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Saint Vincent (Antilles)

Saint Vincent is a volcanic island in the Caribbean. It is the largest island of the Grenadines island chain, it is located between Saint Lucia and Grenada. It is composed of submerged volcanic mountains, its largest volcano and the country's highest peak, La Soufrière, is active, having last erupted in 1979. There were major territory wars between the indigenous population of the Black Caribs called the garifuna, the United Kingdom in the 18th century, before the island was ceded to the British in 1763 and again in 1783. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines gained independence from the British on October 27, 1979 and became part of the British Commonwealth of Nations thereafter. 130,000 people live on the island, the population saw significant migration to the United Kingdom in the early 1900s and between the 1940s & 1980s. There has been significant migration to Canada and other larger neighbouring Anglo-Caribbean islands; the main island consists of Kingstown the capital, with the rest of the island divided into the five main coastal strip towns of Layou, Chateaubelair and Calliaqua.

The people of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines are formally called Vincentians, colloquially they are known as Vincies or Vincys. The majority of the island's population is of Afro-Vincentian descent. However, a sizable portion of the population consists of black charibe descendants, white descendants of English colonists, Portuguese descendants of indentured servants and a significant number of Indo-Vincentians, descendants of indentured workers with Indian heritage. There is a sizable mixed-race minority. In 2012, the population of the island was 130,000; the main religions are Anglican, Roman Catholic, other Protestant denominations such as Seventh-day Adventism, Spiritual baptism and Hinduism. Adult literacy was 88.1% in 2004. Infant mortality in 2006 was 17 per 1,000 live births and life expectancy for men stood at 69 years, 74 years for women; the active workforce in 2006 was 57,695 and unemployment in 2004 was 12%. Before 1498, the island was called Hairouna by its indigenous inhabitants.

Columbus named the island Saint Vincent, since it is said to have been discovered on 22 January, the feast day of the patron saint of Lisbon and Valencia, Vincent of Saragossa. Columbus and the Spanish conquistadors embarked on slaving expeditions in and around St. Vincent following royal sanction in 1511, driving the inhabitants to the rugged interior, but the Spanish were not able to settle the island. In the 1500s Columbus and the conquistadors noted there was a large African population living amongst the native population, whom they assumed had come from shipwrecked slave ships or escaped from St. Lucia or Grenada to seek refuge in St. Vincent, they are now known as Garifuna. The large population aggressively prevented European settlement on St. Vincent until the 18th century; the first Europeans to occupy St. Vincent were the French. However, following a series of wars and peace treaties, these islands were ceded to the British. While the English were the first to lay claim to St. Vincent in 1627, the French, centered on the island of Martinique, became the first Europeans to invade the island, establishing their first colony at Barrouallie on the Leeward side of St. Vincent in 1719.

African slaves were made to cultivate coffee, indigo and sugar on plantations operated by the French colonizers. St. Vincent was ceded to Britain by the Treaty of Paris, after which friction between the British and the natives led to the First Carib War. Upon taking control of the island in 1763, the British laid the foundations of Fort Charlotte, completed in 1806; the island was reverted to French rule in 1779 regained by the British under the Treaty of Versailles. Between 1793 and 1796, the Black Caribs, led by their chief, Joseph Chatoyer, fought a series of battles against the British; the combat ended in a treaty, after which 5,000 Garifuna were exiled to the smaller island of Baliceaux off the coast of Bequia. Conflict between the British and the indigenous peoples continued until 1796, when General Ralph Abercromby ended a revolt fomented by the radical Victor Hugues; the British deported more than 5,000 Black Caribs to an island off the coast of Honduras. Like the French before them, the British made African slaves work plantations of sugar, indigo, tobacco and cocoa until full emancipation in 1838.

The economy went into a period of decline, with many landowners abandoning their estates and leaving the land to be cultivated by liberated slaves. Life was made harder following two eruptions of the La Soufriere volcano in 1812 and 1902 when much of the island was destroyed and many people were killed; the volcano erupted once more with no fatalities. In the same year, St Vincent & The Grenadines gained full independence from Britain, though it remains a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. From 1763 until independence, St. Vincent passed through various stages of colonial status under the British. A representative assembly was authorized in 1776; the British abolished slavery in 1834. The resulting labour shortages on the plantations attracted Portuguese immigrants in the 1840s and East Indians in the 1860s as laborers. Conditions remained harsh for both former slaves and immigrant agricultural workers, as depressed world sugar prices kept the economy stagnant until the turn of the 20th century.

The Opobo king Jaja was exiled to St. Vincent after his 1887 arrest by the British for shipping cargoes of palm oil directly to Liverpool without the intermediation of the National African Comp

Fly (band)

Fly is the cooperative jazz trio of saxophonist Mark Turner, drummer Jeff Ballard and bassist Larry Grenadier. The group first surfaced as the Jeff Ballard Trio in 2000 on one track of the anthology Originations, curated by Chick Corea and became Fly with the release of their first album, on Savoy, in 2004. Association between the players however goes back much further. Grenadier and Ballard played music together as teenagers in California in the early 1980s and subsequently gigged together often, they both migrated to the US's East coast in 1990 where they met Turner, the three musicians have played in diverse permutations and contexts since then. In Fly, Turner and Ballard all write material. Mark Turner: “Sometimes it’s the saxophone carrying the melody. Other times it's drums. We spread out the frontline duties among us. Jazz saxophonist Joe Lovano said about their interplay on the Year of the Snake-album: "Fly is a beautiful trio, they play with a wonderful clarity, and Mark plays with a brilliant execution on his horn.

He plays with an amazing range on his instrument. That trio has a classical approach in the way the music is written and the way they come off it in the rhythm and in the attitude they're playing. They're improvising but their dialogue is more classical in nature, the way it feels. That's the waves, the life forms, the wind. Fly sounds lovely and beautiful and their music has a real presence, it captures you." Fly Sky & Country Year of the Snake Biography Official FLY Home Page

Jorah Mormont

Jorah Mormont is a fictional character in the A Song of Ice and Fire series of fantasy novels by American author George R. R. Martin and its television adaptation Game of Thrones. Introduced in A Game of Thrones, Jorah is a knight in exile, the disgraced former lord of Bear Island and the only son of Jeor Mormont, the honorable lord commander of the Night's Watch. Jorah subsequently appeared in Martin's A Clash of Kings, A Storm of Swords and A Dance with Dragons. After fleeing Westeros, Jorah pledges fealty to Daenerys Targaryen and over the course of both the novels and the television show becomes her closest and most loyal companion, he is portrayed as a skilled warrior whose knowledge of the peoples and customs of Essos proves invaluable to Daenerys' journeys. Jorah is portrayed by the Scottish actor Iain Glen in the HBO television adaptation. Ser Jorah Mormont is the only child of the Night's Watch's Lord Commander Jeor Mormont, who abdicated shortly before Robert's Rebellion to join the Night's Watch and let Jorah assume the lordship of Bear Island.

At some point Jorah married a lady of House Glover, who died from miscarriage after ten years of marriage. Jorah fought in Greyjoy's Rebellion, distinguishing himself by being one of the first to enter the fray during the siege of Pyke and was knighted by King Robert Baratheon. At a tourney at Lannisport celebrating the Baratheon victory, Jorah fell in love with the beautiful Lynesse Hightower, he named her Queen of Love and Beauty after winning the tourney and asked her father for her hand in marriage, which he accepted. However, Lynesse found herself ill-suited to the rough life on Bear Island, having grown up as a member of the wealthy House Hightower. Jorah bankrupted himself trying to provide her with luxuries and sold poachers found on his lands to a Tyroshi slaver to fund her lifestyle, his liege lord, Eddard Stark, condemned Jorah to death. Jorah made his living as a sellsword, but was still unable to provide enough to satisfy Lynesse, returned from a campaign to find that Lynesse had become a concubine of a wealthy Lysene merchant.

The merchant warned Jorah that he would be enslaved to settle his debts if he remained in Lys and Jorah was forced to flee again. Afterwards he drifted before becoming a spy for Varys. Jorah Mormont is not a point of view character in the novels, so his actions are witnessed and interpreted through the eyes of Daenerys Targaryen and Tyrion Lannister. Jorah serves to provide Daenerys with background information such as Westerosi history and the various cultures of Essos. In Pentos, Jorah enters the service of House Targaryen during Daenerys Targaryen's wedding to Khal Drogo, although he is spying on behalf of Robert's Master of Whisperers Varys in hopes of earning a royal pardon. Although Jorah holds Daenerys' brother Viserys in contempt, he comes to admire Daenerys for her bravery and strength of character, falls in love with her. In Vaes Dothrak, Jorah is warned by Illyrio Mopatis that Robert has ordered Daenerys' assassination and saves her from being poisoned. After Drogo's death, Jorah is the first to pledge fealty to Daenerys and is astounded when she emerges from Drogo's funeral pyre with three dragon hatchlings.

Jorah accompanies the remnants of her khalasar to Qarth. There, Jorah stops sending reports to Varys, having fallen in love with Daenerys. Daenerys discovers his love after Jorah notes her physical similarity to Lynesse, but does not tell Jorah that she knows. At Qarth's docks and Daenerys encounter the former pit fighter Strong Belwas and his squire Arstan Whitebeard. Arstan claims to know Jorah. Despite Jorah's mistrust, Daenerys accepts the duo into her service. Jorah confesses his love to Daenerys. Jorah recommends that they sail to Astapor to buy an army of Unsullied, commands the army when they overthrow the masters of Yunkai; as they arrive at Meereen, Arstan is revealed to be Ser Barristan Selmy, former Kingsguard to Aerys II Targaryen and Robert, he announces Jorah's former status as a spy. Daenerys orders Jorah and Selmy to infiltrate Meereen and release slaves. Upon their return, Jorah refuses to beg forgiveness, insisting that Daenerys owes him forgiveness as reward for his service. Daenerys agrees but notes that she cannot grant it without undermining her authority, banishes Jorah.

Jorah encounters the exiled Tyrion Lannister in a brothel in Selhorys and abducts him, hoping to return to Daenerys' graces by presenting a Lannister captive as a gift. In Volantis they encounter the dwarf Penny, whom Tyrion takes pity on and is allowed by Jorah to accompany them. During their voyage to Meereen, their ship is disabled by a storm and seized by slavers, Jorah is badly beaten and branded trying to fend them off. In Meereen the trio are sold to the Yunkish master Yezzan zo Qaggaz. Jorah becomes despondent after learning that Daenerys has taken the Meereenese nobleman Hizdhar zo Loraq as her husband; when Yezzan dies from dysentery and Tyrion escape to the camp of the sellsword company Second Sons in service to Daenerys before defecting to the slavers, Jorah rejoins the company along with Tyrion. Jorah realises that the Yunkai'i will lose the coming battle with Meereen and tells Tyrion that they need to convince the company to defect again. Notes Jorah Mormont is portrayed by Scottish actor Iain Glen in the television adaption of the series of books.

Ser Jorah Mormont is an exiled knight in the service of Daenerys Targaryen