Dauphin of France
Dauphin of France Dauphin of Viennois, was the title given to the heir apparent to the throne of France from 1350 to 1791 and 1824 to 1830. The word dauphin is French for dolphin. At first the heirs were granted the County of Viennois to rule, but only the title was granted. Guigues IV, Count of Vienne, was nicknamed le Dauphin; the title of Dauphin de Viennois descended in his family until 1349, when Humbert II sold his seigneury, called the Dauphiné, to King Philippe VI on condition that the heir of France assume the title of le Dauphin. The wife of the Dauphin was known as la Dauphine; the first French prince called le Dauphin was Charles the Wise to become Charles V of France. The title was equivalent to the English Prince of Wales, the Scottish Duke of Rothesay, the Portuguese Prince of Brazil, the Brazilian Prince of Grão-Pará and the Spanish Prince of Asturias; the official style of a Dauphin of France, prior to 1461, was par la grâce de Dieu, dauphin de Viennois, comte de Valentinois et de Diois.
A Dauphin of France united the coat of arms of the Dauphiné, which featured Dolphins, with the French fleurs-de-lis, might, where appropriate, further unite that with other arms. The Dauphin was responsible for the rule of the Dauphiné, part of the Holy Roman Empire, which the Emperors, in giving the rule of the province to the French heirs, had stipulated must never be united with France; because of this, the Dauphiné suffered from anarchy in the 14th and 15th centuries, since the Dauphins were minors or concerned with other matters. During his period as Dauphin, son of Charles VII, defied his father by remaining in the province longer than the King permitted and by engaging in personal politics more beneficial to the Dauphiné than to France. For example, he married Charlotte of Savoy against his father's wishes. Savoy was a traditional ally of the Dauphiné, Louis wished to reaffirm that alliance to stamp out rebels and robbers in the province. Louis was driven out of the Dauphiné by Charles VII's soldiers in 1456, leaving the region to fall back into disorder.
After his succession as Louis XI of France in 1461, Louis united the Dauphiné with France, bringing it under royal control. The title was automatically conferred upon the next heir apparent to the throne in the direct line upon birth, accession of the parent to the throne or death of the previous Dauphin, unlike the British title Prince of Wales, which has always been in the gift of the monarch; the sons of the King of France hold the style and rank of fils de France, while male-line grandsons hold the style and rank of petits-enfants de France. The sons and grandsons of the Dauphin ranked higher than their cousins, being treated as the king's children and grandchildren respectively; the sons of the Dauphin, though grandsons of the king, are ranked as Sons of France, the grandsons of the Dauphin ranked as Grandsons of France. The title was abolished by the Constitution of 1791. Under the constitution the heir-apparent to the throne was restyled Prince Royal, taking effect from the inception of the Legislative Assembly on 1 October 1791.
The title was restored in potentia under the Bourbon Restoration of Louis XVIII, but there would not be another Dauphin until after his death. With the accession of his brother Charles X, Charles' son and heir Louis-Antoine, Duke of Angoulême automatically became Dauphin. With the removal of the Bourbons the title fell into disuse, the heirs of Louis-Philippe being titled Prince Royal. After the death of Henri, comte de Chambord, Duke of Madrid, the heir of the legitimist claimant, Count of Montizón, made use of the title in pretense, as have the Spanish legitimist claimants since. In Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Huck encounters two odd characters who turn out to be professional con men. One of them claims that he should be treated with deference, since he is "really" an impoverished English duke, the other, not to be outdone, reveals that he is "really" the Dauphin. Is a character in Shakespeare's Henry V. In Baronness Emma Orczy's Eldorado, the Scarlet Pimpernel rescues the Dauphin from prison and helps spirit him from France.
Alphonse Daudet wrote a short story called "The Death of the Dauphin", about a young Dauphin who wants to stop Death from approaching him. It is mentioned in Cormac McCarthy's Blood Meridian. "The Dauphin" is a 1988 episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation. As the titular character is female, the episode title gets the gender incorrect. Dauphine of France List of heirs to the French throne Prince of Wales Prince of Asturias Prince of Beira Duke of Braganza Crown Prince Tsarevich Dauphins of Viennois Dauphins of Auvergne King of Rome Madame Royale Monsieur Madame Fils de France Petit-Fils de France Prince du Sang Prince of Tarnovo
Grand Constable of France
The Grand Constable of France, was the First Officer of the Crown, one of the original five Great Officers of the Crown of France and Commander in Chief of the King's army. He, theoretically, as Lieutenant-general to the King, outranked all nobles in the realm, was second-in-command only to the King of France; the Connétable de France was responsible for military justice and served to regulate the Chivalry. His jurisdiction was called the connestablie; the office was established by King Philip I with Alberic becoming the first Constable. The office was abolished in 1627, with an edict, by Cardinal Richelieu, upon the death of François de Bonne, duc de Lesdiguières, in order to strengthen the immediate authority of the King over his army; the position was replaced by the purely ceremonial title "Dean of Marshals", in fact the most senior "Marshal of France". The title Marshal General of France or more "Marshal General of the King's camps and armies" was bestowed on the most outstanding military leaders.
The recipient had command authority over all the French armies and garrisons who were engaged in war, was senior to the Maréchaux de France, but had none of the extended political powers of the earlier "Constable of France". The badge of office was a elaborate sword called Joyeuse, after the legendary sword of Charlemagne. Joyeuse was a sword made with fragments of different swords and used in the Sacre of the French Kings since at least 1271, it was contained in a blue scabbard embellished with royal symbol, the fleur-de-lis, in column order from hilt to point. Traditionally, the constable was presented with the sword on taking his office by the King himself. After the abolition of the office of Sénéchal in 1191, the Connétable became the most important officer in the army, as First Officer of the Crown, he ranked in ceremonial precedence after the peers, he had the position of Lieutenant-general of the King within the kingdom. The constable had under his command all military officers, including the powerful maréchaux.
The official name of the jurisdiction was la connétablie, which he exercised with the assistance of the Maréchaux de France. This paralleled the Court of the Lord Constable called curia militaris of Court of Chivalry, which existed in England at that time. Marshal of France. However, during exceptional times the Marshal of France could be senior to the Constable, depending on the decisions of the King Colonel-general - a special category of general in the Royal French army, commanding all the regiments of the same branch of service General Lieutenant-general - the highest regular general officer rank of the French army to which a career army officer could be promoted on the basis of seniority and merit, not noble blood Maréchal de camp, not to be confused with Field Marshal) - the lowest general officer rank, in times renamed Major-général and equivalent to the present-day général de brigade Porte-Oriflamme - a prestigious honorary position, not an army rank, which gave the right to carry the King's royal banner into battle Grand Master of Crossbowmen, in charge of all archers in the army Grand Master of Artillery.
From the beginning of the 17th century, the Grand Master of the Artillery became a Great Officer of the Crown an immediate subordinate of the King and was no longer under the command of the Constable. NOT UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE CONSTABLE: The title "Lieutenant-general of the Realm" was not a military rank, but a royal appointment, it was bestowed by the King of France during times of crisis on a royal prince of the blood of his choice. Note that there are gaps in the dates as the position was not always filled following the demise of its occupant; the Capétien Dynasty Alberic, 1060–1065 Balberic, 1065–1069 Gauthier, 1069–1071 Adelelme, 1071–1075 Adam, 1075–1085 Thibaut, Seigneur de Montmorency, 1085–1107 Gaston de Chanmont, 1107–1108 Hugues le Borgne de Chanmont, 1108–1135 Mathieu de Montmorency, 1138–? Simon de Neauphle-le-Chateau, 1165–? Raoul I de Clermont, 1174–1191 Dreux IV de Mello, 1194–1218 Mathieu II le Grand, Baron de Montmorency, 1218–1231 Amaury VI de Montfort, 1231–1240 Humbert V de Beaujeu, 1240–1248 Gilles II de Trasignies, 1248–1277 Humbert VI de Beaujeu, 1277 Raoul II de Clermont, 1277–1307 Gaucher V de Châtillon, 1307–1329The Valois Dynasty Raoul I of Brienne, Count of Eu and Guînes, 1329–1344 Raoul II of Brienne, Count of Eu and Guînes, 1344–1350 Charles de la Cerda, 1350–1354 Jacques de Bourbon, Count of La Marche, 1354–1356 Walter VI of Brienne, 1356 Robert
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Arthur III, Duke of Brittany
Arthur III, more known as Arthur de Richemont, was Duke of Brittany from 1457 until his death. He is noted however, for his role as a leading military commander during the Hundred Years' War. Although Richemont sided with the English once, he otherwise remained committed to the House of Valois, he fought alongside Joan of Arc, was appointed Constable of France. His military and administrative reforms in the French state were an important factor in assuring the final defeat of the English in the Hundred Years' War; the name Richemont reflects the fact that he inherited the English title of Earl of Richmond, held by previous dukes of Brittany, but his tenure was never recognized by the English crown. At the end of his life he became Duke of Brittany and Count of Montfort after inheriting those titles upon the death of his nephew Peter II. Richemont had no legitimate issue and was succeeded in the duchy by his other nephew, Francis II. Arthur was a younger son of Duke John IV and his third wife Joanna of Navarre, so a member of the Ducal House of Montfort.
Arthur was born at the Château de Suscinio. Just a year before his own death, Arthur succeeded his nephew Peter II as Duke. Arthur was titular Earl of Richmond, they continued to style themselves "Count of Richmond", while the English title was given to John Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford in 1414. Arthur was an important figure at the French court during the Hundred Years' War before becoming Duke of Brittany. Arthur sided with the Armagnac faction against the Burgundians during their civil conflict in France which lasted from 1410 to 1414, he entered the service of the Dauphin Louis, Duke of Guyenne, whose intimate friend he became and whose widow he married. He profited by his position at court to obtain the lieutenancy of the Bastille, the governorship of the duchy of Nemours, the confiscated territories of Jean Larchevêque, seigneur of Parthenay, he fought at the Battle of Agincourt on 25 October 1415, where he was captured. He was released by the English in 1420 and helped persuade his brother, Duke John, to sign the Treaty of Troyes.
In 1422, the English created him Duke of Touraine. However, as the English refused to give him a high command he subsequently returned to the allegiance of the Dauphin in 1424, was made Constable of France with support from Yolande of Aragon in 1425. Arthur now persuaded his brother, John V, Duke of Brittany, to conclude the treaty of Saumur with Charles VII of France, but though he saw enough the measures necessary for success, he lacked the temperament and means to carry them out. The peace concluded between John and the English in September 1427, alongside his tenacity and bad temper, led to his expulsion from the court, where Georges de la Trémoille, whom he himself had recommended to the king, remained supreme for six years, during which Arthur tried in vain to overthrow him; as Constable of France, Arthur fought alongside Joan of Arc during her victory at the Battle of Patay on 18 June 1429. He joined his brother John in the siege of Pouancé in 1432, where he notably but reluctantly fought alongside English captains, as the Duke of Brittany was allied with the English at the time.
Around this time he received an offer from the Duke of Bedford, which included Trémoille's lands in Poitou in return for him switching sides. Poitou was not in English hands. On the 5th of March 1432 Charles VII concluded with Brittany the treaty of Rennes. Arthur now resumed the war against the English, at the same time took vigorous measures against the plundering bands of soldiers and peasants known as routiers or écorcheurs. By 1435 he had regained his influence at the French court and helped arrange the Treaty of Arras between Charles VII and Philip III, Duke of Burgundy; this treaty cemented the peace between France and Burgundy, leading to the eventual defeat of the English. He was commander of the French army at the Battle of Formigny on 15 April 1450, the next-to-the-last battle of the Hundred Years' War which sealed the reconquest of Normandy, it was not till May 1444 that the Treaty of Tours gave him leisure to carry out the reorganization of the army which he had long projected. He now created the compagnies d'ordonnance, endeavoured to organize the militia of the francs archers.
This reform had its effect in the struggles. In alliance with his nephew, the duke of Brittany, he reconquered, during September and October 1449, nearly all the Cotentin. On the death of his nephew Peter II, on the 22nd of September 1457, he became duke of Brittany, though retaining his office of constable of France, he refused, like his predecessors, to do homage to the French king for his duchy, he reigned little more than a year, dying on 26 December 1458. Arthur was married three times, his wives were as follows: married in Dijon on 10 October 1423 Margaret of Burgundy, daughter of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy and widow of Dauphin Louis, Duke of Guyenne. Married in Nérac c. 29 August 1442 Joan of Albret, daughter of Charles II, Count of Dreux married on 2 July 1445 Catherine of Luxembourg-Saint-Pol, daughte
Charles VI of France
Charles VI, called the Beloved and the Mad, was King of France for 42 years from 1380 to his death in 1422, the fourth from the House of Valois. Charles VI was only 11; the government was entrusted to his four uncles, the dukes of Burgundy, Berry and Bourbon. Although the royal age of majority was fixed at 14, the dukes maintained their grip on Charles until he took power at the age of 21. During the rule of his uncles, the financial resources of the kingdom, painstakingly built up by his father, Charles V, were squandered for the personal profit of the dukes, whose interests were divergent or opposed; as royal funds drained, new taxes had to be raised. In 1388 Charles VI brought back to power his father's former advisers. Political and economic conditions in the kingdom improved and Charles earned the epithet "the Beloved", but in August 1392 en route to Brittany with his army in the forest of Le Mans, Charles went mad and slew four knights and killed his brother, Louis I, Duke of Orléans. From on, Charles' bouts of insanity became more frequent and of longer duration.
During these attacks, he had delusions, believing he was made of glass or denying he had a wife and children. He could attack servants or run until exhaustion, wailing that he was threatened by his enemies. Between crises, there were intervals of months during which Charles was sane. However, unable to concentrate or make decisions, political power was exercised by his relatives and other leading French nobles, whose rivalries and disputes would cause much chaos and conflict in France. A fierce struggle for power developed between the king's brother, Louis of Orléans, cousin, John of Burgundy; when John instigated the murder of Louis in 1407, the conflict degenerated into a civil war between John's supporters – the Burgundians – and opponents – the Armagnacs. Both sides offered large parts of France to the English in exchange for their support. John of Burgundy himself was assassinated, with Charles VI's son and namesake, being involved. In retaliation, John's son, Philip of Burgundy, led Charles VI to sign the infamous Treaty of Troyes, which disinherited his offspring and recognized King Henry V of England as his legitimate successor on the throne of France.
When Charles VI died, the succession was claimed both by the King of England and by the disinherited younger Charles, who found the Valois cause in a desperate situation. Charles was born in Paris, in the royal residence of the Hôtel Saint-Pol, on 3 December 1368, the son of the king of France Charles V, of the House of Valois, of Joan of Bourbon; as heir to the French throne, his older brothers having died before he was born, Charles had the title Dauphin of France. At his father's death on 16 September 1380, he inherited the throne of France, his coronation took place on 4 November 1380, at Reims Cathedral. Although the royal age of majority was 14, Charles did not terminate the regency and take personal rule until 1388. Charles VI was only 11 years old. Although Charles was entitled to rule from the age of 14, the dukes maintained their grip on power until Charles terminated the regency at the age of 21. During his minority, France was ruled as regents; the regents were Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, Louis I, Duke of Anjou, John, Duke of Berry - all brothers of Charles V - along with Louis II, Duke of Bourbon, Charles VI's maternal uncle.
Philip took the dominant role during the regency. Louis of Anjou was fighting for his claim to the Kingdom of Naples after 1382, dying in 1384. During the rule of his uncles, the financial resources of the kingdom, painstakingly built up by his father Charles V the Wise, were squandered for the personal profit of the dukes, whose interests were divergent or opposing. During that time, the power of the royal administration was strengthened and taxes re-established; the latter policy represented a reversal of the deathbed decision of the king's father Charles V to repeal taxes, led to tax revolts, known as the Harelle. Increased tax revenues were needed to support the self-serving policies of the king's uncles, whose interests were in conflict with those of the crown and with each other; the Battle of Roosebeke, for example, brilliantly won by the royal troops, was prosecuted for the benefit of Philip of Burgundy. The treasury surplus accumulated by Charles V was squandered. Charles VI brought the regency to an end in 1388.
He restored to power the highly-competent advisors of Charles V, known as the Marmousets, who ushered in a new period of high esteem for the crown. Charles VI was referred to as Charles the Beloved by his subjects, he married Isabeau of Bavaria on 17 July 1385, when he was 17 and she was 14. Isabeau had 12 children. Isabeau's first child, named Charles, was born in 1386, was Dauphin of Viennois, but survived only 3 months, her second child, was born on 14 June 1388, but died in 1390. Her third child, was
Valet de chambre
Valet de chambre, or varlet de chambre, was a court appointment introduced in the late Middle Ages, common from the 14th century onwards. Royal households had many persons appointed at any time. While some valets waited on the patron, or looked after his clothes and other personal needs, itself a powerful and lucrative position, others had more specialized functions. At the most prestigious level it could be akin to a monarch or ruler's personal secretary, as was the case of Anne de Montmorency at the court of Francis I of France. For noblemen pursuing a career as courtiers, like Étienne de Vesc, it was a common early step on the ladder to higher offices. For some this brought entry into the lucrative court business of asking for favours on behalf of clients, passing messages to the monarch or lord heading the court. Valets might supply specialized services of various kinds to the patron, as artists, poets, librarians, doctors or apothecaries and curators of collections. Valets comprised a mixture of nobles hoping to rise in their career, those—often of humble origin—whose specialized abilities the monarch wanted to use or reward.
The title of valet enabled access to other employer. Sometimes, as in Spain and England, different bodies of valets were responsible for the bedroom and the daytime rooms; the moment the ruler went outdoors a whole new division of staff took over. From the late 14th century onwards the term is found in connection with an artist, architect, or musician's position within a noble or royal circle, with painters receiving the title as the social prestige of artists became distinct from that of craftsmen; the benefits for the artist were a position of understood status in the court hierarchy, with a salary, livery clothes to wear, the right to meals at the palace in a special mess-room, benefits such as exclusion from local guild regulations, and, if all went well, a lifetime pension. The valet would be housed, at least when working in the palace, but permanently. Lump-sums might be paid to the valet to provide a dowry for a daughter. In the English Royal Household the French term was used, whilst French was the language of the court, for example for Geoffrey Chaucer in the 1370s.
The "Grooms of the Privy Chamber" and of the "Stool" were more important posts, because involving closer access, held by the well-born knights. The "Groom-Porter"'s job was to "regulate all matters to do with gaming" at court, providing the cards, settling disputes. Other countries used other terms: in Italian cameriere, in German-speaking courts Kammerjunker or Hofjunker were the usual titles, though it was Kammerer in the Austrian Habsburg court, Kammerherr in Bavaria. In Russia Stolnik was broadly equivalent, until Peter the Great introduced new titles in 1722, after which the Камер-юнкер or kammerjunker came 11th out of 14 in the Table of Ranks. "Valet de chambre" became used outside courts to refer to normal manservants. The patron retained the services of the valet de chambre-artist or musician, sometimes but not; the degree to which valets with special skills were expected to perform the normal serving tasks of valets no doubt varied and remains obscure from at least the earlier records.
Many were expected to be on hand for service on major occasions, but otherwise not often. The appointment gave the artist a place in the court management structure, under such officials as the Lord Chamberlain in England, or the Grand Master of France via an intermediate court officer. In turn the valets were able to give orders to the huissiers or ushers, footmen and other ordinary servants. There were some female equivalents, such as the portrait miniaturist Levina Teerlinc, who served as a gentlewoman in the royal households of both Mary I and Elizabeth I, Sofonisba Anguissola, court painter to Philip II of Spain and art tutor with the rank of lady-in-waiting to his third wife Elisabeth of Valois, a keen amateur artist. During the Renaissance, the required artistic roles in music and painting began to be given their own offices and titles, as Court painter, Master of the King's Music and so forth, the valets reverted to looking after the personal, the political, needs of their patron. In fact Jan van Eyck, one of the many artists and musicians with the rank of valet in the Burgundian court, was described as a painter as well as a valet.
In England the artists of the Tudor court, as well as the musicians, had other dedicated offices to fill, so that artistic valets or Grooms were literary or dramatic. But these included whole companies of actors, who in practice seem to have gone their own way outside their performances, except for being drafted in to help on specially busy occasions. In August 1604 the King's Men including Shakespeare, were "waiting and attending" upon the Spanish ambassador at Somerset House, "on his Majesty's service", no doubt in connection with the Somerset House Conference negotiating a treaty with Spain — but no plays were performed. Over the previous Christmas, the whole company had been housed at Hampton Court Palace, several miles outside London, for three weeks, in