Jacques Élisée Reclus was a renowned French geographer and anarchist. He produced his 19-volume masterwork, La Nouvelle Géographie universelle, la terre et les hommes, over a period of nearly 20 years. In 1892 he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Paris Geographical Society for this work, despite having been banished from France because of his political activism. Reclus was born at Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, he was the second son of his wife. From the family of fourteen children, several brothers, including fellow geographers Onésime and Élie Reclus, went on to achieve renown either as men of letters, politicians or members of the learned professions. Reclus began his education in Rhenish Prussia, continued higher studies at the Protestant college of Montauban, he completed his studies at University of Berlin, where he followed a long course of geography under Carl Ritter. Withdrawing from France due to the political events of December 1851, as a young man he spent the next six years traveling and working in Great Britain, the United States, Central America, Colombia.
Arriving in Louisiana in 1853, Reclus worked for about two and a half years as a tutor to the children of cousin Septime and Félicité Fortier at their plantation Félicité, located about 80 kilometres upriver from New Orleans. He recounted his passage through the Mississippi River Delta and impressions of antebellum New Orleans and the state in Fragment d'un voyage á Louisiane, published in 1855. On his return to Paris, Reclus contributed to the Revue des deux mondes, the Tour du monde and other periodicals, a large number of articles embodying the results of his geographical work. Among other works of this period was the short book Histoire d'un ruisseau, in which he traced the development of a great river from source to mouth. During 1867 and 1868, he published La Terre. During the Siege of Paris, Reclus shared in the aerostatic operations conducted by Félix Nadar, served in the National Guard; as a member of the Association Nationale des Travailleurs, he published a hostile manifesto against the government of Versailles in support of the Paris Commune of 1871 in the Cri du Peuple.
Continuing to serve in the National Guard, in open revolt, Reclus was taken prisoner on 5 April. On 16 November he was sentenced to deportation for life; because of intervention by supporters from England, the sentence was commuted in January 1872 to perpetual banishment from France. After a short visit to Italy, Reclus settled at Clarens, where he resumed his literary labours and produced Histoire d'une montagne, a companion to Histoire d'un ruisseau. There he wrote nearly the whole of his work, La Nouvelle Géographie universelle, la terre et les hommes, "an examination of every continent and country in terms of the effects that geographic features like rivers and mountains had on human populations—and vice versa," This compilation was profusely illustrated with maps and engravings, it was awarded the gold medal of the Paris Geographical Society in 1892. An English edition was published also in 19 volumes, the first four by translated E. G. Ravenstein, the rest by A. H. Keane. Reclus's writings were characterized by extreme accuracy and brilliant exposition, which gave them permanent literary and scientific value.
According to Kirkpatrick Sale: His geographical work researched and unflinchingly scientific, laid out a picture of human-nature interaction that we today would call bioregionalism. It showed, with more detail than anyone but a dedicated geographer could absorb, how the ecology of a place determined the kinds of lives and livelihoods its denizens would have and thus how people could properly live in self-regarding and self-determined bioregions without the interference of large and centralized governments that always try to homogenize diverse geographical areas. In 1882, Reclus initiated the Anti-Marriage Movement. In accordance with these beliefs and the practice of union libre, common among working-class French in the mid-to-late 1800s, Reclus allowed his two daughters to "marry" their male partners without any civil or religious ceremonies, an action causing embarrassment to many of his well-wishers. Reclus had himself entered a free union after the death of his first wife. In 1882 he wrote Unions Libres, a pamphlet which detailed his anarchist and feminist objections to marriage.
The French government initiated prosecution from the High Court of Lyon, arrested him and Peter Kropotkin as the International Association's organizers, sentenced the latter to five years' imprisonment. Reclus escaped punishment. Reclus had the benefits of nudity, he argued. He argued that from an aesthetic point of view, nudity was better: naked people were more beautiful, his principal objection to clothing was, however, a moral one. In 1894, Reclus was appointed chair of comparative geography at the University of Brussels, moved with his family to Belgium, his brother Élie Reclus was at the university teaching religion. Élisée Reclus continued to write, contributing several important articles and essays to French and English scientific journals. He was awarded the 1894 Patron's Gold Medal of the Royal G
Pierre Paul Broca was a French physician and anthropologist. He is best known for his research on Broca's area, a region of the frontal lobe, named after him. Broca's area is involved with language, his work revealed that the brains of patients suffering from aphasia contained lesions in a particular part of the cortex, in the left frontal region. This was the first anatomical proof of localization of brain function. Broca's work contributed to the development of physical anthropology, advancing the science of anthropometry. Paul Broca was born on 28 June 1824 in Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, France, the son of Jean Pierre "Benjamin" Broca, a medical practitioner and former surgeon in Napoleon's service. Broca's mother, Annette Thomas, was a well-educated daughter of a Calvinist, Reformed Protestant, preacher. Huguenot Broca received basic education in the school in his hometown, earning a bachelor's degree at the age of 16, he entered medical school in Paris when he was 17, graduated at 20, when most of his contemporaries were just beginning as medical students.
