula, which measured 5.4 on the Richter Scale and was felt in many parts of Ireland and western Britain. The area was overrun by Irish Sea ice during the ice ages and this has left a legacy of boulder clay and of meltwater channels.
Llŷn is notable for its large number of protected sites, including a national nature reserve at Cors Ge
A hermit is a person who lives in seclusion from society for religious reasons. Hermits are a part of several sections of Christianity, the concept is found in other religions as well. In Christianity, the term was applied to a Christian who lives the eremitic life out of a religious conviction, namely the Desert Theology of the Old Testament. In the Christian tradition the eremitic life is an early form of monastic living that preceded the monastic life in the cenobium; the Rule of St Benedict lists hermits among four kinds of monks. In the Roman Catholic Church, in addition to hermits who are members of religious institutes, the Canon law recognizes diocesan hermits under the direction of their bishop as members of the consecrated life; the same is true in many parts of the Anglican Communion, including the Episcopal Church in the US, although in the canon law of the Episcopal Church they are referred to as "solitaries" rather than "hermits". Both in religious and secular literature, the term "hermit" is used loosely for any Christian living a secluded prayer-focused life, sometimes interchangeably with anchorite/anchoress, recluse and "solitary".
Other religions, for example, Hinduism and Taoism have hermits in the sense of individuals living an ascetic form of life. In modern colloquial usage, "hermit" denotes anyone living apart from the rest of society, or participating in fewer social events, for any reason; the word hermit comes from the Latin ĕrēmīta, the latinisation of the Greek ἐρημίτης, "of the desert", which in turn comes from ἔρημος, signifying "desert", "uninhabited", hence "desert-dweller". In the common Christian tradition the first known Christian hermit in Egypt was Paul of Thebes, hence called "St. Paul the first hermit", his disciple Antony of Egypt referred to as "Antony the Great", is the most renowned of all the early Christian hermits owing to the biography by his friend Athanasius of Alexandria. An antecedent for Egyptian eremiticism may have been the Syrian solitary or "son of the covenant" who undertook special disciplines as a Christian. In the Middle Ages some Carmelite hermits claimed to trace their origin to Jewish hermits organized by Elijah.
Christian hermits in the past have lived in isolated cells or hermitages, whether a natural cave or a constructed dwelling, situated in the desert or the forest. People sometimes sought them out for spiritual counsel; some acquired so many disciples that they no longer had physical solitude. The early Christian Desert Fathers wove baskets to exchange for bread. In medieval times hermits were found within or near cities where they might earn a living as a gate keeper or ferryman. From the Middle Ages and down to modern times eremitical monasticism has been practiced within the context of religious institutes in the Christian West. For example, in the Catholic Church the Carthusians and Camaldolese arrange their monasteries as clusters of hermitages where the monks live most of their day and most of their lives in solitary prayer and work, gathering only briefly for communal prayer and only for community meals and recreation; the Cistercian and Carmelite orders, which are communal in nature, allow members who feel a calling to the eremitic life, after years living in the cenobium or community of the monastery, to move to a cell suitable as a hermitage on monastery grounds.
This applies to both their nuns. There have been many hermits who chose that vocation as an alternative to other forms of monastic life. In the 11th century, the life of the hermit gained recognition as a legitimate independent pathway to salvation. Many hermits in that century and the next came to be regarded as saints; the term "anchorite" is used as a synonym for hermit, not only in the earliest written sources but throughout the centuries. Yet the anchoritic life, while similar to the eremitic life, can be distinct from it. Anchorites lived the religious life in the solitude of an "anchorhold" a small hut or "cell" built against a church; the door of an anchorage tended to be bricked up in a special ceremony conducted by the local bishop after the anchorite had moved in. Medieval churches survive that have a tiny window built into the shared wall near the sanctuary to allow the anchorite to participate in the liturgy by listening to the service and to receive Holy Communion. Another window looked out into the street or cemetery, enabling charitable neighbors to deliver food and other necessities.
Clients seeking the anchorite's advice might use this window to consult them. Catholics who wish to live in eremitic monasticism may live that vocation as a hermit: in an eremitical order, but in both cases under obedience to their religious superior, or as an Oblate affiliated with the Camaldolese or as a diocesan hermit under the canonical direction of their bishop. There are lay people who informally follow an eremitic lifestyle and live as solitaries. In the Catholic Church, the institutes of consecrated life have their own regulations concerning those of their members who feel called by God to move from the life in community to the eremitic life, have the permission of their religious superior to do so; the Code of Canon
Edward Michael Grylls, better known as Bear Grylls, is a British former SAS serviceman, survival instructor, honorary lieutenant-colonel, outside his military career, an adventurer, television presenter and businessman. He is known for his television series Man vs. Wild titled Born Survivor: Bear Grylls for the United Kingdom release. Grylls is involved in a number of wilderness survival television series in the UK and US. In July 2009, Grylls was appointed the youngest-ever Chief Scout of the United Kingdom and Overseas Territories at age 35, a post he has held for a second term since 2015. Grylls was born in County Down, Northern Ireland, he grew up in Donaghadee until the age of four, when his family moved to Bembridge on the Isle of Wight. He is the son of Conservative politician Sir Michael Grylls and Lady Sarah Grylls. Grylls has one sibling, an elder sister, Lara Fawcett, who gave him the nickname'Bear' when he was a week old. From an early age, he learned to climb and sail with his father, a member of the prestigious Royal Yacht Squadron.
As a teenager, he earned a second dan black belt in Shotokan karate. He speaks English and French, he is Anglican, has described his faith as the "backbone" in his life. Grylls married Shara Cannings Knight in 2000, they have three sons. In August 2015, Grylls left his young son, Jesse, on Saint Tudwal's Island along the North Wales coast, as the tide approached, leaving him to be rescued by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution as part of their weekly practice missions. Jesse was unharmed, though the RNLI criticised him for the stunt, saying its crew "had not appreciated" that a child would be involved. Grylls was educated at Eaton House, Ludgrove School and Eton College, where he helped start its first mountaineering club, he studied Spanish and German at the University of West of England and at Birkbeck, University of London, where he graduated with a 2:2 bachelor's degree, obtained part-time, in Hispanic studies in 2002. After leaving school, Grylls hiked in the Himalayan mountains of Sikkim and West Bengal.
From 1994–1997, he served in the British Army reserves with 21 SAS as a trooper trained in unarmed combat and winter warfare, climbing and explosives. Becoming a survival instructor, he was twice posted to North Africa, his time in the SAS ended as the result of a free fall parachuting accident the year before in Kenya, when his parachute failed to open, breaking three vertebrae. In 2004, Grylls was awarded the honorary rank of lieutenant commander in the Royal Naval Reserve. On 16 May 1998, Grylls achieved his childhood dream of climbing to the summit of Mount Everest in Nepal, 18 months after breaking three vertebrae in a parachuting accident. At 23, he was at the time among the youngest people to have achieved this feat. There is some dispute over whether he was the youngest Briton to have done so, as he was preceded by James Allen, a climber holding dual Australian and British citizenship, who reached the summit in 1995 at age 22; the record has since been surpassed by Jake Meyer and Rob Gauntlett who summitted at age 19.
To prepare for climbing at such high altitudes in the Himalayas, in 1997, Grylls became the youngest Briton to climb Ama Dablam, a peak once described by Sir Edmund Hillary as "unclimbable". In 2000 Grylls led the team to circumnavigate the British Isles on jet skis, taking about 30 days, to raise money for the Royal National Lifeboat Institution, he rowed naked in a homemade bathtub along the Thames to raise funds for a friend who lost his legs in a climbing accident. Three years he led a team of five, including his childhood friend, SAS colleague, Mount Everest climbing partner Mick Crosthwaite, on an unassisted crossing of the north Atlantic Ocean, in an open rigid inflatable boat. Grylls and his team traveled in an eleven-metre-long boat and encountered force 8 gale winds with waves breaking over the boat while passing through icebergs in their journey from Halifax, Nova Scotia to John o' Groats, Scotland. In 2005, alongside the balloonist and mountaineer David Hempleman-Adams and Lieutenant Commander Alan Veal, leader of the Royal Navy Freefall Parachute Display Team, Grylls created a world record for the highest open-air formal dinner party, which they did under a hot-air balloon at 7,600 metres, dressed in full mess dress and oxygen masks.
To train for the event, he made over 200 parachute jumps. This event was in aid of The Duke of The Prince's Trust. In 2007, Grylls embarked on a record-setting Parajet paramotor in Himalayas near Mount Everest, he took off from 4,400 metres, 8 miles south of the mountain. Grylls reported looking down on the summit during his ascent and coping with temperatures of −60 °C, he endured dangerously low oxygen levels and reached 9,000 metres 3,000 metres higher than the previous record of 6,102 metres. The feat was filmed for Discovery Channel worldwide as well as Channel 4 in the UK. While Grylls planned to cross over Everest itself, the permit was only to fly to the south of Everest, he did not traverse Everest out of risk of violating Chinese airspace. In 2008, Grylls led a team of four to climb one of the most remote unclimbed peaks in the world in Antarctica, to raise funds for children's charity Global Angels and promote the use of alternative energies. During this mission the team aimed to explore the coast of Antarctica by inflatable boat and jetski, part powered by bioethanol, to travel across some of the vast ice desert by wind-powe
Mean sea level is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevation may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic datum –, used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and aircraft flight levels. A common and straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied over geological time scales; however 20th century and current millennium sea level rise is caused by global warming, careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change. The term above sea level refers to above mean sea level. Precise determination of a "mean sea level" is difficult to achieve because of the many factors that affect sea level. Instantaneous sea level varies quite a lot on several scales of space.
This is because the sea is in constant motion, affected by the tides, atmospheric pressure, local gravitational differences, salinity and so forth. The easiest way this may be calculated is by selecting a location and calculating the mean sea level at that point and use it as a datum. For example, a period of 19 years of hourly level observations may be averaged and used to determine the mean sea level at some measurement point. Still-water level or still-water sea level is the level of the sea with motions such as wind waves averaged out. MSL implies the SWL further averaged over a period of time such that changes due to, e.g. the tides have zero mean. Global MSL refers to a spatial average over the entire ocean. One measures the values of MSL in respect to the land. In the UK, the Ordnance Datum is the mean sea level measured at Newlyn in Cornwall between 1915 and 1921. Prior to 1921, the vertical datum was MSL at the Victoria Liverpool. Since the times of the Russian Empire, in Russia and other former its parts, now independent states, the sea level is measured from the zero level of Kronstadt Sea-Gauge.
In Hong Kong, "mPD" is a surveying term meaning "metres above Principal Datum" and refers to height of 1.230m below the average sea level. In France, the Marégraphe in Marseilles measures continuously the sea level since 1883 and offers the longest collapsed data about the sea level, it is used for main part of Africa as official sea level. As for Spain, the reference to measure heights below or above sea level is placed in Alicante. Elsewhere in Europe vertical elevation references are made to the Amsterdam Peil elevation, which dates back to the 1690s. Satellite altimeters have been making precise measurements of sea level since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992. A joint mission of NASA and CNES, TOPEX/Poseidon was followed by Jason-1 in 2001 and the Ocean Surface Topography Mission on the Jason-2 satellite in 2008. Height above mean sea level is the elevation or altitude of an object, relative to the average sea level datum, it is used in aviation, where some heights are recorded and reported with respect to mean sea level, in the atmospheric sciences, land surveying.
An alternative is to base height measurements on an ellipsoid of the entire Earth, what systems such as GPS do. In aviation, the ellipsoid known as World Geodetic System 84 is used to define heights; the alternative is to use a geoid-based vertical datum such as NAVD88. When referring to geographic features such as mountains on a topographic map, variations in elevation are shown by contour lines; the elevation of a mountain denotes the highest point or summit and is illustrated as a small circle on a topographic map with the AMSL height shown in metres, feet or both. In the rare case that a location is below sea level, the elevation AMSL is negative. For one such case, see Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. To extend this definition far from the sea means comparing the local height of the mean sea surface with a "level" reference surface, or geodetic datum, called the geoid. In a state of rest or absence of external forces, the mean sea level would coincide with this geoid surface, being an equipotential surface of the Earth's gravitational field.
In reality, due to currents, air pressure variations and salinity variations, etc. this does not occur, not as a long-term average. The location-dependent, but persistent in time, separation between mean sea level and the geoid is referred to as ocean surface topography, it varies globally in a range of ± 2 m. Adjustments were made to sea-level measurements to take into account the effects of the 235 lunar month Metonic cycle and the 223-month eclipse cycle on the tides. Several terms are used to describe the changing relationships between sea level and dry land; when the term "relative" is used, it means change relative to a fixed point in the sediment pile. The term "eustatic" refers to global changes in sea level relative to a fixed point, such as the centre of the earth, for example as a result of melting ice-caps; the term "steric" refers to global changes in sea level due to thermal expansion and salinity variations. The term "isostatic" refers to changes in
A tax is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures. A failure to pay, along with resistance to taxation, is punishable by law. Taxes may be paid in money or as its labour equivalent. Most countries have a tax system in place to pay for public, common or agreed national needs and government functions; some levy a flat percentage rate of taxation on personal annual income, but most scale taxes based on annual income amounts. Most countries charge a tax both on corporate income and dividends. Countries or subunits also impose wealth taxes, property taxes, sales taxes, value-added taxes, payroll taxes or tarrifs; the legal definition, the economic definition of taxes differ in some ways such as economists do not regard many transfers to governments as taxes. For example, some transfers to the public sector are comparable to prices. Examples include, tuition at public universities, fees for utilities provided by local governments.
Governments obtain resources by "creating" money and coins, through voluntary gifts, by imposing penalties, by borrowing, by confiscating wealth. From the view of economists, a tax is a non-penal, yet compulsory transfer of resources from the private to the public sector, levied on a basis of predetermined criteria and without reference to specific benefit received. In modern taxation systems, governments levy taxes in money; the method of taxation and the government expenditure of taxes raised is highly debated in politics and economics. Tax collection is performed by a government agency such as the Ghana Revenue Authority, Canada Revenue Agency, the Internal Revenue Service in the United States, Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs in the United Kingdom or Federal Tax Service in Russia; when taxes are not paid, the state may impose civil penalties or criminal penalties on the non-paying entity or individual. The levying of taxes aims to raise revenue to fund governing or to alter prices in order to affect demand.
States and their functional equivalents throughout history have used money provided by taxation to carry out many functions. Some of these include expenditures on economic infrastructure, scientific research and the arts, public works, data collection and dissemination, public insurance, the operation of government itself. A government's ability to raise taxes is called its fiscal capacity; when expenditures exceed tax revenue, a government accumulates debt. A portion of taxes may be used to service past debts. Governments use taxes to fund welfare and public services; these services can include education systems, pensions for the elderly, unemployment benefits, public transportation. Energy and waste management systems are common public utilities. According to the proponents of the chartalist theory of money creation, taxes are not needed for government revenue, as long as the government in question is able to issue fiat money. According to this view, the purpose of taxation is to maintain the stability of the currency, express public policy regarding the distribution of wealth, subsidizing certain industries or population groups or isolating the costs of certain benefits, such as highways or social security.
Effects can be divided in two fundamental categories: Taxes cause an income effect because they reduce purchasing power to taxpayers. Taxes cause a substitution effect when taxation causes a substitution between taxed goods and untaxed goods. If we consider, for instance, two normal goods, x and y, whose prices are px and py and an individual budget constraint given by the equation xpx + ypy = Y, where Y is the income, the slope of the budget constraint, in a graph where is represented good x on the vertical axis and good y on the horizontal axes, is equal to -py/px; the initial equilibrium is in the point, in which budget constraint and indifference curve are tangent, introducing an ad valorem tax on the y good, the budget constraint's slope becomes equal to -py/px. The new equilibrium is now in the tangent point with a lower indifferent curve; as can be noticed the tax's introduction causes two consequences: It changes the consumers' real income It raises the relative price of y good. The income effect shows the variation of y good quantity given by the change of real income.
The substitution effect shows the variation of y good determined by relative prices' variation. This kind of taxation can be considered distortionary. Another example can be the Introduction of an income lump-sum tax, with a parallel shift downward of the budget constraint, can be produced a higher revenue with the same loss of consumers' utility compared with the property tax case, from another point of view, the same revenue can be produced with a lower utility sacrifice; the lower utility or the lower revenue given by a distortionary tax are called excess pressure. The same result, reached with an income lump-sum tax, can be obtained with these following types of taxes (all of them cause only a budget constraint's shift without causi
Abersoch is a village in the community of Llanengan in Gwynedd, Wales. It is a popular coastal seaside resort, with around 800 residents, on the east-facing south coast of the Llŷn Peninsula at the southern terminus of the A499, it is about 7 miles south-west of Pwllheli and 27 miles south-west of the county town of Caernarfon. The village takes its name from Afon Soch, which reaches the sea in the village. A fishing port, Abersoch is now a tourist centre specialising in dinghy sailing and other watersports such as windsurfing and jet-skiing. Nearby Porth Neigwl is popular for surfing; the village has had a lifeboat station since 1869. Central Abersoch has a variety of small shops as well as bars, restaurants and hotels. Boat trips around St Tudwal's Islands to see the seals and other wildlife are available from the village. Abersoch is popular for its close proximity to Snowdonia National Park, with Snowdon being visible from Abersoch Bay on clear days. There is an 18-hole golf course. Abersoch was named one of the best places to live in Wales in 2017.
According to the 2011 UK Census, 97.2% of the population was born in the United Kingdom. Although situated in Wales, the majority of the village's population was born in England, with only 44.7% having been born in Wales. The 2011 Census demonstrated. 34.0% of the population identified themselves as Welsh only. 43.5 % of the population aged 3 and over noted. 52.1 % noted. Of those who were born in Wales, 85% of the population aged three and over noted that they could speak Welsh. Abersoch has a Welsh-medium primary school for 3 to 8 year olds; the neighbouring village of Sarn Bach has a Welsh-medium primary school for 3 to 11 year olds. As of 2017, the two schools between them educate 72 pupils. According to the latest Estyn reports conducted in 2017, 39% of pupils in Ysgol Abersoch primary school came from Welsh-speaking homes, with 47% of pupils of Sarn Bach pupils coming from homes where Welsh was spoken; the closest specialist school to Abersoch is Ysgol Hafod Lon in Penrhyndeudraeth. Ysgol Botwnnog, situated 5 miles inland from Abersoch, provides Welsh-medium secondary education to pupils from the village.
Gwynedd.gov.uk Abersoch website