After graduating, Broca undertook an extensive internship, first with the urologist and dermatologist Philippe Ricord at the Hôpital du Midi in 1844 with the psychiatrist François Leuret at the Bicêtre Hospital. In 1845, he became an intern with a great anatomist and surgeon. After two years with Gerdy, Broca became his assistant. In 1848, Broca became the Prosector, performing dissections for lectures of anatomy, at the University of Paris Medical School. In 1849, he was awarded a medical doctorate. In 1853, Broca became professor agrégé, was appointed surgeon of the hospital, he was elected to the chair of external pathology at the Faculty of Medicine in 1867, one year professor of clinical surgery. In 1868, he was elected a member of the Académie de medicine, appointed the Chair of clinical surgery, he served in this capacity until his death. He worked for the Hôpital St. Antoine, the Pitié, the Hôtel des Clinques, the Hôpital Necker; as a researcher, Broca joined the Society Anatomique de Paris in 1847.
During his first six years in the society, Broca was its most productive contributor. Two months after joining, he was on the society's journal editorial committee, he became its secretary and vice president by 1851. Soon after its creation in 1948, Broca joined the Société de Biologie, he joined and in 1865 became the president of the Societe de Chirurgie. In parallel with his medical career, in 1848, Broca founded a society of free-thinkers, sympathetic to Charles Darwin's theories, he once remarked, "I would rather be a transformed ape than a degenerate son of Adam". This brought him into conflict with the church, which regarded him as a subversive, a corrupter of the youth; the church's animosity toward him continued throughout his lifetime, resulting in numerous confrontations between Broca and the ecclesiastical authorities. In 1857, feeling pressured by others, his mother, Broca married Adele Augustine Lugol, she came from a Protestant family and was the daughter of a prominent physician Jean Guillaume Auguste Lugol.
The Brocas had three children: a daughter Jeanne Francoise Pauline, a son Benjamin Auguste, a son Élie André. One year Broca's mother passed away and his father, came to Paris to live with the family until his death in 1877. In 1858, Paul Broca was elected as member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. In 1859, he founded the Society of Anthropology of Paris. In 1872, he founded the journal Revue d'anthropologie, in 1876, the Institute of Anthropology; the French Church opposed the development of anthropology, in 1876 organized a campaign to stop the teaching of the subject in the Anthropological Institute. Near the end of his life, Paul Broca was elected a Senator for life, a permanent position in the French senate, he was a member of the Académie française and held honorary degrees from many learned institutions, both in France and abroad. He died of a brain hemorrhage on 9 July 1880, at the age of 56. During his life he was an atheist and identified as a Liberal, his wife died in 1914 when she was 79.
Like their father and Andre went on to study medicine. Auguste Broca became a professor of pediatric surgery, now known for his contribution to the Broca-Perthes-Blankart operation, while André became a professor of medical optics and is known for developing the Pellin-Broca prism. Since the 1600s, the majority of medical advancements emerged through interaction in independent and sometimes secret societies; the Society Anatomique de Paris met every Friday and was chaired by anatomist Jean Cruveilhier, interned by "the Father of french neurology" Jean-Martin Charcot. At its meetings, members would make presentations regarding their scientific findings, which would be published in the regular bulletin of the society's activities. Like Cruveilhier and Charcot, Broca made regular Society Anatomique presentations on musculoskeletal disorders, he demonstrated that rickets, a disorder that results in weak or soft bones in children, was caused by an interference with ossification due to disruption of nutrition.
In their work on osteoarthritis, a form of arthritis, Broca and Amédée Deville, Broca showed that, like nails and teeth, cartilage is a tissue that requires absorption of nutrients from nearby blood vessels, described in detail, the process that lead to degeneration of cartilage in joints. Broca made regular presentations on the clubfoot disorder, a birth defect where infants feet where rotated inwards at birth. At the time Broca saw
Ambès is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. It is located at the point, the Bec d'Ambès, where the rivers Garonne and Dordogne meet to form the Gironde estuary. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Arbanats is a commune of the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Artigues-près-Bordeaux is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Les Artigues-de-Lussac is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. It is around 10 km northeast of Libourne, around 35 km east-northeast of Bordeaux. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE